Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Poe (Boston, January 19th 1809 - Baltimore, October 7th 1849) is a Poète, novelist, short story writer, critical arts person, Dramaturge and American editor , like one of the principal figures of the American Romantisme. Known especially for its tales - kind whose brevity enables him to emphasize its theory of the effect, whereby all elements of the text must contribute to the realization of a single effect -, it gave to the news its noble letters and is regarded as the inventor of the Detective novel. Many its accounts precede the kinds of the Science-fiction and the Fantastique.
Born with Boston, Edgar Poe loses his/her parents in his early childhood; it is collected by John and Frances Allan of Richmond, in Virginia, where it passes the essence of his youths, if one excludes a stay in England and Scotland, in a relative ease. After a short passage to the University of Virginia and attempts at military career, Poe leaves Allan. Its literary career humbly begin with the anonymous publication from a collection from poems entitled Tamerlan and other poems (1827), only signed “by a Bostonian”. Poe settles with Baltimore, where he lives near his paternal family and somewhat gives up poetry for prose. In July 1835, he becomes writer-assistant with the Southern Literary Messenger of Richmond, where he contributes to increase the subscriptions and starts to develop his own style as regards literary criticism. The same year, it Marie with Virginia Clemm, her cousin, 13 years old.
After the failure of its novel the Adventures of Arthur Gordon Pym , Poe carries out its first collection of stories, the Contes of Grotesque and the Arabesque , in 1839. The same year, he becomes writer with the Burton' S Gentlemen' S Magazine , then with the Graham' S Magazine with Philadelphia. It is in Philadelphia that number of works among most known were published. In this city, Poe also projected the creation of its own newspaper, The PEN (renamed The Stylus later), which will never be born. In February 1844, he moves with New York, where he works with the Broadway Journal , a magazine of which he becomes finally the single owner.
In January 1845, Poe publishes the Corbel , which is an immediate success. But, just two years later, his Virginia wife dies of the Tuberculose the January 30th 1847. Poe considers remarier, but no project will be carried out. The October 7th 1849, Poe dies at the 40 years age in Baltimore. The causes of its death could not be given and were allotted variously to the alcohol, a Drogue, the Choléra, the Rage, a disease of the heart, a cerebral congestion, etc
The influence of Poe was and remains important, with the the United States as in the whole of the world, not only on the literature, but also on other artistic fields the such cinema and the music, or in scientific disciplines. American author, it does not make exception to the proverb which says that no one is not prophet in his country, because it initially was recognized and defended by French authors, Baudelaire and Mallarmé at the head. Contemporary criticism locates it among most remarkable writers of the American Littérature of the 19th century.
A family of actorsIt is born the January 19th 1809 with Boston, in the Massachusetts. His/her mother, Elizabeth Arnold (1787 - 1811) is the girl of two London actors, Henry (or William Henry) Arnold and Elizabeth Smith. To died of his/her father, in 1796, it follows his/her mother in America. Arrival the January 3rd with Boston on board the Oustram , it goes up on the boards three months later, old of hardly nine years. It joined then with her mother, who dies some time afterwards, a small troop of Théâtre, the Charleston Players . It is there that it met Elizabeth Arnold Hopkins, that it marries the March 14th 1806. At the time, they play Federal Street Theater of Boston. Elizabeth is dancer and singer, but David is alcoholic, tuberculous and poor actor. It makes a round in the South, accompanied by Edgar (William Henry was entrusted to his/her paternal grandfather). But sick, she plays only intermittently, Elizabeth is carried by the evil which corrodes it, perhaps the Pneumonie, at age the 24 years, after having played nearly two hundred roles, leaving her orphan children. Two weeks after its funerals, the Théâtre of Richmond burns during a representation, and the troop, private of Théâtre, leaves the city after having left Edgar and Rosalie to the charity of the middle-class of the city. Edgar, which is six years old, leaves the school of Richmond and embarks with his/her parents and the young sister of Mrs. Allan, Ann Moore Valentine (called Nancy) with Norfolk (Virginia) on board the Lothair ), under the name of “Edgar Allan”. It follows traditional and literary studies solid. But the situation is degraded. Initially, his/her adoptive mother, whose health was always fragile, falls seriously sick, which causes to make it nervous, irritable. In addition, John Allan knows serious financial troubles: the purse of tobacco crumbles, then an employee swindles it. The Edgar young person, who is separated from his family, makes a first running away. In 1817, Edgar is sent to the school of Stoke Newington, in the countryside. It shows an irritable and sometimes tyrannical nature towards his comrades, but obtains school brilliances results, in Latin and French in particular, like in the sporting disciplines.
The July 22nd 1820, the Allan family leaves the England for New York on board the Martha , then is reinstalled with Richmond, the July 27th. Edgar takes again the way of the school, where it obtains, there too, of excellent results, but starts to express certain leaning for loneliness and the daydream. In 1823, the businesses of John Allan are dying women and the life at the house of Allan feels some. Continuous Edgar to write poems which he addresses to the pupils of the school where finds his/her sister This last takes shade of the rather proud character of the teenager, and moves away gradually from his wife, always sick. Edgar, very attached to Frances Allan (1784 - 1829), rejects the adultery of his/her adoptive father. John Allan would like to see Edgar becoming merchant, but the young man dreams only of poetry and considers, with the rigor, a career in the army. He often finds refuge in the mother of a comrade, Jane Stith Stanard, which is the inspirer of the poem In Helene (1831). Its death, in 1824, will affect Edgar largely.
A large heritage, in March 1825, makes it possible John Allan to pay his debts and to buy a brick manor called Moldavia (for: 14950 dollars). Between 1821 and 1825, Edgar attends the best private schools of Richmond, where it receives the traditional education of the gentlemen virginiens. It is registered in English Classical School of John H. Clarke (1821 - 1822), then it attends the college William Burke (1823 - March 1825) and the school of Dr. Ray Thomas and his wife, whom has just founded Jefferson (she opened her doors the March 7th 1825), where it follows with brilliance of the language class old and modern.
Dreams of glory and peregrinationsIn March 1827, as his/her father-in-law refuses to return it to the university, it leaves its adoptive family and flees with Boston, where it hopes to survive by publishing his Poème S. It spends two months there, as actor or soldier, one is unaware of it. The May 26th, under the name of Edgar A. Perry (pseudonym whom it will re-use to sign certain tales), after being itself out-of-date four years, it engages for five years as artillerist of second class in the federal army. At the same time, it makes appear with its expenses, at Calvin F.S. Thomas in Boston, a thin plate anonymous Tamerlan and other poems on which is registered voter “has Bostonian” and whose 50 specimens hardly are sold. There are only 12 specimens today.
Its personalityEquipped with a vast intelligence, Edgar Allan Poe was a very courteous man but of a ferocity without equal, which scrambled it with many people. His/her friends were always struck by his behavior looked after with the excess and the clearness of its elocution. In the same way, its Manuscrit S is characterized by firmness, the regularity and the elegance of its writing and comprises only few erasures. Very often, he wrote on sheets of scratch pad that he stuck the ones to the others so as to form very strict rollers. A graphological analysis of these manuscripts was carried out, and it would reveal an intelligence “never not sleeping”, of an extreme independence with regard to conventions, and which controls, or always seeks to control, an extraordinary sensitivity, altogether, “cerebral”.
In its work, he was wary of the first jet, the spontaneous one. Pressed by the need for money, it generally delivered tales not re-examined to the newspapers or reviews for which they were intended. However, at the time of the republications, it brought to those important changes, always in the direction of a better tightening of the text. During the last months of its existence, it revised closely its fictions and its writings theoretical or critical for the first large edition of its works, which appeared with New York in 1850.
Very conscious of its intelligence, logician, he liked to make watch of his analytical capacities. Thus, during the publication in serial of Barnabe Rudge (1841), novel of Dickens, it would have guessed the end of the intrigue before the publication of the last deliveries. In the same way, the Mystery of Marie Roget is inspired by an actual fact, the Assassinat of Mary Cecil Rogers to New York in 1841, whose body had been found in the Hudson, close to bank of the New Jersey. In a letter dated from the June 4th 1842, it explains why, in its tale, while making make in Dupin “a very long and rigorous analysis of the Tragédie” and by taking again “the opinions and the arguments of the press”, it shows “the fallacious character of the received opinion” and has “ indicated the assassin in a manner which will give a new dash to the investigation”, explaining why the young woman was not assassinated, as one thought it, by a band of hooligans.
Its superiority in art to write was also marked by some hoaxes, where it applied its theory of the effect. The April 13rd 1844, it made appear in an special issue of the New York Sun a tale, the Duck with the balloon , presented like an actual fact. By this skilful mystification, it marked its return on the New Yorkean literary scene. As for the Truth on the case of Mr. Valdemar , tale published in 1845, the editor, which published it like a Pamphlet, and the newspapers which included it in the English editions presented it as a scientific report/ratio (because they had been deceived). Elizabeth Barrett Browning wrote to him to rent “the power of the writer and this faculty which it has to transform of improbable horrors into things which appear so close and so familiar”. Idealist, it was also very ambitious, which it did not hide. He writes as follows: “I like glory, I in raffole; I it idolâtre; I would drink to the dregs this glorious intoxication; I would like that the incense goes up in my honor of each hill and each hamlet and each city and each city on ground”.
As of childhood, it read Byron, whose influence was to mark its first poems, Coleridge and the majority of romantic of its time. Thereafter, it was to dissociate these authors and was announced by rather wild criticisms against Coleridge. He knew the traditional literature also perfectly and tasted Pope particularly. He professed a great admiration for Ondine , tale of Friedrich of the Mound-Fouqué, for Shelley, the genius of Dickens (in particular for the Store of antiquities ), for Hawthorne. On the other hand, it expressed severe criticisms with regard to Carlyle, of Emerson (which it regards as the “respectful counterpart” of the first), of Montaigne, whose use of the digression in its Essais was in contradiction with its ideas on the necessary unit of a text. In the same way, if it could say John Neal that “his art is large, it is of a raised nature”, it proposed its “repeated failures (…) in the field of the construction of its works”, had, according to him, either with a “deficiency of the direction of totality”, or with a “instability of temperament”.
In spite of its efforts, he never lived in a real ease, but often knew misery, even if he profited from sound living of a real celebrity, especially by his activities of journalist and his poem the Corbel .
The alcoholism of Poe was inordinately exaggerated. Thus, one could establish that with the university and West Point, contrary to certain legends, it was completely sober. More generally, it often remained without drinking over very long lives and could not touch an alcohol drop during months or years. On the other hand, the few times where it was brought to drink, it were generally sick and could not work during a few days. It seems that he started to drinking more at the time of the disease of his wife. As for the rumors of Alcoolisme, they are founded on the fact that, on the one hand, it did not support alcohol, and that, on the other hand, several people, either that they were annoyed with him, or that they could amount like her enemies, benefitted from these some occurrences where it appeared drunk to generalize and claim that it was alcoholic, this in order to wound it and to dirty its honor, then its memory.
Its workThe ambition of Edgar Poe was to create a true national literature. Indeed, at that time, the European influence was dominating and the production of the old continent flowed to the United States whose literature - except Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper - hardly shone but by its stories of horror - the most known author being then Charles Brockden Brown - and its sentimental novels. For this reason, its work of literary criticism was marked by a true requirement for quality, as well as the denunciation of the facilities and plagiarisms. Longfellow was most famous of its victims; he never answered his charges, although his/her friends had a pleasure, in answer, to calumniate Edgar Poe in the New Yorkean literary circles.
Edgar Poe left important theoretical writings, influenced by August Wilhelm Schlegel and Coleridge, which makes it possible to give direction to its work. Its literary reflections return to its cosmogonic designs . In Eureka , it explains why the universe, in the beginning, was marked by unicity. It burst thereafter in something which one could bring closer to the theory of the big bang, but it aspires to find its unit. In the same way, in literature, the unit must override any other consideration. From where the theory of the single effect which it develops in Philosophie of the composition (translated by Baudelaire under the title of Genèse of a poem ): the final goal of art is esthetic, i.e. the effect which it creates at the reader. However, this effect can be maintained only during one short period (time necessary with the reading of a lyric poem, with the execution of a drama, the observation of a table, etc). For him, if the epopee has some value, it that it is made up of a series of small pieces, each one is turned towards a single effect or a feeling, which “raises the heart”. It associates the esthetic aspect of art with the pure ideality, affirming that mood or the feeling created by a work of art raises the heart and constitutes, so a spiritual experiment. The poem, the tale, the novel should tend only towards its realization, and any digression must be rejected. In the same way, the novel with Thèse, where the intrigue is intersected with Dissertation S on such or such subject, is to be proscribed. Adversary of the didactism, Poe supports, in its literary criticisms, that the moral or ethical instruction belongs to a universe different from the world of poetry and art, which should only concentrate on the production of a beautiful work of Article Poe was victim of a Pasteur Baptist right-thinking person, in addition jealous literary man, Rufus Griswold (1815-1857) - the “pedagog vampire”, according to the word of Baudelaire -, which was baited to destroy its image. The October 9th 1849, already, it wrote in the New York Tribune : “Edgar Poe died. He died in Baltimore day before yesterday. This announcement will astonish much by people, but little will be saddened by it. (…) The literary art lost one of its more brilliant and of its odder celebrities, it wrote a biographical note published at the head of the third volume, “chief of work of suggestive ambiguities, probable forgeries, masked lies, the imaginations superbly played” according to Claude Richard. He claimed thus that he was alcoholic, melancholic person, i.e. victim of a mental imbalance, and than it was a sinister character who had “strokes of genius”. The legends which it forged had a long time alone established among, in spite of the protests of the friends of Poe (Sarah Helen Whitman, John Neal, George Graham, George W. Peck, Mrs Nichols or Mrs Weiss). It is thanks to work of John Henry Ingram (1880), James A. Harrison (1902) and Arthur Hobson Quinn (1941) that the truth on the work of the writer was restored, with the edition, in 1902, of complete works of Poe, said Virginia Édition , who comprises seventeen volumes.
In France even, where its works knew very early a broad echo, grace primarily to the efforts of Charles Baudelaire, many studies testify to a rather broad ignorance to the American poet. A share of the legends which are hawked were transmitted besides by Baudelaire, itself, which was recognized in this image of the writer haunted and miserable and presented it with too much insistence like the Parangon of the cursed and sulfurous poets. Even if he largely denounces the legends hawked by Rufus Griswold (among which that of the Alcoolisme of Poe), recalling that, according to several witnesses, he drank generally only very little, it describes this supposed alcoholism like “average a mnemonics, a work method”. In the same way, it allots to him its own inclinations for the Drogue.
Later, in 1933, Marie Bonaparte devoted to important a psychoanalytical study, which is frequently quoted among large criticisms of Poe and its work, and which had a great influence on the reception of the work of Poe, would not be this that because of its analysis of the texts of Poe following the prism of the psychoanalysis freudienne. This known as, several critics regard his work as rather contestable in its manner of reproducing and of amplifying certain legends conveyed by Griswold. For example, she affirms that Edgar Poe would have seen, in her early childhood, her parents making love, deducing from this event of the complexes to which would testify, according to her, her texts. Influenced by the legends repeated with the envi since Griswold, which present Poe like a depressed being , alcoholic, doped, marked by fate, it belongs to the analysts who consider that Poe wrote an autobiographical work largely , transcribing on paper his own terrors. With this intention, if it corrects certain mistranslations of Baudelaire, it devotes itself to certain deformations, to justify its matter. Thus, the sentence: “ Si in many of my productions, terror was the topic, I support that this terror is not Germany, but of the heart - that I deduced this terror from his only legitimate sources and pushed it only with its only legitimate results. ”, drawn from the foreword of the Tales from grotesque and the arabesque , becomes, under its feather: “ Si in many of my productions, terror was the topic, I support that this terror is not Germany, but of my heart ”. For these criticisms, this reading is unaware of for a share the work of the writer and ignores the thought of Poe, that the author claims to qualify “nécrophile partly driven back partly sublimated”. Thus, according to the psychoanalyst Edouard Pichon, “the studies of the psychoanalysts on the artists, represented especially, in France, by those of Laforgue on Baudelaire and of Marie Bonaparte on Edgard Poë, many interesting elements contain, but Freud has the good sense to write that the psychoanalysis “can nothing say the relating one to artistic elucidation to us””. In addition, and from the point of view very different from that for a Marie Bonaparte or a Rene Laforgue, Jacques Lacan also delivered a psychoanalytical comment of the news entitled the stolen Letter .
See also: Influence of Edgar Allan Poe
Works of Poe had broad a influence on the American and world literature (sometimes even in spite of those which claimed to criticize it), and even, beyond the literature, in the whole of the world of Article.
The literary reputation of Poe in the United States is lower than than it is in the rest of the world, because considered as too macabre, in spite of the efforts of her friends and its admirors, in particular James Russell Lowell, according to which Poe is “the critic most demanding, most philosophical and most intrepid” of America. The influence of slanderings of Rufus Griswold continue to serve it near the American literary world.
However, several American writers like Walt Whitman, Lovecraft, William Faulkner and Hermann Melville were largely influenced by its work. Nathanael West took again the subject and the black humor of the Man who was remade for its third novel, has Cool Million. Flannery O' Connor, which grew by reading the satirical texts of Poe, asserted the influence of Poe on its work.
T.S. Eliot, which was often shown completely hostile in Poe, describing it like having “the intellect of a highly gifted pre-pubescent person”, professed that it was impressed, however, by the talent of Poe like literary criticism, speaking about him like “most direct, less the pedant, least doctoral of the critics writing at its time anywhere in America or England”. Mark Twain is also a critic sharp-edged of Poe. “For me, its prose is illegible - as that of Jane Austen”, writes it on January 18th, 1909 in a letter with William Dean Howells.
Stephen Marlowe devoted a novel to the last days of Edgar Poe. In the same way, in the man who collected Edgar Poe , Robert Bloch imagines an unexpected continuation with the existence of the novelist.
In France, where it is commonly known under the name of “Edgar Poe”, the first translated tales are William Wilson , published by Pierre Gustave Brunet in Daily the the 3 and December 4th 1844, the stolen Letter , published anonymously in the picturesque Store and the Echo of the press in June 1845, and Scarab3ee of gold , published in the British Review by Amédée Pichot in November 1845.
The June 11th 1846, Pierre Gustave Brunet publishes in Daily the an adaptation of Double assassination in the street Morgue , given like an original production, under the title of the Orang-outang . The October 12th, the Trade makes appear an integral translation of the tale, works of “Old-Nick”, pen name of Paul Emile Daurand Forgues (1813-1883), already translator of a descent in the Maelstrom for the British Review , in September 1846. A third newspaper, the Press , shows Forgues to have plagiarized the text of Daily the . To defend oneself, Forgues explains why the history is not a plagiarism, but translation of the “tales of E. Poe, American literary man”. It makes appear, the October 15th, a study devoted to Poe in the Review of the Two Worlds . When the Press claims to reject the explanation of Forgues, this one retorts by a lawsuit in slandering, during which it does not cease affirming: “Did you read Edgar Poe? Read Edgar Poe. ” The notoriety of this lawsuit makes soon know the name of Poe through Paris, drawing the attention of many poets and writers. Thus, Gerard de Nerval quotes Edgar Poe, spelled “Edgard Poë”, in the Nights of October, in 1852.
More significantly, Charles Baudelaire translates the majority of the tales of Poe and several of its poems. This translation of great style creates a vogue around Poe among the avant-garde literary Frenchwoman, while he is then ignored in his native land. Poe also exerts a dominating influence on the proper poetry of Baudelaire. In an outline of its most famous work, the Flowers of the evil , Baudelaire puts Poe in the list of authors whom he imitated. Baudelaire also finds in Poe an example of what it looks like the destroying elements of the middle-class company. Poe itself was a critic of the Démocratie and Capitalisme (in its tale Mellonta Tauta , Poe written: “the democracy is the shape of really admirable government… for the dogs”), and the image of tragedy poverty and misery which the biography of Poe offers seems, for Baudelaire, the ultimate example of the capacity of the middle-class to destroy the genius and the originality.
Solicited by Baudelaire to write a critical article on Poe at the time of the edition of the grotesque and serious Stories , Hippolyte Taine answers him the March 30th 1865: “I admire much Poë: it is the English Germanic type with deep intuitions, with most astonishing nervous excitement. It does not have many cords, but the three or four that it has vibrate in a terrible and sublime way. It approaches Heine; only all at his place is thorough with the black, alcohol made its office. But what a delicacy and what a accuracy in the analysis! ” The artists Symbolists were also dedicated a true worship with Poe. Stephan Mallarmé translated most of its poems, accompanied by illustrations of Edouard Manet and dedicated several poems to him. He also wrote the Tomb of Edgar Poe at the time of the erection of a monument in the honor of the American poet with Baltimore, in 1875; this poem was published in Baltimore in 1877. Among the principal admirors of Poe, one can, in the same way, quote Auguste de Villiers of Isle-Adam, Paul Valéry and Marcel Proust. Gustave Doré also illustrated texts of Poe, like the Corbel .
The surrealist them also expressed a great interest for the work of Poe. André Breton thus integrated it in its Anthologie of black humor .
The United KingdomFrom France, works of Poe cross the English Channel. The worms of a great musical quality of a Algernon Swinburne must much with the technique of Poe. Oscar Wilde calls Poe “this marvellous lord of the rhythmic expression” and draws from the work of Poe for its novel the Portrait of Dorian Gray and its tales.
The poet and critical W.H. Auden revitalizes the interest for the work of Poe, in particular his critical work. Auden affirms, about Poe: “Its portraits of abnormal or self-destroying states clearly supported Dostoïevski, its hero ratiocinant was the ancestor of Sherlock Holmes and its many successors, its tales futuristic led to Herbert George Wells, her stories of adventures to Jules Verne and Robert Louis Stevenson”.
Other English writers, like Aldous Huxley, however, appreciate it definitely less. Huxley regards Poe as the incarnation of vulgarity in literature.
The Anglo-American writer Henry James, on his side, carries out the work of Poe in a concise formula remained famous: “An enthusiasm for Poe is the sign of a primitive level of intelligence”. However, it owes him the distinction between the “fancy” and “imagination”, and it sometimes happens to him to imitate its style.
Into Russia, the poetry of Poe was translated by the Russian poet Symbolist Constantin Balmont and knew a great popularity in Russia at the end of 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, influencing artists like Nabokov, which makes several times reference to the work of Poe in its famous novel Lolita .
Fédor Dostoïevski qualifies Poe of “prodigiously gifted writer”, writing a very favorable criticism of the police stories of Poe and briefly referring to the Corbeau in its novel The Brothers Karamazov . In addition, it was suggested that the hero of Crime and punishment , Raskolnikov, is inspired partly by Montresor, the character of the Barrel of Amontillado , and that the police officer must to the knight Auguste Dupin much.
Other countriesThe Argentinian writer Jorge Luis Borges is a large admiror of the work of Poe and translated his stories into Spanish. Number of the characters of the stories of Borges are borrowed directly from the tales of Poe, and, in several of these stories, Poe is mentioned nominally. Another Argentinian writer, Julio Cortázar, translated into Spanish the totality of the fictions and the tests of Poe.
Poe also exerted an influence on the Swedish poet and writer Viktor Rydberg, which translated a considerable share of works of Poe. A Japanese author adopted for pseudonym Edogawa Ranpo, which corresponds to the pronunciation of the name of Edgar Allan Poe (“Ed' gaw Arran Po”) in this language. The German author Thomas Mann, in his novel Buddenbrook , described a character reading the tales of Poe and affirms to be influenced by his work. Friedrich Nietzsche refers to Poe in its masterpiece Beyond good and badly , and several claim that Poe exerted an obvious influence on the philosopher.
Police storiesPoe is often regarded as the inventor of the police kind, with the three adventures of the knight Auguste Dupin, most famous being Double assassination in the street Morgue . He also wrote satirical police stories, like Thou Art the Man . He inspired the police authors who came after him, particularly Arthur Conan Doyle in his adventures of Sherlock Holmes. Although Auguste Dupin is not the first detective in the literature, he became the prototype for all the later detectives, and Doyle does itself reference to Auguste Dupin in the adventure of Sherlock Holmes entitled a study in red , in which Watson compares Holmes with Dupin, which disappoints Holmes. The police authors, in the United States, called their outstanding commendation award in the kind the “Edgars”. In France, Emile Gaboriau was very influenced by Poe, just as Gaston Leroux, which takes again the figure of red Death in a scene of its novel the Phantom of the Opera .
Poe in the popular culture
Character of fictionHistorically, Edgar Poe seemed a character of fiction, often represented like a insane genius or a artist tormented , by exploiting its personal fights. Many of these representations mixed with certain characters of its stories, suggesting that Edgar and its characters share their identities. Often these fictions use its faculty to solve the mysteries as in the News The Poe Shadow by Matthew Pearl . Its life was also depicted in series TV and films.
Jeff Buckley reads one of the poems of Edgar Allan Poe: " Ullalume" on an album of homage " Closed One Account Off Rabies" in February 1997
One can find this recording on very rare Bootleg. " Screaming Down From Heaven"
Preserved residencesOldest of the houses existing still where has lived Poe is in Baltimore. It is preserved in the shape of a Museum Edgar Allan Poe. Poe is supposed to have lived in this house at 23 years, when it settled first once with Maria Clemm and Virginia like her grandmother and, perhaps, his/her brother William Henry Leonard Poe. It is opened with the public, just as the seat of the Company Edgar Allan Poe.
Poe, his Virginia wife and her Maria mother-in-law, thereafter, rented several houses with Philadelphia, but only the last as of these houses is still upright. The house Spring Garden, where the author in 1843-1844 lived, is preserved today by the Service of the National park as a Historic site national Edgar Allan Poe. It is located between the 7th street and the street Spring Garden and is open some 9 a.m. Wednesday to Sunday to 5 p.m.
The oldest house of Richmond, Virginia, where forever lived Poe, is today the seat of a Museum Edgar Allan Poe, centered over the first years of the writer near the Allan family.
Quotations in connection with Edgar Poe
- Charles Baudelaire: “No man told with more magic the exceptions of the human life and nature: ends of seasons in charge of irritating splendors, the convinced and reasoned hallucination as a book. The absurdity settles in the intelligence and the control surface with a terrible logic. Poe was always large, not only in its noble designs, but still like joker. At his place, very introduction is attracting, without violence, like a swirl. Its solemnity surprises and holds the spirit in awakening. It is felt first of all that it is about something of low register. And slowly, little by little, is held a history of which all the interest rests on an unperceivable deviation of intellect, on a daring assumption. The reader, bound by the giddiness, is constrained to follow the author in his involving deductions. It is the writer of the nerves. ”, introduction of the extraordinary Stories , ( romantic Art , chapter 10: “Edgar Poe, its life and its works”)
- Fedor Dostoïevski: “Poe almost always chooses the most exceptional reality, puts its character in the most exceptional situation on the external or psychological level. ”
- Paul Valéry: “Edgar Allan Poe borrowed the royal roads of large Article It discovered the strange one in the banal one, the nine in the old man, the pure one in the impure one. It is a complete being. ”
- Gaston Bachelard: “Among the too rare writers who worked in extreme cases of the daydream and of the objective thought, in the confused area where the dream nourishes forms and real colors, where reciprocally esthetic reality receives its oneiric atmosphere, Edgar Allan Poe is one of deepest and most skilful. By the depth of the dream and the skill of the account, it knew to reconcile in its works two contrary qualities: the art of strange and the art of the deduction. ”, foreword of the Adventures of Arthur Gordon Pym , 1944
Texts published in volume by Edgar Poe
- Tamerlan and Other Poems , Boston, Calvin F.S. Thomas, 1827
- Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane and Minor Poems , Baltimore, Hatch and Dunning, 1829
- Poems, second edition , New York, Elam Bliss, 1831
- The Narration off Arthur Gordon Pym from Nantucket , in serial (January-February 1837), in volume in New York, To grip & Brothers, 1838
- The Conchologist' S First Book , Philadelphia, Haswerl, Barrington and Haswell, 1839 (2nd edition in 1840, third edition in 1845)
- Bruise the Grotesque and off Arabesque , 2 volumes, Philadelphia, Lea & Blanchard, 1840 (750 specimens)
- The Prose Lovesongs off Edgar A. Poe (container: The Murders in the Street Mortuary and The Man that was used up ), Philadelphia, William H. Graham, 1843 (probably published with 250 specimens)
- The Raven and other Poems , New York, Wiley & Putnam, 1845
- Bruise , New York, Wiley & Putnam, 1845
- Eureka: With Prose Poem , New York, George P. Putnam, 1848
- The Works off the Late Edgar Allan Poe (published by Griswold), New York, J.S. Redfield, flights 1-2, 1850; flight 3,1850; flight 4,1856 (posthumous edition prepared by Edgar Poe)
Tales translated into French by Baudelaire
- extraordinary Stories (1856)
- Double Assassination in the street Mortuary (April 1841)
- the stolen Letter (autumn 1844)
- gold Scarab3ee (June 21st and 28th 1843)
- the Duck with the balloon (April 13rd 1844)
- Adventure without similar of certain an Hans Pfaall (June 1835)
- Handwritten found in a bottle (October 19th 1833)
- a Descent in Maelstrom (May 1841)
- the Truth on the case of Mr. Valdemar (December 1845)
- Magnetic Revelation (August 1844)
- Memories of Mr. Auguste Beldoe (April 1844)
- Morella (April 1835)
- Ligeia (September 1838)
- Metzengerstein (January 14th 1832)
- New extraordinary stories (1857)
- the Demon of perversity (July 1845)
- the black Cat (August 19th 1843)
- William Wilson (October 1839)
- the man of crowd (December 1840)
- the revealing Heart (January 1843)
- Bérénice (March 1835)
- the Fall of the house Usher (September 1839)
- the Well and the pendulum (1843)
- Hop-Frog (March 17th 1849)
- the Barrel of amontillado (November 1846)
- the Mask of died red (July 19th 1845)
- the King Peste (September 1835)
- Devil in the belfry (May 18th 1839)
- Lionnerie (May 1835)
- Four animals in a (March 1836)
- Small Discussion with a mummy (April 1845)
- Power of the word (June 1845)
- Conference between Monos and Una (August 1841)
- Conversation of Eiros with Charmion (December 1839 )
- Shade (September 1835)
- Silence (autumn 1837)
- the Island of the fairy (June 1841)
- the oval Portrait (April 1842)
- grotesque and serious Stories (1865)
- the Mystery of Marie Roget (November 1842, December 1842, February 1843)
- the Player of failures of Maelzel (April 1836)
- Eleonora (September 4th 1841)
- One Event in Jerusalem (June 9th 1832)
- the Angel of odd the (October 1844)
- the System of Doctor Goudron and the professor Plume (November 1845)
- the Field of Arnheim (March 1847)
- the Cottage Landor (June 9th 1849)
- Philosophie of furnishing (May 1840)
- Genesis of a poem (April 1846)
- Adventures of Arthur Gordon Pym (1858), Romance
Tales not translated by Baudelaire
- Duke of Omelet (March 3rd, 1832)
- Loss of breath (November 10th, 1832)
- Candy (December 1st, 1832)
- Appointment (January 1834)
- Mystification (June 1837)
- How to write an article in the “Blackwood ” (November 1838)
- has Predicament (November 1838)
- the Man who was remade (August 1839)
- the Newspaper of Julius Rodman (January-June 1840), unfinished novel
- the Business man (February 1840)
- Why the small French carries it the arm in scarf? (1840)
- Foreword of the Tales of Grotesque and the Arabesque (1840)
- never bet your head with the devil (September 1841)
- Week the three Sundays (November 27th, 1841)
- the garden landscape (October 1842), text melted later in the Field of Arnheim
- Of the swindle considered as one of the exact sciences (October 14th, 1843)
- Matin on Wissahicon (autumn 1843)
- the Glasses (March 27th, 1844)
- the premature Burial (July 31st, 1844)
- the oblong Case (September 1844)
- Thou Art the Man (November 1844)
- the literary Life of Mr Thingum bob, former editor association of “the Goose boozer ” (December 1844)
- the Thousand Second Tale of Schéhérazade (February 1845)
- the Sphinx (January 1846)
- Mellonta Tauta (February 1849)
- Von Kempelen and its discovery (April 14th, 1849)
- X-ing has Paragrab (May 12th, 1849)
- Introduction of the collection the Club of the Folio (1850)
- the Headlight (April 25th, 1942, incomplete manuscript)
Tests of Edgar Poe
- Letter with B… (1831)
- the Player of failures of Maelzel (April 1836)
- Philosophy of furnishing (May 1840)
- Exorde (January 1842)
- the Philosophy of the composition (April 1846), exact title of Genesis of a poem
- the Art of the tale Nathaniel Hawthorne (November 1847)
- Marginalia (1844-1849)
- Eureka (1848)
- the poetic Principle (August 31st, 1850)
Modern editions of Edgar Poe
- Tales, Tests, Poems (Editions Robert Laffont, collection Books, 1989), an edition of reference with a wide critical apparatus. General introduction (“the myth of Poe”), chronology, introduction to the tales (“tales of Poe or modes of the contamination”), introduction to the tests (“does Poe criticize”), notes and bibliography of Claude Richard, professor of English literature at the university Paul-Valéry Montpellier III, introduction to the poems (“Poet irrevocably? ”) of Robert Kopp, professor at the university of Basle.
- never bet your head at the devil and other tales not translated by Baudelaire (Gallimard Editions, Folio collection, 1989), translation and critical apparatus of Alain Jaubert
- Histoires, tests and poems (Lgf, Modern collection Pochothèque Classiques, 2006), with a new translation of the whole of the poems of Poe.
- Love letters with Helen (Dilecta Editions, 2006)
- Marginalia and other fragments (Editions Combined, 2007)
|Random links:||DeJohnette jack | Christology of Paul | Cornelius Wiebe | Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.7 | Bend decompression | Andronikos_III_Palaiologos|