Dutch colonial empire
The Dutch empire is the name given to territories varied under control of the Netherlands of the 17th century at the 20th century.
The Netherlanders followed the Spain and the Portugal in the creation of an empire out of continental Europe. Under the reign of Charles Quint, emperor of the Holy Germanic Roman Empire and king of Spain, current the Netherlands belonged to the 17 provinces of the Spanish Netherlands which also included/understood the Belgium and the current Luxembourg, as well as the north of France. In 1624, the Netherlander Pierre Minuit bases the New Amsterdam on the current site of New York, in the United States. After having obtained their independence of Spain in 1648, the Netherlanders of the United Provinces became one of the most important maritime and economic powers of the 17th century. This period during which the Netherlands established colonies and counters throughout the world is also known under the name of century of Dutch gold. Their techniques of navigation and commercial, the rise of a nationalism and a militarism accompanying independence contributed to this adventure. Like the English, the beginning of the colonial possessions was made through private capitalist colonial companies with the domination of the Compagnie Dutchwoman of the Eastern Indies, the direct intervention of the Dutch state in the colonial company will arrive only later. The navigators and commercial Dutch also took part in the exploring fever which characterized the S, even if the vast territories discovered by Willem Barents, Henry Hudson, Willem Janszoon and Abel Tasman in the Arctic, Australasia or Oceania were not transformed or little into colonies Dutchwomen.
With the fast rise of the naval power Dutchwoman at the end of the 16th century, the Netherlands reigned on the oceans and dominated the world commerce during second half of the 17th century, which did of the Netherlands one of the first maritime world powers of this time. The richness brought caused also an important cultural development during this century giving him this name of century of Dutch gold. The Netherlands lost many of their colonial possessions, like their statute of first power, with the profit of the English when the country was invaded by the French Armies of Louis XIV, then one century later by the revolutionary armies. The French centralized the government then, transforming the Netherlands into a vassal State lasting the occupation of 1795 to 1814. After the fall of Napoleon, the recovered parts of the Dutch empire, especially the the Eastern Indies Dutchwomen (current Indonesia), the Surinam and the Dutch West Indies remained under the control of $the Hague until the decline of the European empires in the middle of the 20th century.
List Dutch colonies and establishments
The New-Country-LowThe New-Countries-Low (in Dutch “ Nieuw Nederland ”) were visited by Henry Hudson then with the service of the Compagnie Dutchwoman of the Eastern Indies (VOC) in 1609. It extended then on several current American states of which New York, the Delaware, the Pennsylvania, the New Jersey and the Connecticut.
- the New Amsterdam and its periphery (current Staten Island and Long Island), commercial and administrative capital of the colony was going to become New York after the English conquest of 1664
- Fort Orange and Beverwijck located more at north which was renamed Albany under the British mode.
- the area irrigated by the river Delaware was occupied by the Sweden. The News-Sweden and its dependences were going to fall to the hands from the United Provinces after only 17 years from existence.
The Central America and the Antilles
The Dutch West IndiesThe Dutch West Indies of 1620 to today:
- Aruba : of 1636 with 1805 and of 1815 to today;
- Curaçao : of 1634 with 1805 and of 1815 to today;
- Bonaire : of 1633 with 1805 and of 1815 to today;
- Saint Martin's day: of 1620 with 1633 and 1644 with 1648 (treated with France) and of 1816 with today;
- Saint-Eustace: of 1636 to today;
- Sheba: of 1620 with 1640 and of 1816 to today;
The Virgin IslandsOf 1625 with 1680, today American British Virgin Islands or (Holy-Cross)
TobagoNieuw-Walcheren : of 1628 with 1677, now belonged to Trinidad and Tobago
Guyana Dutchwoman (Suriname)Of 1667 with 1975, today Suriname
Taken to the English during the Second War Anglo-Dutch, Suriname and its profitable plantations of sugar canes passed to the hands of the Netherlanders n the other hand of the New-Country-Low, to North America which passed under British control during the signature of the treated of Westminster in 1674. It remained an overseas territory Dutch until its independence in 1975.
Dutch BrazilThe Netherlanders conquered half of Capitanas and preserved it 1624 at 1654, now belonged to the Brésil
With the Chile
- Arguin of 1633 to 1678 then of 1724 to 1728
- Tasso Island and Bunce Island: in 1664, at the time of the Second Anglo-Dutch War, the admiral de Ruyter destroys these English colonies, takes possession but without occupying of it them.
- Kaap Mount , current Robertsport with the Cape Mount, Western peninsula of Liberia, near of the Sierra-Leone.
Coast of GoldGoudkust of 1637 with 1872, today with the Ghana
- Cape Apollonia (Benyin): Fort-Apollonia: from 16. with 1768 and of 1868 with 1872
- Abacqua (Duma or Egwira): Fort-Ruychaver: juil-August 1654 with 1659
- Mouth of Ankobra: Extremely Carthago Elects: of 1650 with….
- Axim: Fort-Santo Antonio of fév 1642 with 1664 then of 1665 with 1872)
- Poquefoe or Pokesu ( Princess Town ): Fort-Hollandia ( Large Friedrichsburg ) of 1725 with 1814/1815 abandonnée/1687* to 1698/1711 - 1712/1732 to 1804 abandoned
- Dixcove: Fort-Metaal Kruis of 1868 with 1872
- Butri: Fort-Batenstein of 1656 with 1665 and of 166. with 1872)
- Takouadi: Fort-Witsen
- Sékondi : of 1782 with 1785
- Sékondi: Fort-Ouanje: from 1670/75 with 1872
- Shama: Fort-San Sebastian: of 1637 with 1664 then of 1664 with 1872
- Elmina: Fort-Conraadsburg or St Jago, Extremely-in Veer (1810/1811), Fort-Naglas (1828), Extremely-Java (1828), Fort-Scomarus (1828), Fort-Batenstein (1828). (28/9 Aug. 1637 at April 6th 1872)
- Cape Coast
- Cong (Cong Height): with 1659 given up and of 1661 Extremely-Danish destroyed by the Dutchman
- Mouri: Fort-Nassau: of 1640 (1598 or 1611 and of 12 - 1664 /1665 - 1782/1785 to 1867 By the treaty with English)
- Cormantin: Extremely-Amsterdam of 1665 - 1721 then of 1781 with 1867
- Anomabu: : of 1640 with 1652
- Egya: : of 1647 with? and of 1663 with 1664
- Apam: Fort-Leydsaemheyt ( Lijdzaamheid Patience in Dutch): from 1697/1698 - 1782/1785 to 1868
- Senya Beraku: Extremely-Goede Hoop: from 1667 or 1705/06 fout - of 1782 with 1785 then of 1867 with 1868
- Usher Town (current Accra): Fort-Crevecoor of 1649 to 1782 then of 1786 to 1868
- Kpone: : of 1697 at April 1700 then of 1706 with?
- Keta: Fort-Singelenburgh, of? with 1737
- Kumase: of 1837 with 1842, of 1848 with 1853 then of 1859 with 1869
- Small Popo or Popo and of (Anecho or Aneho) (1731 to 1760)
- Great Popo: of 1680 with?
- Ouidah: years 1670 or 1687 and of 1702 to 1724 or 1726.
- Jaquim or Jakri (Godomey) Fort-Zelandia (1726 - 1734)
- Offra: from 1675 to 1691
- Appa and of Ekpé: from 1732 to 1736
- Allada and of Ardra
- Benign (1705 to 1736)
- Badagri (1737 to 1748)
- Epe (1732 to 1755)
- Loango (Boary): from 1648/to 1686/1721-1726)
- Ngoyo or G' OY
AngolaAugust 26th 1641 at the 21 August 24th 1648, today in Angola
- Sao Paulo de Luanda (Luanda): Fort-Aardenburgh (August 26th, 1641 - 21 August 24th, 1648) in Portugal.
- Sao Felipe de Benguela: from seven 1641 to 1648, in Portugal
- Pinda or Mpinda (Sonyo): Stop Congo river: from 1648 in Portugal
- Ensandeira island: (Mouth of the Kwanza River) Fort-Mols: from June 1645 to 1648 in Portugal
- Malemba (Malembo, with the Cabinda)
Grey waxbill(Today British territory)
Sao Tomefrom October 18th, 1599 to October 20th, 1599 then from October 3rd, 1641 to October 16th, 1641, today part of Sao Tome and Principe
1652 with 1806, Kaapkolonie or Colnie of the Cape today in South Africa
In 1652, the VOC establishes with the Cape of Good Hope a base of restocking for its ships, located halfway between the Indies Eastern Dutchwomen and the the Indies Western Dutchwomen but especially the Netherlands. The area then presenting little interest for the trade, it was going especially to be one of the rare colonies of Dutch settlement. Great Britain seizes the colony in 1797 during the French occupation and in 1805 annexed it. The Dutch colonists remained in South Africa after the British takeover and later started a treck through the country to join the Natal. They were subjected by the English after the Guerre of Boers and are known maintaining under the name of Afrikaner S.
MozambiqueFrom January 1721 at December 23rd 1730, today with the Mozambique
- Delagoa Bay: Fort-Lydsaamheid.
- Bay Antongil: from February 1641 at July 1646
MauriceOf 1638 with 1658 then of 1664 with 1710, today the Mauritius
MeetingSee on this subject the article History of the Meeting.
Asia1602 with 1945, today the Indonesia.
Netherlands New GuineaFrom 1828/1895 with 1961, constitutes today the provinces Indonesia of Papua and Western Papua.
MalaccaOf 1644 with 1824, today in Malaysia (Malacca)
The Dutchmen took Malacca on the Western coast of Malaya (today Malaysia Western) to the Portuguese in 1641. In accordance with the treaty signed with the Stathouder Guillaume V of Orange-Nassau (then in exile in the United Kingdom) it was given to the English in 1806, during the Napoleonean wars. It was returned to the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1816, then yielded to the English at the time of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824.
CeylonOf 1658 with 1796, today the Sri Lanka
The first arrival of the Netherlanders in Ceylon goes back to 1602, the island was then under Portuguese control. In 1658, the Netherlanders had completely driven out some. Between 1505 and 1658, the Portuguese had the control of the coasts but not interior of the island. Buddhists, Hindus and Moslems had had to suffer from relieuses persecutions under the Portuguese law, the Dutchmen were interested in the trade than in the Christian conversion of the populations. Ceylon remained a major counter of the Dutch trade until its catch by the English in 1796. The importance came from its position, halfway between the Dutch colonies of Indonesia and those of the Cape.
Islands of Ceylon
- Manaar island (Mannar island): from 1658 with 1802
- island Delft (Nairendivo): from 1658 to 1802, Treated of Amiens, with the English
- island Amsterdam (Carredive)
- island Rotterdam (Annelledivo)
- island Haarlem (Neynadivo)
- island Middelburg (Pongeredivo)
- island Leiden (Tannindivu or Ourature)
- island De Twee Gebroeders ; Hoorn in Enkhuizen (Iranaitivu).
FormosaOf 1624 with 1662, nowadays Taiwan
The Netherlanders maintained a base, Fort Zeelandia , in Taiwan of 1624 until 1662 when they were expelled by it by Chinese Koxinga. The island was a source of supply in cane with sugar and buckskins. It was also a place where the Dutch merchants of VOC could trade with the Chinese merchants of the continent. They could buy there silk necessary to the Japanese market.
PescadoresExtremely: of 1620 at 1624 (August 25th)
Japanof 1641 with 1857, today Deshima with the Japan
Initially the Netherlanders had a commercial counter with Hirado, of 1609 with 1641. Later, the Japanese granted the Netherlanders a monopoly of the trade with Japan, but only of Deshima, an artificial island with broad of the dimension of Nagasaki of 1641 with 1853. During this period, they were the only Europeans authorized in Japan. The Chinese and Korean tradesmen were always welcome, but restricted in their freedom of circulation.
BengalFactories and plantations Dutchwomen in what is nowadays the Bangladesh.
- Pipely : from 1635 -?
- Hougli (Chinsura: from 1635 -?
- Baleshwar (Bellasoou): from 1676 -?
SuratteSurat: of 1616 with 1795
- Cranganoue or Cranganou (Kodungallou): from 1662 (taken with the Portugal)
- Cochin de Cima (Pallipuram): from 1661 (taken with the Portugal)
- Cochin, Cochin de Baixo or Santa Cruz: from 1663 (taken with the Portugal)
- Quilon (Coylan): from 166) (taken with the Portugal)
- Cannanore: from 1663 to 1790 (taken with the Portugal)
- Kundapura: of 1667à ca.1682
- Kayankulam (Ca 1645)
- Ponnani (Ca 1663)
CoromandelEastern Coast of India
- Golkonda: of 1662-Ca 1733
- Bimilipatnam: from 1687-1795/1818 to 1825 with the English
- Jaggernaikpoeram (Kakinada) (1734 - 1795/1818 to 1825) with the English
- Daatzeram (Drakshawarama): of 1633-1730
- Nagelwanze: from 1669 to 1687)
- Palikol: from 1613-1781/1785-1795/1818 to 1825 with the English
- Masulipatnam: of 1605-1756
- Petapoeli (Nizampatnam): from 1606 to 1668
- Paliacatta (now Pulicat): of 1610à 1781/1785 to 1795/1805 with 1825 with the English
- Sadras: from 1654-1757/1785-1795/1818 to 1825 with the English
- Tierepopelier (Thiruppapuliyur): from 1608 to 1625
- Tegenapatnam, Kudalur (Cuddaloue): of 1647 à1758
- Pouto Novo (Parangippettai): from 1608 to 1825 (June 1st)) with the English
- Negapatnam: from 1658 to 1781 with the English.
- Tuticouin and of Tutucouim: from 1658 with?
Siam (current Thailand)
The Tonkin /Annam (current Vietnam)
Persian (current Iran)
Mésopotamie (current Iraq)
- Al Basrah, (Al Basra).
Today Western Australia
The Western part of Australia was recognized by Dutch navigators - Willem Janszoon then Abel Tasman - and passed in the sphere Dutchwoman under the name of News-Holland but without true taking possession, nor real colonization. One can recall explorations Dutchwomen on the North-eastern coast where one finds many Toponyme S Dutch as well as many wrecks of Dutch ships like the Batavia . When the English were established on this coast, they noted that there existed some small pockets of indigenous population to the skin and the clear eyes and the fair hair, testimony of a last interbreeding. (See on anglophone Wikipédia).
EuropeAlthough not forming part of what one names the Dutch empire, the Netherlands accepted the southernmost Netherlands at the time of the Congrès of Vienna. The southernmost Netherlands declared their independence in 1830 (the Belgian Révolution) and this one was recognized by the Netherlands in 1839, giving rise to the Belgium. At the time of the Congress of Vienna, the king Guillaume Ier of the Netherlands was made Grand Duke of Luxembourg and the two countries were associated in a personal Union. The independence of the Luxembourg was ratified in 1869. When Guillaume III of the Netherlands died in 1890, not leaving any male successor, the Grand-Duchy was given to another branch of the Maison of Orange-Nassau.
Discusses on the use of the " term; Worsen néerlandais"
The use of the term empire to indicate all the activities of overseas of Dutch makes debate because many colonies were in fact only posts of trade controlled by companies private, the Compagnie Dutchwoman of the Eastern Indies and the Compagnie Dutchwoman of the Western Indies. It is only after the Napoleonean wars finished in 1815, that the British returned to monarchy Dutchwoman the possessions that those had occupied. The country took then directly charges management with it with the colonies. After this date, all the historians use the term of empire and imperialism, to refer to a more European aspect and most of the time, only over the period 1880-1940, of their colonization. In 1968, a Dutch historian wrote for an English public: “the Dutch colonial policy forever dominated by the vision to establish a Dutch empire in Asia” , S.L. van der Wal in: Bromley and Kossmann.
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