HistoryThe darbouka would go back to 1100 before J. - C. It is manufactured out of terra cotta, metal (Aluminum) or more rarely of wood and is covered with an animal skin (generally sheep, goat or fish) or with plastic. The skins in animal require beings heated in order to obtain a correct tension before use. The skin is generally heated by rubbing the palm of the hand on this one and, if possible, while placing it in front of an intense source of heat (flames, embers). In the African countries, certain people use sand to tighten the skin of the darboukas and the Bendir S.
Whereas the bodies in Céramique are often regarded as producing the best sound, the metal bodies and in synthetic skins are generally preferred by the professionals, because of their solidity (thus longevity), and the relative independence of their sound with respect to the climatic conditions (moisture). Moreover, the modern material darboukas produce a more powerful sound and more clearly, which makes them more attractive in the modern musics.
In practice, the drebkis (players of darbouka) use different instruments, sometimes a more traditional instrument, sometimes more modern, according to the musical context and of the desired stamp.
Musical techniqueThe darbouka is played with a lighter touch and with more of strike different the Djembé for example.
The instrument is placed in horizontal position at horse on the left leg for the droitiers (or right-hand side for the left-handeds person), the left arm must be placed so that the elbow blocks the back of the body of the derbouka against the leg, and that the left palm of the hand (right for the left-handeds person) wife the edge of the head of the instrument, leaving the free fingers to strike the skin. The axis of the right hand (or left) must be about perpendicular to that of the arm which rests on the instrument. The two arms and wrists must be flexible to arrive at a better dexterity. Concerning strike, there are three basic and of many others depend on the regional style and the type of desired sound. The “DOUM” is the most serious sound, obtained by striking the center of the skin, the “TAK” that obtained by striking the flat rim (or left) of the skin using the major one and annular, or only with the annular one. The “S” is the striking generally carried out with the annular one of the left hand (or right-hand side) at the edge of the skin, requiring an often weak musculature at the beginners.
Another striking, like the opera hat carried out with the main hand (left for the left-handeds person and right-hand side for the droitiers), is carried out with the whole of the fingers gathered, and slightly folded with the manner of a slap , called kef or tak interior and giving a its dryness and runs.
“RA” is the bearing carried out with the fingers of the hand which rests on the instrument. Many others strike, like “MY” for example, exist too.
There exist several techniques of play, which meet on certain points:
- Rare exceptions put aside, " time forts" rate/rhythm (its skeleton to some extent), are always played by your hand of bottom (generally line), the other hand being used for the ornaments. The hand of bottom will be able to be added to double the ornaments but will fall down over its key periods.
There are also divergences:
- In particular in the techniques of bearings and short-nap cloth, important stylistic devices to the derbouka. The blows are very fast, there is thus a certain system to apply because it is not a question to be contracted and try to pass in force… All is thus based on a way of doubling the notes of each hand.
the Arabs tend to use the rebound of the finger a little to the manner of control stick of the beaters, but as it is not a question of rods, one can imagine the flexibility extrème that requires, because it is necessary TO FEEL the WEIGHT OF ITS FINGERS.
Always in optics to double the note, the Turks choose more one side swinging of the wrist, strike them êtant alternatively assured by the index and the annular one or the little finger. The major one is thus the axis of the movement.
Note: In spite of the distances which separate the various schools, it is useful to study these two types of bearings because they do not have exactly same sonority, your play will be all the more " coloré".
Element (S) bibliographical (S)
Methods of training
. 1985 " The derbouka, Fundamental Technique and Initiation at the rates/rhythms arabes" , of Philippe Vigreux, foreword of Jean-Pierre Drouet. (Edition Edisud 1985 - 184 pages with photography. Work published with the assistance of the National center of the Letters.) Price.: approximately 30, - €
. 2001 (republication), " Method of Derbouka" , of Behnan Goçmez (2001 Editions Mel Bay Pub - 56 pages - CD) year., Al Price.: approximately 30, - €. Several editions available, with or without CD.
. 2003 “The Art off Middle Eastern Rhythm” Hagoel, Kobi. 2003. Hardback OR-TAV Music Publications (1st Edition). 136 illustrated pages (22x30cm.) + 6 CD. Languages: English, Hebrews, French, German, Spaniard. (Price: $72) ISMN 67500-002-3/ISBN 965-505-029-7
. the 2006 “darbouka - With Ali Alaoui. Method of Initiation. Percussion of the Arab World” | 2 DVD STAKE 4/3 Color (All Zones) 2006 | Editions Improductions (France), Collection “the Living room of Music”. Distribution France: ID Music | Booklet: 112 pages (English, French). Total duration: 150 mn. | EDV937/CV0057
StylesThe musical styles are two principal: the Egyptian style and the Turkish style , associated with the typical shape of the instrument. Nevertheless each country has its preferred rates/rhythms and its manner own to play them and to compose them with other melody percussions or instruments. One will be able to also notice a difference in style between a Turkish and Egyptian musician, and also between the popular musician and another more academic. Certain Bulgarian musicians use also a fine rod.
The played rates/rhythms are very different from those heard in West Africa, in spite of strong similarities. Most known are Saîdi , Masmoudi , Maksoum , Goubaï , Malfouf , Zindali , Karsilama , etc
Other associated instrumentsOther very popular Eastern percussions are often played with the darbouka: the Bendir (drum on framework) and the Riqq or rekk (small tambourine).
|Random links:||CHOM | Géolocalisation | Diapheromeridae | Castle of Buzay | Franck Perera | Dundalk|