See also: Faure
BiographyAfter its secondary studies made with the College Voltaire with Paris, Edgar Faure started studies of right, letters and of Eastern languages (Russian). He followed in Paris the lawyer occupation and became member of the bar at 21 years: it was the youngest lawyer of France of his time. Interested by the policy, it joined the Parti radical socialist after the first adhesion with the Parti republican-Socialist. It became aggregate Faculty of Law (Roman law and history of the right) in 1962.
To the autumn 1942, it left for Tunisia in company his wife Lucie Faure, which was Jewish, and her Sylvie daughter before joining the general headquarters of Charles de Gaulle to Algiers and became the chief of the legislative service of the provisional government (1944). In 1945, he was public prosecutor associates French with the international military Tribunal of Nuremberg.
After beatbeing beaten with the elections of 1945 in Paris, it planned to be presented under the label M.R.P. in the Puy-de-Dôme, but finally it turns to the Radical party and was elected during the third election of 1946. Edgar Faure quickly appeared a burning defender of the Franche-Comté, collecting the mandates: deputy of the the Jura until in 1958, mayor of Port-Lesney in 1947, president of the general advice of the Jura in 1949.
With the National Assembly, as with the Radical party which comprises many “potential ministers”, it quickly acquired a reputation of serious that its smiling pace and its liveliness come to moderate. It appeared a skilful strategist and became one of the best navigators of the corridors of the Palate-Bourbon. It reached, in 1949, at the side of Maurice Petsche, Minister for Finance, with the rank of Secretary of State, before being promoted Minister for the Budget in 1950. Two years later, it was for the premère time president of the Council, but, taken in the opposition of moderated and the Socialists on the economic policy, his government, which counted forty ministers, lasted only forty days, the president having posed twenty times the question of confidence (and lost four kilos).
It proved this capacity of adaptation while becoming, then, Minister for Finance of the governments of Joseph Laniel (center-right) then of Pierre Mendès-France. In these functions, it obtained the full powerss of the Room, which it made profitable “to start again the revival” with a eighteen months plan known as “of expansion in stability”. Also, it regulated several professions and by decree, carried out measurements of economic decentralization, and introduced the Taxe on the added-value.
It reached then second once, after the fall of the government Mendès France, the presidency of the Council. In these functions, it continued the preparation of the independence of the Tunisia (launched by Mendès France with its “speech of Carthage”) and started again the process with the Morocco (“independence in the interdependence”), in particular by allowing the return of exile of the sultan Mohammed, initially in Paris (then, after the fall of the Faure government, in Morocco even). It took the initiative of a meeting at the top of the Four Large ones in Geneva, and supported the behavior of the Conférence of Messine, which allowed the revival of European construction.
The dissolution of the Room at the beginning of 1956 was on the other hand a tactical failure:
- it was excluded from the Parti radical socialist (with the profit of the supports of Mendès France, combined with the left within the republican Front) and was folded up then on the Rassemblement of the Republican lefts, which it organized in autonomous political party and whose it assumed the chairmanship.
- especially, it lost the elections themselves (justified by a reform project constitutional, and in the context of the “events” of Algeria), with the profit of the same republican Face. In parallel, UDCA of Pierre Poujade entered in force to the Room.
It was found then, briefly, in the opposition. If he were rather early a partisan of the return of De Gaulle (“Algeria is a problem of the fourth dimension which can be solved only by one character of the fourth dimension”), he was held remotely by the Ve République incipient and besides beaten, on bottom of vague gaullist, with legislative of 1958.
He was also senator (democratic Gauche, reinstated in the Radical party) of the Jura of April 1959 in February 1966, before returning in 1967 to the National Assembly like representative of Doubs. In 1962, in the opposition, he voted “not” with the constitutional referendum “by scruple of lawyer”, will specify he.
But, as of 1963, it was sent semi-officially by the capacity gaullist on mission in Popular republic of China and, in 1966, after having supported the de Gaulle general with the presidential election of 1965, became Minister for Agriculture, which made it exclude (again) from the Radical party. It did not cease any more, consequently, being presented in the form of a bridge between radicalism and gaullism, proposing, according to the case, one or the other proximity.
In 1968, after the events of May, one entrusted to him the delicate station of Minister for State education. Its law of orientation of November 1968 surprised the political community, which voted it as well on the left as on the right (Communists abstaining from). It marks a rupture in French teaching by integrating claims of May 68 and in particular the participation in the management of the establishments of all the actors of teaching and the facilitation of the interdisciplinarity. A measurement made run much ink: the carryforward of the study of the Latin language of the sixth to the fourth.
Under the presidency of Georges Pompidou, he lives himself to allot since 1972 the post of minister of State, Minister for the social Affairs, a station which the new Prime Minister Pierre Messmer entrusted to him. For this reason, he proposed and obtained in particular the generalization of the Supplementary pension.
In 1973, after the legislative elections, it occupied the “perch”, i.e. the presidency of the National Assembly. It was the last station of national scale which it occupied.
In 1974, it briefly presented its candidature for the presidential election after death of Georges Pompidou and in spite of the concurrent candidatures of Jacques Chaban-Delmas (declared right before him) and Valery Giscard d'Estaing (just afterwards), alleging that it was at the same time center and UDR (thus capable being the best rassemblor of the majority of the time), which made say to Olivier Guichard: “the UDR has two candidates of which one is gaullist. ” Little supported, he did not insist and its candidature fell through.
In 1975, it wished a time to reorganize the center politically, proclaiming to want to be the Chirac of the center.
In 1977, it will réadhéra with the radical party and was presented to its presidency against Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber. But it is the latter which was elected.
In 1978, it was elected with the French Academy. This same year, he was re-elected appointed related RPR and represented himself with the election with the presidency of the National Assembly. He was beaten by RPR Jacques Chaban-Delmas.
In 1979, in dissension with the line of RPR on Europe (continuation in particular with “the Call of Cochin”), it was presented to the European elections on the list of the Union for Europe, led by Simone Veil and resigned of the RPR group of the National Assembly.
He was elected senator, of Doubs this time, in 1980 (not registered then democratic Gauche), supports Valery Giscard d'Estaing with the presidential election of 1981 and Jacques Chirac with that of 1988. He had, little time, succeeded before Michel Baroin like chair Mission for the celebration of the Bicentenary of the French revolution.
Edgar Faure was buried with the Cimetière of Passy, in Paris.
In 1993, Arnaud Montebourg, as a first secretary of the conference of the bar of Paris, pronounced a praise of Edgar Faure of great quality and which will be preceded.
- 1947 - 1970: Mayor of Port-Lesney (the Jura).
- 1949 - 1967: President of the General advice of the Jura.
- 1967 - 1979: General adviser of the canton of Pontarlier (Doubs).
- 1971 - 1978: Mayor of Pontarlier.
- 1983 - 1988: Mayor of Port-Lesney.
Mandate of Deputy
- 1946 - 1958: Deputy radical socialist of the Jura.
- 1967 - 1980: Deputy of Doubs.
- 1973 - 1978: President of the National Assembly
- 1974 - 1981: President of the district council of Franche-Comté.
- 1982 - 1988: President of the district council of Franche-Comté.
Mandate of senator
- April 1959 - February 1966: Senator of the Jura registered with the group of the Democratic Left.
- 1980 - 1988: Senator of Doubs.
- Secretary of State to Finances of the Government Henri Queuille (1) (from February 13rd to October 28th, 1949)
- Secretary of State to Finances of the Government Georges Bidault (2) (from October 29th, 1949 to July 2nd, 1950)
- Minister for the Budget of the Government Henri Queuille (2) (from July 2nd to 12th 1950)
- Minister for the Budget of the Government Rene Pleven (1) (from July 12th, 1950 to March 10th, 1951)
- Minister for the Budget of the Government Henri Queuille (3) (from March 10th to August 11th, 1951)
- Minister for the Justice of the Government Rene Pleven (2) (of August 11th, 1951 with January 20th, 1952)
- President of the Council , Minister for Finance (from January 20th to March 8th, 1952)
- Minister for Finance and Economic affairs of the governments Joseph Laniel (from June 28th, 1953 to June 18th, 1954)
- Minister for Finance, Economic affairs and Plan of the Government Pierre Mendès France (from June 18th, 1954 to January 20th, 1955)
- Foreign Minister of the government Pierre Mendès France (from January 20th to February 23rd, 1955)
- President of the Council (from February 23rd, 1955 to February 1st, 1956), Minister of Interior Department (by interim, from December 1st, 1955 to February 1st, 1956) Economic affair,
- Minister for Finance and of Plan of the Gouvernement Pierre Pflimlin (from May 14th to June 1st, 1958)
- Ministre for the agriculture of the Gouvernement Georges Pompidou (3) (from January 8th, 1966 to April 6th, 1967)
- Ministre for the agriculture of the Gouvernement Georges Pompidou (4) (from April 6th, 1967 to May 31st, 1968)
- Ministre for the agriculture of the Gouvernement Georges Pompidou (5) (from May 31st to July 10th, 1968)
- Ministre for the State education of the Gouvernement Maurice Broods of Murville (from July 12th, 1968 to June 20th, 1969)
- Minister of state, in charge of the social Affairs of the Gouvernement Pierre Messmer (1) (from July 6th, 1972 to April 2nd, 1973)
In some literary works, Edgar Faure used the pseudonym of Edgar Sanday (= Edgar without D, since the current French form of the first name was Edgard ). “These Edgars without D, if chatouilleux on the respect of what they miss! ” Pierre Daninos was ironical.
One owes him:
- Pascal: the lawsuit of provincial the , Firmin Didot, 1930
- oil in peace and the war , New assessment, 1938
- the snake and the tortoise (problems of popular China) , Juillard, 1957
- the disgrace of Turgot , Gallimard, 1961
- the capitation of Dioclétien , Sirey, 1961
- To envisage the present , Gallimard, 1966
- state education and the participation, Plon, 1968
- Philosophy of a reform , Plon, 1969
- the heart of the combat , Beech, 1969
- what I believe , Grasset, 1971
- For a social new agreement , Seuil, 1973
- Beyond the dialog with Philippe Sollers , Balland, 1977
- the bankruptcy of Law , Gallimard, 1977
- the philosophy of Karl Popper and the political company of opening , Firmin Didot, 1981
- Mémoires I, “To have always reason, it is a great wrong” , Plon, 1982
- Mémoires II, “If such must be my destiny this evening” , Plon, 1984
- marked Discours for the reception of Senghor to the French Academy, on March 29th, 1984
Quotations(Is Edgar Faure the last (?) aphorist of the French policy, after Henri Queuille).
“I am dogmatic anti-dogmatism. ”
“It is not the wind vane which turns, it is the wind. ”
“The opposition to progress is moving, and nothing will be able to stop it. ”
“At home, when the pig is killed, everyone is content! except the pig”
“One lives in fact only for a few moments, intense and privileged, the remainder of time one waits these moments. ”
“The forecasts constitute a difficult art, especially when they relate to the future”
“The tax impoverishes the ignoramus but enriches the expert”
|Random links:||County of Wando | List general advisers of Isere | Vigeo | Alexandre of Wurtemberg | Drlače | Carolyn_Murphy|