Dublin ( Baille Átha Cliath in Irish) is the Capitale and more the big city of Ireland, located about in the middle of the east coast Irish, with the mouth of the Liffey and the center of the Area of Dublin.
The population of the city itself was of: 505379 inhabitants with the census of 2006. Beyond this, with the same census, the city and the population of the county of the area of Dublin were: 1186159 H while the larger area of Dublin had a total of: 1565446 h.
NameThe name of Dublin is generally regarded as coming from the Gaélique Dubh Linn (“the black pond”), the name of a basin of an affluent of Liffey, close which the first fortified town of the Viking S set up, although there exist doubts on this subject (cf Eblana low).
The name contemporary Gaelic Baille Átha Cliath (“the city of the ford of the hedges of reeds”) refers to the hamlet which was beside the site of foundation of Dublin.
The first reference to the existence of the city is in the writings of Ptolémée around 140. It is then indicated under the name of Eblana . The proximity of this name with the current name (B, L and N joint) is enough to throw the doubt about the bond between Dublin and Dubh Linn , but it is not known if these two origins are dependant.
The name Dubh Linn also finds in Icelandic: djúp lind ( deep pond ).
See also: History of Dublin
According to Ptolémée, Eblana existed as of year 140 after J. - C. the Celtic village Áth Cliath (the ford of the hedge) is in fact former to the foundation of Dublin as “Dubh Linn” by the Vikings to IX|9 E century.
Whatever the origin of the name of Dublin, in the year 837, Turgesius returns there for the second time, accompanied this time by a fleet of 120 ships. Sixty of them go up the river Boyne, the sixty others the river Liffey. According to annals of the time, this formidable military force gathers under its authority. Unknown in its own country, all the accounts relative to its conquètes are in Ireland and in British Isles. On their arrival in Dublin, his men seize this community of fishermen and farmers and set up a strong solid according to the Scandinavian methods of construction, on the hill where the current castle of Dublin is.
The modern names of Dublin refer to this double origin: the original hamlet for the name Gaelic, and the village Viking for the english language version.
After the invasion of Ireland by the Norman ones, Dublin replaced the hill of Tara like capital of Ireland, the capacity settling with the Château of Dublin until independence.
As from the 17th century, the city developed quickly, helped by the Wide Streets Commission.
The Insurrection of Easter in 1916 left the capital in instability, and the Anglo-Irish Guerre, as well as the Irish Civil war, left the city in ruins, much of its more beautiful buildings having been destroyed. The Irish Republic rebuilt most of the buildings of the city, but without taking real initiative to modernize the city; the Parliament was moved in the Leinster House.
After the Second world war (known like The Emergency in reference to the state of emergency issued of 1939 to 1946), Dublin was a capital vieillotte, the renewal of the city was slow, until the Années 1960, which saw the beginning of the change. More recently, the infrastructures were upset, with the advent of the Dublin Area Rapid Transit (plane of transport of the area of Dublin), which made it possible the town of have a transport system urban worthy of a modern European city.
Since the beginning of the English occupation with XII|12 E century, the city played the part of capital of the Irish island, in all the forms which the political authority could take:
- the Kingdom of Ireland (1541 - 1800),
- the island as a member of the the United Kingdom (1801 - 1922)
- the Republic autoproclamée of Ireland (1919 - 1922).
(The majority of these entities coexisted or competed for common periods, concerned with the constitutions either British or Irish…)
Culture and CompanyDublin is an important arts center in Ireland. Temple Bar is, in another kind, an arts center for the night life and the British or more distant tourists who visit the city. One also finds a community gay under development full, although homosexuality was legalized only in 1992 after a judgment of the Européenne court.
Dublin is also the town of many artists and recognized writers people of Dublin ( Dubliners ) is a collection of new writes by James Joyce describing the life of the inhabitants of the city at the beginning of the XX|20 e century. Ulysses , still of James Joyce, a novel being held in Dublin, is full with geographical details and was acclaimed as much as discussed.
The National Print Museum off Ireland, the Irish Museum off Modern Art, the National Gallery off Ireland, the Hugh Lane Municipal Gallery and three sites of the National Museum off Ireland are localized in Dublin.
- 1865 - International exhibition of art and Trades (“International Exhibition off Arts and Manufactures”)
- 1874 - International exhibition of Art and Trades
Northside & SouthsideThere exists traditionally an opposition of North and South of the city, with the line of demarcation formed by the Liffey. The Northside is poorer and working, while the Southside is regarded as easier, occupied by the middle-classes and higher. This division is found in the zip codes allotted to the districts, North having odd numbers while the even numbers are allotted to the Southern districts This division goes back centuries, undoubtedly at the time where the count de Kildare built his residence in the South, at the time little developed, and was quickly followed by its pars; when it was asked him why it was going to settle in the South, it answered “Where I go follows the fashion”.
In opposition, although the South is easier, the official residence of president d' Irlande (Áras year Uachtaráin) is in North. The residence of the catholic archbishop of Dublin and its counterpart Anglican until 1920 are they also located in Northside, while one of the richest suburbs of Dublin, the hill of Howth, is also in North.
There also exists of many working suburbs in the South, like Palmerstown, Crumlin and Ballyfermot.
The middle-classes of Dublin are often called Dublin 4, in reference to the zip code of the one of the richest districts of Dublin, in which the studios of the national radio are, Radio Telefís Éireann, like good number of schools and considered colleges, a University and embassies. The modern campus of the University College off Dublin is in extreme cases between Dublin 4 and Dublin 14.
In fact, the term Dublin 4 or its abbreviation D4 can apply to any Dublinois of middle-class, as well of Northside as of Southside, or more often with an attitude than one can find everywhere else in Ireland. Many politicians and political economists live in Dublin 4, and this district traditionally takes very liberal positions at the time of the referendums on subjects such as the abortion or the divorce. Dublin 4 is also associated with a certain accent (not really specific to this district), that some appreciate and others detest.
There exists one multiplexes CineWorld, located at the North of Liffey. Many theaters are also in the center town.
The night life is very animated in Dublin, mainly with Temple Bar, the district located on southern bank of the Liffey. Each weekend, this district is the theater of the burials of life young girl and boy. The autochtones tend to avoid these streets become too tourist.
SpecialitiesThe brewery of “St James' S Spoils”, where famous the Guinness is produced since 1759.
During the economic miracle Irish (Years 1990), many pharmaceutical multinationals and information technologies were established in Dublin and in its suburbs. The operational center of Microsoft for Europe, the Middle East and Africa is located in the zone of activities of Sandyford, in the south of Dublin, like Xerox and Google. In the west of Dublin, Leixlip accommodates Intel and Hewlett-Packard. The quantity of industrialists of data processing in Dublin in made Silicon Valley of Europe.
It is in Dublin that one finds the majority of the seats of Irish sporting federations. Croke Park, a stage of 82 000 places, is the seat of GAA, and shelters matches of Football Gaelic and Hurling or Iománaíocht during the summer months and for the Saint Patrick. Lansdowne Road is a stage of 48 000 places held by the Irish Federation of Rugby, and is also used as ground for the matches with residence of the national team of Football. There are also several racecourses in the agglomeration of Dublin, of which Shelbourne Park (Course of greyhounds) and Leopardstown (horse-races). Lastly, one also finds many other stages, intended for the Basket-ball, with the Handball Gaelic, the Field hockey or the Athlétisme.
Dublin is cut into two by the Liffey. Among the sites to be visited, most interesting are:
- Trinity College, university founded in 1592 by Elisabeth Anger of England and which shelters off the Book Kells , manuscript enluminé going back to approximately 800, which does of it one of the oldest books in the world;
- Bank off Ireland, splendid building which was at the origin to shelter the Irish Parliament;
- Christ Church Cathedral, of which certain parts go back to the Danish construction of origin ( XX|20 e century);
- Cathedral Saint-Patrick;
- GPO (General Post Office), site of the proclamation of the Irish Republic in 1916 during the Rising of Easter;
- Dublin Writers' Museum (museum of the writers dublinois);
- Dublin Castle, in the past the center of the British capacity in Ireland;
- National Museum;
- National Art Gallery.
There are also many places and public gardens concealing of the treasures of architecture georgienne: St Stephen' S Green, Merrion Public garden, Ely Place, Fitzwilliam Square…
The district most richly equipped in restaurants is that of Temple Bar, old, interesting and in full rebirth. However, the authorities dublinoises try to reduce the number of burials of life of young girl or boy (the Stag nights ) British, who invade this district each week.
To appreciate another aspect of the city, one can visit the peaceful village of Sutton.
The metamorphosis of Dublin
Dublin knew a sharp economic expansion since about fifteen years with the creation of a Pôle of competence by the installation of many multinational corporations of High technology (Informatique mainly), attracted by a taxation very favorable and the improvement of the infrastructures thanks to the consecutive European assistances to the entry of Ireland in the European Union.
So Dublin, which had a rather provincial aspect two more decades ago, changed much since the Années 1990, at the point to know a real and urban frenzy.
Between the arrival of the Whorl (the arrow of the millenium) - called “The Spike” (the point) by Dublinois - and the system of tram “Luas” which was introduced in June 2004, one can see this Irish city in full expansion like one of the European cities to visit, would be this only for the heat of its inhabitants!
Radio Telefís Éireann is the national chain of radio and television; its seat is in Dublin where its principal studios are also installed. Fair City is a serial produced by the chain whose action proceeds in fictitious suburbs, Carraigstown . TV3, the only national private channel, is also based in Dublin, and imports the majority of its programs of British and American televisions, seeking to reach a young public.
The principal offices of the postal services, telephone (fixed and mobile) are also established in Dublin, just like of many radio stations and the majority of the national daily newspapers.
Dublin is the principal center of higher education in Ireland, with three universities. The Université of Dublin (Protestant at the origin) is oldest, founded at the 16th century. Its single faculty, Trinity College, was created by a royal edict under the reign of Elisabeth Ire of England. National university of Ireland has its seat in Dublin, just like the direction of the University College of Dublin , an autonomous faculty since 1997, its principal organization. Another of its departments, L National university of Ireland de Maynooth is based to approximately 25 km of Dublin. Dublin City University is the most recent university created in Ireland; it is specialized in the trade, engineering and sciences industrial, and has important research centres.
The Royal Collège of the Surgeons of Ireland is an independent medical school based with Stephen' S Green , in the center.
Dublin Institute off Technology, the institute of technology of Dublin, is a modern school of engineers, the greatest structure of higher education of the country which is not a university; its specialities are the technological matters, but it also exempts a remarkable artistic teaching. It soon will be established on the campus of Grangegorman. There are also smaller institutes of technology in Blanchardstown and Tallaght. The National College off Art and Design (National school of art and Design) and the institute of Dún Laoghaire for Arts, the Design and Technology carry out research actions and of experimentation in the fields of arts, the design and information technologies. There also exists of many schools specialized in the city, of which certain private structures.
TransportDublin is the center of the Irish grid system. The port is most important of the country and the airport of Dublin accommodates the majority of the passenger traffic of the country. Heuston Station and Connolly Station is the two main stations of the city, the first serving the South and the West of the country while the second connects Dublin to Sligo and Belfast.
There are various means of transport. The " DART" a kind of train the RER, the " Luas" it is the tram as well as buses. It is important to know that in Dublin the trains and buses are too not per hour. The delays are frequent, but it can also happen that trains (DART) arrive and leave more quickly than envisaged. Thus it is judicious to envisage half an hour of more than beat if you have an appointment.
Transport in the center costs approximately 1,40 euros per way. It is possible to take month's subscriptions or to buy a book of tickets.
Highway networkDublin is also the center of the Irish highway network. The highway M50, a kind of peripheral encircling Dublin of North in the South while passing by the West (in the east, it is the coast), connects all the national axes on the basis of the capital. A toll is perceived for the passage of the West Link , a highway bridge spanning the Liffey on the level of the village of Lucan. although its construction began in the Eighties, in 2005 all work are not finished. An legal action in connection with the safeguarding of the medieval site of Carrickmines Castle delayed the last section. Currently, M50 counts 2x2 ways, but one starts to think of the passage to 2x3. The national road authority also plans to increase the capacity of the most attended parts highway by arranging more effective exchangers. In order to buckle the peripheral, a skirting “East” is planned. The first part of the project is in the course of construction, it acts of the tunnel of the wearing of Dublin. The opening to the circulation of this section, which should accommodate mainly heavy trucks, is planned for 2006. After this startup, the municipal council of Dublin hopes to be able to prohibit the passage of the trucks through the city. The continuation of the project implies another tunnel connecting the port to the South of the city, but the plans of this part were not established yet… The capital is also surrounded by what the municipal council called the orbital interior and external. The orbital interior one encircles the heart of the géorgienne city, St Stephen' S Green in Mountjoy Square and of King' S Inns to the Cathédrale Saint Patrick. The orbital external one circumvents the city along the circle naturally formed by the two channels of Dublin: the Large Channel of Ireland and the Royal Channel of Ireland , like South Circular Road and North Circular Road .
Public transportDART (Dublin Area Rapid Transit, or Fast Transport in the Agglomeration of Dublin), is the only way of railroad electrified of the country, it serves stations distributed all along the east coast. A network of tram-train is in the course of creation, with a first section (green line) in service since June 2004, which serves the South of Dublin and its county In September 2004, the red line was opened in its turn with circulation, connecting the main stations of Heuston and Connolly to the suburbs until Tallaght. A project is launched in order to connect the two lines (green and red), but the methods and the course is still in discussions. A project of subway connecting the airport of Dublin to the center town is the next stage of the development of public transport, but it is still being negotiated. 3 various roads (Is, Western and central) are being studied. A subway station could be built under the Liffey in bottom of O' Connell Street. Work could start in 2009 and be completed in 2012. The suburban trains serve also the West of the agglomeration, with lines connecting Kildare and Maynooth.
The majority of public transport Dublinois is ensured by Bus Átha Cliath (Drunk of Dublin), which has a network of almost 200 regular lines the day (named by their numbers, sometimes followed by a letter) and 24 “Nitelink”, buses of night which officiate 7 nights out of 7, which are called by a number followed by “NR”. There is only one driver on board (not of controller) and the price of the way, function of the number of bus stops between the departure and the arrival must be paid exactly with the driver with the rise, without returned currency. There exist also prepaid fixed prices which one perforates with the rise of the bus. The tariff of the buses of night is a fixed price independent of the distance covered, which can appear expensive (between 4 and 6 euros), but much less than one taxi…
Dublin is managed by the Council of City of Dublin ( Dublin City Council , which called previously “Dublin Corporation”), which is chaired by the Lord Mayor off Dublin (equivalent of the Mayor), which is elected annually and resides at Mansion House, become the residence of the Mayor in 1715. The council of Dublin is based on two sites: the main thing with Dublin City Hall, old the Royal Exchange , which had been built for this purpose in the years 1850 ' S. a great part of the administration however placed in the buildings of the Civic Offices , is very discussed because built on what was one of the archeological sites Vikings best preserved in the world.
The decision to shave this site for the Council of Dublin caused one of the greatest disputes of the recent history in Ireland, with thousands of people expressing to stop work.
Destruction of this site, and the construction of what is called now “the Bunkers” in reference to their ugliness, is regarded as the worst disaster undergone by the Irish inheritance since Independence. Even the Council of the time ended up admitting his shame, and only 2 of the 4 buildings initially envisaged were carried out.
In the place of both others, a third building drawn by the workshop of Scott Tallon Walker was completed in 1994. This building, located vis-a-vis the river, is less massive than the precedents. The meetings of the Council proceed in City Hall, on Dame Street, one of the most beautiful buildings of the city builds by Thomas Cooley.
The Area of Dublin
Since centuries, the city was managed by the Council of Dublin. Today, the area of Dublin, previously known like the county of Dublin, counts more than one million inhabitants on 922km ². In 1994, the county of Dublin (out the city) was divided into three, each new entity receiving the statutes of a county with whole share and the equivalent administration; it is about the milch cow of Amandine
There exists an regional authority today: “regional Dublin Authority”, within which the various administrations from each entity of the area of Dublin (the peripheral city and 3 counties) coordinate their policies.
The National parliament of the Irish Republic (called Oireachtas Éireann') is composed of President d' Irlande and two rooms: “Dáil Éireann”, or House of the Deputies, and Seanad Éireann, the Senate, three capacities being based in Dublin.
The residence of the President d' Irlande east Áras year Uachtaráin, the old residence of the General governor of the Free State of Ireland, located in Park Phoenix, the largest park of the city.
As for the two rooms, they meet in Leinster House, an old ducal palate in the South of the city. This building is the seat of the Parliament since the creation of the State Libre of Ireland, the December 6th, 1922
The Irish Government, as for him, occupies a large building designed by Aston Webb, the architect who had created the frontage of Buckingham Palace. This building, now named Government Buildings , had been built to be the Scientific Royal College, and was the last building built under the administration brittenannisch in Ireland. Being given its proximity of Leinster House, the building was selected to accommodate temporarily certain ministries in 1921 after independence. Finally, as well Government Buildings as Leinster House (it also envisaged to accommodate the Parliament temporarily) became the permanent residences respectively Government and Parliament.
Until 1990, the Government divided the building with the school of engineers of the University College off Dublin but the construction of new buildings on the Campus of UCD with Belfield made it possible the government to take possession of the entirety of the buildings, and to refit them with its use.
- Johann Sigismund Kusser died in Dublin in November 1727
- Jonathan Swift
- Oscar Wilde
- James Joyce (1882-1941)
- Roddy Doyle (born in 1958)
- George Bernard Shaw
- William Butler Yeats
- Samuel Beckett
- Paul Hewson alias Bono
- Roparz Hemon died there in 1978
- Colin Farrell
- The Corrs, Andrea Corr
- Sinéad O' Connor was born there in 1966
- Dublin - Irish Architecture
- Article '' has Ten Year Strategy For Dublin City ''
- Dublin City Council
- Explications of the English and Irish names of the city
- tourist Guide of Dublin
- public Grid system dublinois
- Photos of Dublin and of Ireland
- the Small Newspaper of Dublin - French-speaking Newspaper in Dublin
- French Friday - monthly Meeting of the French of Dublin
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