The inhabitants of Douai are the Douaisiens . The area is called the Douaisis
Douai is located on the Scarpe, an affluent left bank of the the Scheldt, to 40 km in the south of Lille, between Arras, Valencian Cambrai and . Douai is the southernmost city of Flanders, with the limit with the Artois.
Transport; The plan of urban displacements:
August 1st ; Rail-bound transports:
; the project of " tramway" Douai-Guesnain:
The Mixed trade-union of Transport of Douaisis (SMTD) carries out a project of bus with magnetic guidance on the ground, between Douai (Quoted Technical) and Guesnain which will be inaugurated on June 30th, 2008 and brought into service on July 2nd, 2008.
He will circulate on a way reserved out of concrete in which were established, every 4 meters, of the magnetic studs protected by resin which emit signals " lus" by the vehicle by means of an embarked computing system.
The line has, long, 12 kilometers will serve 21 distant stations of approximately 400 meters from/to each other. With a 10 minutes frequency in rush hour, it will be able to transport 900 travellers per hour.
10 oars of 18 meters and 2 oars of 24 meters were ordered. They will be accessible to the people with reduced mobility, thanks to the low integral floor and at the stations adjusted with their height, but also with the people of which the sight is defective.
These oars will be propelled by a gas engine or a hybrid system. The system will function without overhead lines.
The amount of the investment rises to 110 million euro net of tax. It is also envisaged the construction of the line B for 2011 and the lines C and D about 2020.
The extension of the line has (phase 2) is envisaged, and the communes of Masny, Ecaillon and Auberchicourt should know periods of building sites similar to those of the cities served soon by Evéole. Lastly, phase 3 will extend the line has with its maximum: until Aniche (College Edmond Laudeau) on the one hand, on the other hand to the city of the Yellow Blocks with Douai. The line has will be more the broad outline of public transport of Tub of Douaisis, being spread out over nearly 20 kilometers.
Its name: Evéole .
As its old Latin name indicates it, Duacum , and like confirmed it archaeological excavations in the historical center of the city (place Saint-Heart, place of the Fish market), Douai originates in the meeting of two villages located on both sides of the Scarpe, in a Gallo-Roman Forteresse about the 4th century.
With the wire of the following centuries, the city was disputed between the King de France and the Count de Flandre until in 1369 where it became definitively Flemish and followed the destinies of the Comté of Flanders under the dukes of Burgundy.
In 1562, the king of Spain Philippe II founds in Douai a university in order to fight the Réforme, and Douai became a fortress of the catholic faith. The bible of Douai was written there in English within the framework of the Counter-Reformation. It is on a specimen of this bible known as of Douai that John F. Kennedy lent oath during its presidential nomination.
Douai was then a very rich and famous city for its wool industry. In 1667, the king of France Louis XIV invades the Flanders. Douai was besieged and taken in three days, of the 23 to the July 26th 1667 by Vauban, which besieges simultaneously Lille. The treated of Aachen (1668) annexed the Flanders with the France, and, put aside during the two world wars, Douai remained French since. In 1716, the Parlement of Flanders, whose capacities were primarily legal, was installed in Douai.
In 1718, a payment of town planning approved by the fixed Parliament of Flanders of the rules of constructions of the Douai-native residences, whereas the city is in rebuilding after having undergone two seats. The height of the houses is limited, the aspect of their homogeneous frontage, the city thus comprises an important real whole in French taste.
In 1802, the Consulat decides the creation of the college of Douai, currently college Albert-Châtelet, one of the seven colleges of first generation with the colleges of Bordeaux, Marseilles, Lyon, Moulins, Brussels and Mainz.
The Industrial revolution started with the construction of the line of Railroad Paris-Lille (1846), on which Douai was an important station. In 1895, the channel of the Scarpe is opened, and Douai becomes the second French river node after Conflans-Holy-Honorine. Douai suffers important damage during the two world wars. The station and its district were entirely destroyed in May 1940.
After the Second world war, the coal mines were nationalized, and Douai became the seat of the Collieries of the basin of Nord-Pas-de-Calais, and until the end of the carboniferous activity in the years 1980 remained it. Douai benefitted from the development of industry related to the coal, but undergoes its after-effects, and in particular the mining Affaissements which require continual pumpings so that the city is not drowned.
Graph of the evolution of the population 1794-1999
Monuments and curiosities
Douai is classified town of art and history.
Douai preserves vestiges of its military past, by its fortifications (carries Valencians, carries of Arras, turn of the Ladies), but also its arsenal, its foundry of guns, its barracks.
The Belfry of Douai, building of 54 m, started with the 14th century, mask in its bell-tower impressive a Chime of 62 bells. In 2005, with 22 other belfries of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais, it integrated the World heritage of UNESCO within the group of the Beffrois of Belgium and France. It should be noted that at the same time were classified with the World heritage of UNESCO the giants of Douai, the Gayant family.
; The belfry:
The construction of the Beffroi of Douai was undertaken in 1380, on the site of the preceding one tower out of wooden, in order to be used as turn of guet. A Gothic building also of style was set up on the west coast of the tower as well as a vault on the southern blank. The unit was finished in 1475 and a chime was installed as of 1391 in the belfry and rate/rhythm since the life of the Residents of Douai.
At the 19th century, important work of restoration was undertaken and a new building, identical to that of the 15th century was added to him to the east in order to give to the town hall its current symmetrical aspect. This new building comprises in particular a village hall of style second empire. On this occasion, the structure of the belfry, initially built out of sandstone of Flandres was reinforced interior by a strong thickness of bricks and the buildings of the 15th century were restored according to the fashion of the 19th century. The bells were molten by the German occupant in 1917, they were replaced in 1924 by the Wauthy company of Douai but, in 1953, the city, in order to give him a better sound, replaced them by bells of the Paccard foundry to Annecy-the-Old man and installed in 1954, 47 bells which supplement two larger going back to 1471 (Moer foundry), damaged in 1917 but restored by the Wauthy house in 1924: “Merry”, of 5500 kg and “disnée”, C of 2400 kg. Heaviest of the bells of 1954, “the Victoire News”, D, weighs only 1600 kg. The chime was finally supplemented in 1974, at the time of the world congress of the bell ringers and now comprises 62 bells extending on 5 octaves. It is equipped with a mechanism which enables him to sound each fifteen minutes a melody but has also a keyboard which allows concerts each Saturday of 10:45 11:45 like each bank holiday with 11:30 and the Monday evening with 21:00 in July and August.
Victor Hugo of passage to Douai in 1837: There “II has there the prettiest belfry which I still saw. Appear yourself a capped Gothic tower of a slate roof, which is composed of a multitude of small superimposed conical windows; on each window a wind vane, with the four corners, a turret; on the point of the belfry, a lion which turns with a flag between the legs; and all this unit if amusing, if insane, so alive, it leaves a chime. In each small attic window, one sees démener a small bell which makes rage like a language in a mouth. I drew this tower, and when I look at my drawing, it still seems to me to hear this merry chime which escaped from it like the natural vapor from this cluster from pinnacles. ” The drawing of Victor Hugo is preserved today in his museum of the Place of the Vosges at Paris.
; Carry Valencians:
This formerly called door carries Notre-Dame was built in 1453 sandstone. Like the Law courts, the door of Valencians falls under the Gothic style for one of its faces and in the traditional style (16th century) for the other very at the time running.
; The theater:
As of July 1783, the aldermen entrust the construction and the management of a theater to Mr. Denis (contractor of the fortifications). The first representation took place the December 4th 1783. The city acquires in 1810 and requires of it of the large decorator Ciceri, to carry out a bottom of decorations (palate, living room of Molière, rustic room and wood) to which it adds a rich living room, a hamlet, a public place, a garden and a sight of countryside. The Théâtre adopts as of their invention, the technical innovations: lighting with gas, electricity, the electronics… Of the famous characters attended the theater: Paganini, Liszt, Miss Talma, Miss Mars (great ladies with the Comédie-Française) and the lieutenant Bonaparte. During the war of 1914, the German reserve the Théâtre to organize many demonstrations there. The theater became now a place impossible to circumvent of the Douai-native cultural life in there accessible of the prestigious spectacles and presenting creations of associations of the city (workshops theater, classes of theater of the colleges, workshops theater and dance of the colleges and the schools) at the time of " Theater in Fête" traditionally the week preceding the holidays by spring.
; Carry from Arras:
; Collegial Saint-Pierre:
Old church set up into collegial undoubtedly in 1012 by the Count de Flandre, it had under its jurisdiction the whole of the parishes of Right Bank of the Scarpe. The bell-tower was rebuilt of 1513 with 1687 in Gothic style, then traditional; its crowning was remade in 1904 - 1905. The vast current building goes back to 1735 - 1750. The collegial one would be in the beginning an order of the members of the Parliament towards 1740. The church in Latin Croix with three naves with a transept is rounded at the ends. The axial vault is capped with a dome which dates from the 18th century. This building is completely remarkable for the harmony which it inspires and falls under the traditional style, it contains many tables of the French school of the 18th century, a retable of the beginning of the 17th century and marble sculptures of and 18th centuries. The whole of furniture (pulpit, furnace bridges, grid…) date from the 18th century. To announce, under the furnace bridge of the cupola, a silver hunting gilded of the 13th century.
; Collegial Saint-Heart
See also: Collegial Saint-Heart
; Brood of Franciscains:
During the digging of a trench (withdrawal of 60cm) on Thursday, March 1, 2007, a skeleton was put at the Place day of the de Gaulle General. This discovery corroborates plans preserved at the files and the found foundations of the convent of the Franciscains Ordre of the minor brothers destroys with the Révolution. Hundreds of other skeletons rest under the convent. Not to block work of the Tramway the unit is protected by a particular textile coating in order to leave these vestiges to the future generations of archeologists.
; Saint-Jacob church:
Built in Gothic architecture between 1240 and 1250, its name refers to a middle-class man of the city Jacques Painmouillé. It was sold with the shaven Révolution then in 1800. In 1845 - 1847, the stones of the foundations were taken during the creation of the national building sites. Burials are located in the vicinity in a cemetery used of the 13th century to the Révolution of approximately 1000 tombs. Excavations are undertaken Place Carnot in 2007, during work of the tram. The church and the parochial cemetery were found
; Law courts:
Built with the site of the refuge of the Abbey of Marchiennes (also called Grand Constantin) it occupies still certain buildings, the law courts shelter the Court of Appeal of Douai, the Court of Assizes of North as well as the Court of Bankruptcy. Refuge of the Abbey of Marchiennes and, thereafter, seat of the Parliament of Flandres (1714), the monument has sudden many rehandlings of 1715 with 1790. The frontage giving on the Scarpe is a heritage of the Gothic art where one can still admire the warheads. The interior court dates from the 18th century (neo-classicism). The principal testimony of the birth of the legal city is Grand' Chambre arranged starting from 1762.
; Hotel of the Dolphin:
Located on the Place of Weapons, it is now the seat of the tourist office of Douai
; Museum of Chartreuse:
Built by Jacques d' Abancourt in Renaissance style, stone and brick, on the site of the house of the " Colombier" , the hotel of Abancourt (1559) with its round tower was increased in 1608 by Jean de Montmorency which built at right angles a building in the same style with a square tower. Acquired in 1623 by Prefabricated Furnes, it was supplemented at the time of the installation of the Carthusian monks in the middle of the 17th century by the construction of the chapter house and the small cloister (1663), of the refectory (1687), of the building known as of the prior (1690), finally, after the large cloister and the cells which were demolished at the 19th century, of the not yet restored vault in style Jesuit. Become military building with the Revolution, damaged by the bombardments of 1944, Chartreuse was repurchased in 1951 by the city to install there starting from 1958 the museum of the Art schools whose old buildings had been destroyed by the war at the same time as the college of boys to which they were close. This museum gathers several buildings dating from and 18th centuries. On the left is the hotel of Abancourt-Montmorency built between 1559 and 1608 and of style Flemish Renaissance. Built in the traditional style at the beginning of the 18th century, the church of the Carthusian monks is composed of a vast nave and 5 side chapels. After a restoration campaign which will have lasted six years, the church of the Carthusian monks opens its doors to you to discover there its collections of sculptures and objects of Article the nave shelters the collection of sculptures of the 19th century. The five side chapels are devoted to the presentation of the objets d'art of which medieval goldsmithery, a series of bronzes and terra cotta of Jean of Bologna, originating in Douai. The museum of Charteuse organizes temporary exhibitions, such that of " Douai, from one century to another " in 1999 which presented the plan of town-planning of Douai drawn up in 1948 by the architects Alexandre Miniac (1885 - 1963) and Small, on the initiative of the Secretariat of State to the Rebuilding.
; Hotel of Tramerie:
; Foundry of guns:
In 1667, Douai becomes French city. Louis XIV decides to make an important military center of it. It installs there barracks, an arsenal, the École of Artillery and a foundry of guns. The latter is built on the site of the old castle of the Counts de Flandre. Louis XIV entrusts the exploitation of it to the brothers Keller, founders Suisse S very famous. In 1696, it passes to the Bérenger family and will be managed by it until in 1819. Starting from this date and until its closing in 1867, it will be directed by artillery officers. Buildings of the foundry of Louis XIV, it remains today only the circular wall and the gate of entry. Many bronze guns left the foundry of Douai. Some are visible in France (Hôtel of the Invalids), in England (Tour of London), in Austria, Spain, Portugal, and even with the the United States (museum of the school of West Point). Each gun is a single part having an indentity card with the inscription of its gauge, its weight, its name, that of the founder, the weapons of France. " Furibonde" , (deposit of the museum of the Army - Paris) is placed in the gardens of the foundry in order to point out this important production. This gun was molten in Douai in 1744 per Jean-François Bérenger, director of the foundry. It weighs 2050 kg and carries the weapons of Louis-Charles of Bourbon and a sun, emblem of the king.
; Notre-Dame church:
The Notre-Dame church whose existence is attested as of 1175 was made up in parish in 1257. Leant with the rampart, it was mingled with all the Douai-native history: brotherhood of the Parisian Clerks, creation of the University, procession of Gayant, bombardments of 1944. The nave out of sandstone and bricks of the end of the 12th century is covered with a vault out of wooden of the 15th century. The chorus is 16th century (modern stained glasses of J. Schreiter). The transept dates from the 15th century (modern stained glasses of Hermet and Gaudin). The bell-tower was remade in 1971 at the time of the restoration of the church very damaged in 1944. The Orgue S are of traditional invoice modern (Mühleisen house). One can see also there a tomb stone of the 13th century and some fragments of frescos.
; Festivals of Gayant:
The festivals of Gayant proceed traditionally in Douai the first weekend following the July 5th, of the Saturday to the Monday. The festivals of Gayant correspond to the annual exit of the giant of the city: Mister Gayant, Madam Gayant (also known under the name of Marie Cagenon) like their three Jacquot children, Fillon and Binbin. Mister Gayant measurement 8,50 m and weighs 370 kg, it is carried by 6 men. Marie Cagenon measures 6,25 m and weighs 250 kg, it, it, is also carried by 6 men. Jacquot measures in the 3 meters and is carried by a man, Fillon 2,80 m and Binbin 2,20 Mr. the procession of the family Gayant is accompanied by a popular holiday where groups of music, brass bands and artists of street occur regularly. In many companies of Douaisis the Monday, known as “Monday of Gayant”, is been unemployed.
Gayant is one of most former giants the since its existence goes up with 1530. The children appear at the beginning of the 18th century. But, prohibited by the Church in 1770, the family will reappear only in 1801.
a Little history on these Giants.
It is at the time of a procession in the honor of Maurand saint, owner of Douai, that Gayant (" giant " in Picardy patois) lives the day in 1530, its body had been manufactured in wicker by the corporation of the manneliers (manufacturers of wicker baskets). The following year, the corporation of the fruit-lofts made build a giantess, Madam Gayant.
In 1720 were born their children, Jacquot, Fillon and Binbin (a girl and two boys).
In 1770, the bishop of Arras prohibits this procession, because it commemorated the victory of the Town of Douai over the French, the June 16th 1479. It instituted of it a news which would celebrate the birthday of the entry of the French in Douai in 1667. However, the family Gayant regarded as layman was not to appear to with it any more. Gayant and its family reappeared only in 1801. In 1821, they accepted the costumes that we know to them. They will suffer during the two world wars but will ressusciteront again.
Academy of music with regional radiation of Douai
See also: Conservatory with regional radiation of Douai
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