The earthenware is a form of Céramique containing Argile, covered with a glaze (or enamel) containing tin which gives him its quite particular aspect (white and brilliance). Earthenware is one of most common and oldest of all the techniques used in Céramique. The " should not be confused; faïence" who designates a quite precise family of Céramique, with the Poterie, generic term, or the Porcelaine, another family of ceramics generally covered with a white enamel.
Great quantities of common red clay level on the surface of the ground. Although a great part is unusable because of the presence of remains of Calcite (stone with lime) or other soluble alkaline salts, it remains about it however of enormous good reserves to employment for the manufacture of earthenware.
The ground pottery is a ceramics made starting from Potasse, of Sable, Feldspath and Argile; this mixture is one of the matters among the most former employees in pottery. Classically, the majority of the ground potteries have a red coloring, which had with the use of red clays. However, it is not always the case, and the potters of today use also the clays coloured in white or champagne.
The ground pottery called typically “ cookie ” is put at the Feu at a temperature of approximately 1.000°C (1 800°Fahrenheit), and glossing is made at a final temperature approximately 1.100°C (2 000°F).
Characteristics of earthenware
Earthenware is white and opaque. The parts are less strong, less hard, less dense and more porous than the sandstone or the Porcelaine S. They absorb the liquids thus more easily than other ceramics. Certain glazes used on earthenware contain, as flux, of the highly toxic Plomb, these last adhere less better to the pots and are scaled more easily, because of the differences between hardness of the shard and the glazes.
The earthenware pottery can be technically as fine as the porcelains, although it translucent and is not more easily notched. Earthenware is as less hard and more porous as the sandstone, but its price cheaper and its easier work for the manufacturers compensate for its insufficiencies. Because of its natural porosity, a varnish must be applied to earthenware to make it impermeable to the liquids.
Types of earthenwareEarthenware are known as of:
- “large fire” when the decoration is posed, after a cooking “with luke-warm” (précuisson), directly on the stanniferous enamel (white opaque) pulverulent which absorbs it, without hope of correction. The colors are produced by metallic oxides and are limited to five (cobalt blue more used, brown-purple, red, green, yellow). The parts undergo then a final cooking.
- “small fire” (fine of the 17th century): the decoration is posed on cooked stanniferous enamel. It is easier to pose and the more delicate colors (pink, gold, clear green) because final cooking will be less low.
- “fine”, technical earthenware of English origin: on a very fine and white paste, the decoration is covered with a lead-containing varnish (transparent). There exist various compositions of the paste.
- the Earthenware of Tuscany
- the Earthenware of Faenza
- earthenware of His, Gubbio, Deruta, Manor house Lasting, Montelupa and Cafaggiolo
- the Earthenware of Urbino
- the Earthenware of Venezia
- the Earthenware of Ligurie
- earthenware in Sicily and in the South of Italy
- earthenware in the north of the Italy
- Faience manufacture of art Régnier
- Earthenware of Argonne
- Earthenware of Blois
- Earthenware of Bordeaux
- Earthenware of Charente
- Earthenware of Creil-Monterau
- Earthenware of Desvres
- Earthenware of Gien site: Earthenware of Gien
- Earthenware of the La Rochelle
- Earthenware of Longwy
- Earthenware of Lunéville
- Earthenware of Marseilles
- Earthenware of Martens-Tolosane
- Earthenware of Mesves
- Earthenware of Montpellier
- Earthenware of Moustiers
- Earthenware of Nevers
- Earthenware of Pornic
- Earthenware of Quimper
- Earthenware of Rouen
- Earthenware of Saint-Clement
- Earthenware of Samadet
- Earthenware of Sarreguemines and Digoin
- Earthenware of Strasbourg
- Earthenware of Hamage and Moulin of the Wolves or Earthenware of Orchies
- Earthenware of Onnaing
- Earthenware of Coal-mining
- earthenware of Badonviller
- earthenware of Limoges
- earthenware of Roanne
- earthenware of Taizé
In the Netherlands
- the delftware also called Blue of Delft
- other Dutch centers
- Earthenware of Wedgwood
- Earthenware of Stafford
In BelgiumAt the 16th century G. Andriesz is able of Manor house Lasting to make the majolique one in Antwerp. At that time Antwerp is a very important shopping mall. One manufactures there squares and pots with pharmarcery as well as plates with grotesque Décor.
- the Earthenware of the brothers Boch with Louvière
- the Earthenware of Nimy
- the Earthenware of Coal-mining
The earthenware of the Germanic countries
- the Earthenware of Hanau and Frankfurt
- the Porcelain of Meissen
The earthenware of the Scandinavian countries
In the rest of the world
- the Earthenware of Okinawa, Japan
Symbolic systemThe Noces of earthenware symbolize the 9 years of Mariage in the French folklore.
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