The Forez is old a province of France, which corresponds roughly to the central part of the department of the the Loire and part of the department of the Haute-Loire. Drill is the Théâtre of a major book of the French Littérature , Astrée of Honore d' Urfé, so that this area is sometimes called the country of Astrée .
The inhabitants of Drill are called Foréziens and the dialect of the language francoprovençale that one can there attach is the Forézien
PronunciationFinal Z of the name Forez is dumb (however the " z" tendency would have to be marked on the western slope of the Mounts of Drill). In International Phonetic Alphabet (API), the name of the province is read /f ɔ.ʁɛ/and is thus strictly homophonous words Forêt and Foret.
Moreover, generally, in the regional pronunciation, finales S, ST, Z, Pt, X of the proper names do not decide. For example, Saint-Just-in-Rest decides " sinjuanchvalé" , Villerest " vilrè" , Marclopt " marclô" , Nandax " nanda" , etc Saint-Genest-The Herpt, beside Saint-Etienne, seems to cumulate while deciding simply like " monkey-born-the air".
Physical and human geographyBy extension, the province, which held its name of that of the town of Feurs, the antique Forum Segusiavorum (the Ségusiaves were the Gallic tribe which occupied the area), in the plain, then gave its name to the mountainous chain on which it is pressed on the west: the mounts of Drill , whose culminating point is Pierre-on-High (1 634 m). The watershed of the mounts of Drill constitutes a natural border between two distinct zones although very related:
- the Eastern slope and the flat of Drill , constituting starting from Xe century a county of Drill (corresponding roughly speaking to current the Arrondissement of Montbrison). The dialects francoprovençaux were still current at the 20th century;
- the Western slope of the chain (left current the Department of the Puy-de-Dôme, between the bed of the Gilds and the line of the peaks), turned very early towards the large seigniories auvergnates; the dialects Occitan S (Auvergnat) were maintained there until the XXe century). This Western slope forever belonged to the province of Drill.
Remarquons however that in north, the limits of old Forez are rather remote, since they include the small medieval city Montaigüet-in-Drill which, located in the department Allier, is largely in the North-West of Roanne. On the other hand, if Roanne is historically Drill some, although separate plain of Drill by the Threshold of Neulise, the city which faces him on other bank of the the Loire, the Slope, were attached to the old province of the Beaujolais.
The name of Forez also takes part in the denomination of the Regional natural park Livradois-Drill, created in 1986, which does not have any relationship with the old county of Drill, being located on the Western slope of the mounts of Drill, for the greatest part in the Puy-de-Dôme (primarily districts of Ambert and Thiers), but also in the north of the Haute-Loire.
The Canal of Drill is an irrigation canal derived from the Loire to the height of Grangent. It sprinkles the western part of the plain, passing not far from Montbrison.
SituationIt belonged to the large-government of the Lyonnais ( Liyonês ), in the west of the clean Lyonese, the south of the Charolais ( Charolês ) and of the Beaujolais ( Biôjolês ), in the north of the Velay and the Vivarais, in the east of the Auvergne; chief town, Feurs. The other places were Montbrison ( Montbréson , which became the capital in about it 1441), Saint-Etienne, Néronde, Chazelles, Roanne, Saint-Rambert. This country was inhabited in the past by the Segusiavi, which had as a capital Forum Segusiavorum (Feurs).
The county of DrillThe explanation of the name Drill by homophony with “forest”, does not resist an attentive examination. The pagus forensis of the Carolingiens indeed received its name of the town of Feurs (the antique Forum Segusiavorum already mentioned by Ptolémée).
It also should be noticed that the county of Drill was created as of the 10th century, while the term “forest” (ancestor of our forest ) is attested in this form only as from the 12th century…
It as should be remembered as at the time of the creation of the county, the mountainous landscapes in the west of the pagus forensis were very different from what they are nowadays. The proportion of wooded surfaces was quite less than nowadays, the colonization of the grounds being accompanied very early by operations of grubbing of great width, in order to create immense grazing areas, which however ended up regressing at the 19th century, starting from the industrial revolution.
In 1173 the " was concluded; permutatio " , i.e. the treaty which put an end to the wars and which was ratified by the king of France and the Pope. The count of Forez renonçait with his claims on all left bank of the Saone.
The capital of the county was transferred relatively early from Feurs to Montbrison, but the antique quoted continued to play a certain part in the life of the stronghold comtal.
As much of other strongholds, Drill it was often the object of the arguments, of alliances, before returning definitively in the bosom of the crown of France at the 16th century.
The first counts of Drill also had the Lyonese and the Beaujolais wine. Three dynasties of counts followed one another in Drill; the last was that of Bourbon, to which Drill échut by the marriage of Louis II of Bourbon, duke of Bourbon, with Anne of Drill, dauphine Auvergne, only heiress of this county. After the defection of the constable Charles III of Bourbon (1523), Drill it was confiscated and soon after (1531) it was joined together with the crown of France.
See also: List of the counts de Lyon and of Drill
Revolution at our days
At the time of the French revolution, Drill it (to include/understand: the Eastern slope) was temporarily integrated in a transitory department of the Rhone-and-Loire which was not long in bursting into two: in the west, the department of the Loire (Drill, left the Beaujolais wine and the Mounts of the Lyonese); in the east the department of the the Rhone. Prefecture of the Loire east then Montbrison.
Drill, cradle of the French railroad
Drill It was the first French area equipped with railways. The first went down, since 1827, of Saint-Etienne until Andrézieux, on the Loire, where coal inhabitant of Saint-Etienne brought by rail was then transhipped in rudimentary boats designed for only one voyage, " Rambertes " or " Salambardes ".
- In 1830, the Frères Seguin opened one second line of Saint-Etienne to Lyon by the valley of the Gier.
- And in 1833, the first Saint-Etienne-Andrézieux line was prolonged to Roanne, crossing all the plain of Drill south in north and crossing the threshold of Neulise. The layout of this old line is still quite visible between Balbigny and Roanne, this part of the layout having been given up and moved at the time of the opening of the line of Nevers to Lyon by Saint-Germain-of-Ditches and Roanne in 1858.
Famous characters foréziens
- the Father Lachaise (1624-1709), great nephew of the precedent, confessor of Louis XIV. It is him gave to Paris a ground belonging to him, and on which will be built at the beginning of the XIXe century the famous Parisian cemetery which bears its name. The Lachaise Father was born with the Château from Aix, not far from Saint-Just-in-Rest.
- the Abbot Terray (1715-1778), controller of Finances of Louis XV. Born with Boën-on-Lignon. He will be made build the castle of the Mound-Tilly, close to Nogent-sur-Seine, in the Paddle.
- Honore d' Urfé (1568-1625), author of the Astrée, first large love story to international success (published as from 1607)
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