Donald Duck is a Personnage of fiction developed by the organizer Dick Lundy in 1934 on behalf of the studios Disney. Its first appearance with the cinema takes place the June 9th 1934 in the shape of a duck in costume of sailor, in the film a small advised hen ( The Wise Little Hen ).
This Canard grumpy and coleric is used with the beginning of its cinematographic career as counterpoint with nice the Mickey Mouse. He quickly becomes hero of his own series of cartoons, before knowing an exponential extension of his universe thanks to the Cartoon under the feather of large American and Italian scenario writer-draftsmen, such as Carl Barks or Don Rosa. The importance of the character himself is erased a little in front of many the other characters created in the Univers of ducks of Disney, which they are close like his/her uncle Balthazar Picsou or more distant like Myster Mask.
Donald almost completely disappeared from the cinematographic world. In the world of the edition, there remains very popular in the Scandinavian countries and of Northern Europe, where it is it even more than Mickey Mouse, like in Italy. In Sweden, it is most popular of the Disney characters and has his own magazine which was published in 2001 with more than 400.000 specimens. A contrario, it is Picsou and not Donald, who has publications with his name in the United States ( Uncle Scrooge ) and in France ( Picsou Magazine ). The stories of Donald are nevertheless published in these magazines or those of Mickey. In spite of this relative absence of the front of the scene, Donald remains very present in the derivative products of the Disney universe.
The organizers and draftsmen of the Disney studios created several characters around their Souris - high-speed motorboat Mickey Mouse. The majority of the friends of Mickey result initially from the animals of the farm. One thus finds a cow, Clarabelle Cow and a horse, Horace Horsecollar. The duck had not been created yet.
In 1931, a duck named “Donald Duck” is quoted among the friends of the mouse in Mickey' S “Hoozoo” Witswitch, And Wotswot , a poem contained in a book of the series The Adventures off Mickey Mouse published by David McKay of New York. This history was republished in 1932 with London and was illustrated by Wilfred Haughton, in the shape of the first versions of the Mickey Mouse Annual . It really does not resemble so that it will be a few years later.
1934 Creation and first appearances
Birth of a voice
The creation of Donald Duck must much with the evolution of the career of Clarence Nash, then " salesman of lait" (presenter of publicity) for the Adohr Milk Company . It had carried out the sound effects of horses drawing the coach from milk in a publicity. In 1933, it decides to deposit this advertizing film with the Studios from Disney like CV. He auditions then for sounds of animals. At the time of a sound recording for a kid in Marie has a small lamb , Walt Disney would have found the voice for its " duck parlant". What made it call Ducky Nash but it also took part in the definition of sound character.
A duck of cartoon
The first official appearance of Donald Duck takes place in cartoon film a small advised hen the June 9th 1934, in which it holds the role of a lazy duck that a mother hen will put on the way of work. This film is a Silly Symphony and not a Mickey Mouse. Far from having the first role, it was rather the unfortunate comparse of the saga of origin. As of this adventure, it is equipped in costume with sailor: for Disney, the duck recalls water, therefore the navy. This history is published in the form of strips Sunday with the the United States from September in December 1934, then in France in the Journal of Mickey from April in August 1935 and in the form of book in the United States in 1935.
Graphically speaking, Donald Duck was born under the pencils from Art Babbitt, Dick Huemer and Dick Lundy, the organizers of a small advised hen but it is the latter which takes it again and in the Official reception of the Orphans develops it (August 11th, 1934), the two other organizers having been placed on other productions.
The trio Mickey-Donald-Nutcase
Dimensioned cinema, Donald appears then in several cartoons, like supporting role grouser at the side of Mickey. Donald starts to appear in other films of the series of Mickey Mouse presenting Mickey unit, Dingo, Minnie and Pluto. In Mickey' S Service Station (March 16th, 1935), Donald starts a trio with Dingo and Mickey. This trio will be present in the majority of the short films carried out by Ben Sharpsteen between 1935 and 1938.
This trio is present in many court-measurings and allow the scenario writers and organizers to present many comic scenes. These short films are often indicated like the traditional ones of animation, as recalled by Leonard Maltin. However while looking at there more closely, the majority of the gags are centered only on one of the characters. The cartoon is summarized then with the succession of gags, often specific to each character because of their physical characters and their characteristics (Nutcase is naive and simple of spirit but it is what returns it attaching and amusing, Donald is coleric and timorous but it is good, Mickey is small but courageous) in a given environment.
- In 2004, the trio appeared in their first feature-length film, Mickey, Donald, Dingo the 3 Musketeers .
After 1938, the three characters appear rather in solo and are the stars of their own series and this mainly because of the lack of possibilities to conceive stories with Mickey Mouse, its character having become too strict to make him make silly things. Like signs this irrefutable fact, in June 1938, the short film Arctic Trappeurs introduces only Donald and Dingo, in duet.
Arrival of the “spiritual father”: Carl Barks
In 1935, a new draftsman is engaged by the studios Disney, it names Carl Barks. He works on short films and as all his/her colleagues takes part in creations of gags for films in preparation. He imagines six months later the famous gag of Donald and the armchair of barber. Walt Disney encourages Barks to integrate the group of scenario writers and to work on Donald Duck. The first animation of Barks scenario writer is modern Inventions (1937 with Jack King) and which integrates the gag of the armchair.
- the gag of the armchair of barber introduces Donald discovering an armchair of robotized barber. He puts a part attached at the end of a wire in the machine which begins its cut then. While rising the machine Donald mets the upside down. The upper part of the robot then starts to cap the back train of duck, while the lower wax her nozzle. Donald finds himself then with the black face and polished and a line on the buttocks.
Until 1941, Carl Barks works on the cartoons with Jack King and Jack Hannah. But, with the Second world war, Donald belongs to the heroes of fiction mobilized for the Propagande of war, whereas Barks prefers humor and the gags. End 1942, Barks resigns of Disney but will continue its career with duck.
Engaged by Western Publishing of 1942 with 1967, it will draw adventures of Donald as cartoons, developing any sound universe, becoming the most important draftsman on Donald and creating many characters in addition to those invented after 1942. Many the most famous characters are of Barks like Picsou, Gontran Bonheur, Rapetou, Géo Trouvetou, Miss Tick, Archibald Gripsou, Crésus Flairsou,… and gives to the characters a city: Donaldville ( Duckburg , the city of ducks in the original version). Barks thus became the most influential human being of the universe of ducks of Disney. The vision of this universe, which it develops in its stories, serves as often of reference mark with all the other creators of series introducing Donald, contemporaries of Barks or not.
For its influence to see the dedicated section .
1936 Beginning of gloryThe year 1936 mark the beginning of the career solo of Donald Duck.
Dimensioned cartoon, Donald dominates the production of the strips of the Silly Symphonies between the August 30th 1936 and the December 12th 1937. During this period, the stories are written by Ted Osborne and drawn by Al Taliaferro, but of the studies of their work show that Taliaferro also took part in the scenarios. The importance is such as it is then planned to make of Donald a character independent of the Silly Symphonies .
This dissociation intervenes however initially in animation. The September 12th 1936, in the short film Donald and Pluto of the series Mickey Mouse, Donald obtains a first role with dimensions dog of Mickey, the mouse it not appearing. This film marks the beginning of the career solo of Donald, who will be born a few months later with at the beginning of 1937.
1937-1940 the series Donald Duck and a family
The year 1937 is a great turning in the history of Donald, like will be also the year 1947, of many innovations intervene around duck coleric. First of all Donald obtains his own series of cartoons, followed shortly after by his own cartoons. This period sees also its life changed with the appearance of a family and new character traits. See for this last point the section devoted to the analysis of the character of the character.
The animated series Donald Duck
- In this film, the spectator discovers the prone character of all the loves of Donald. The duck is not called yet Daisy, but Donna. This period is very charged for l'" Donald" actor; who, in addition to his own series, is present in several films of the series of Mickey Mouse within the trio Mickey-Donald-Nutcase, starts the series Dingo and Donald , and sees himself allotting one been engaged characterial and an big family.
The duet Barks-Hannah will carry out the scénarii of 27 cartoons between 1937 and 1947, the golden age of Donald, and the majority under the direction of Jack King.
The May 15th 1937, Donald intervenes for the first time in a history especially cut for a newspaper with series. The history was published by the English company Fleetway and was entitled “Donald and Donna”.
In their stories, the duet Osborne-Taliaferro transforms Donald of countryman into townsman. They inserted even the first family members of ducks: its nephews Riri, Fifi and Loulou, which began the October 17th 1937. They are the triplets, wire of Beyond, the sister of Donald. They are sent to Donald so that it deals with them during the hospital stay of the father of the triplets, who owes him recovers their last escapades. Donald becomes a kind of adoptive father then.
At the end of 1937, Disney granted the rights of series production the Italian house Mondadori. The series of Federico Pedrocchi being entitled Paolino Paperino E it Mistero di Marte is then published between the December 30th 1937 and the April 28th 1938. In this history, Donald and his accomplice of a small advised hen Peter Pig goes on Mars. The history is published in a weekly way over 18 months. This constitutes the first series of long life with Donald and, unlike the comic-strip of Taliaferro, the first series of adventures with Donald. When It Misterio di Marte stopped, a new series is launched Paolino Paperino inviato special which lasts 30 weeks then. This history of espionage, new in France for summer has republished in Swedish in 1988 in My life like duck ( Mitt liv som anka ), under the title Donald in the fire ( Kalle Anka I elden ).
The beginnings of Donald with the United States in the journalistic series them still waited a few years.
Ducks, an big family
Following the example Mickey with Minnie, Donald is equipped with a " fiancée". But contrary to Mickey which always knew Minnie, the promised in marriage first of Donald will not be the good one. A named duck Donna Duck appears in January 1937 in Don Donald . This fact partly pain-killer marks the beginning of an important sometimes inextricable family history. Been engaged of Donald, Donna Duck will be " definitively (Re) baptisée" Daisy Duck in 1940 in Undertaking It Mr. Duck ( Mr. Duck Steps Out ). But it is not the end of Gave. Carl Barks in 1953 transforms it into sister of Daisy and gives him three girls, Lili, Lulu and Zizi.
As a cartoon, Donald sees himself entrusting three nephews end 1937, Riri, Fifi and Loulou, wire of his sister Della Duck, married according to Don Rosa with the brother of Daisy. As of the April 15th 1938, these " chenapans" in the short film the Nephews of Donald appear.
In 1939, Donald is gratifié of a cousin a Jars named Gus Glouton in the short film with the very explicit name the Cousin of Donald . In 1940, Al Taliaferro represents in a weekly strip on a photograph, the grandmother of Donald, simply called Grand-Mère Donald, officially named Elvire Duck born Écoutum . She will become a character with whole share in 1943. She will be joined in her farm by Gus Glouton, her great nephew.
1941-1944 Donald, hero of war
During the Second world war, the public sought more voluntary characters, stronger, sometimes brutal. While characters as Minnie take part in the effort of war since the " pays" , Walt Disney does not accept to transform Mickey into a character of propaganda, and to send it to the face. But it will not be the case of Donald, quite to the contrary. It is not by chance if the popularity of characters like Bugs Bunny or Donald went up out of arrow. Before 1941, Donald appears in approximately 50 films but after this date and until 1965, it is more than one hundred of films which include/understand the character. While the production of Mickey Mouse is stopped of 1942 to 1947, that of the series Donald Duck is done at intervals from 7 to 10 films per annum until 1955. In 1949, the popularity of Donald had even exceeded that of Mickey.
Certain cartoons of Donald are used with the Propagande as war: Donald becomes thus soldier and saw enrôlement, the engagements in the jungle. Its first confrontation with the war is made in voluntary Donald ( The Volunteer Worker , September 1940). Donald is one of voluntary giving to a caritative work for the support for the soldiers.
May 1st 1942 in Donald Gets Drafted , Donald receives his opinion of incorporation and is seen committed under the flags, attached to the Sergent Pat Hibulaire. At the end of 1942, Carl Barks decides to resign of the Disney studios to work directly with the editor of the stories of Donald, Western Publishing.
In Der Fuehrer' S Face (1943) directed by Jack Kinney, he dreams that he is a worker in a factory of ammunition to the country of the “Nutzi” (the Nazi Germany).
- For Donald the workman, it is too much. He is struck of a nervous breakdown and begins hallucinations on missiles which make completely insane things. Then it awakes and realizes that it was a dream. It is vêtu of pyjamas decorated with reasons similar to those of the US flag.
The made up music of film Oliver Wallace became rather popular and had even been diffused with the radio before the exit of film. This film ends in the appearance in shade of the Statue of freedom.
The years 1960
During the Years 1960, the number of creators of series increases. It is especially within the Danish Italian series and publisher Egmont that Donald evolves/moves.
The publisher Egmont (of which the seat is with Copenhagen) starts to exploit the license of the Disney series as of 1948 but it is as from the years 1960, following the purchase of the Aschehoug editor, specialized in the books which the publications are made more. During the years 1970, the series of Egmont represent crushing it majority of the productions of the universe of ducks of Disney. The Donald introduced in these series can be characterized as follows:
- Donald lives with his nephews with 111, rue des apples of the paradise with Donaldville. It has its car of Scrutto mark, model 1934, registration 313. He works irregularly in a margarine factory with Donaldville. Picsou often obliges Donald to work for him, or to follow it for the treasure hunts. When he works for his uncle, it is for a starvation wage of 30 centimes of the hour. It carries out for him tasks without interest such as for example cleaning the billion parts contained in its safe. Unfortunately for him, the money that he sees never does not leave from where he is. At the time of the treasure hunts, the blunders of Donald are even on the contrary a reason for Picsou to lengthen the debts of Donald.
Of another dimensioned, Italy is not in remainder. With the assistance of the scenario writer Guido Martina and the draftsman Giovan Battista Carpi, the personality of Donald is modified especially when in 1969 they create Fantomiald (Paperinik), the alter-ego of Donald, a masked superman. This gave to Donald a new dimension, now it can:
- to try to do something against the behavior of Picsou which uses with its advantage the financial problems of its nephews
- using the aspect superman to revive the love of Daisy.
- to counter Gontran and all the other characters who saw it like a notorious loser. But all this remains complicated, because its identity must remain secret.
The years 1970
Years 1970 see the rise of the modern Donald, with for example the Donald with the look " techno" adopted by Giorgio Cavazzano and which was taken again by many authors. One can also note the appearance of Reginella, in love one with Donald who is one of the most famous creations of the Italian Disney production. In addition, in the Scandinavian countries, one starts to take the measurement of Barks (fanzines) and its stories are republished in great number, while Daan Jippes and Fred Milton seizes some to draw stories on this model. In Denmark, it is the Chile in Vicar which is one of the largest Masters of Donald, and of the English authors (as Paul Halas) who return to “fundamental” from Barks.
The years 1980
In the years 1980, Vicar and Argentinian the Daniel Branca, with the energetic feature, always produce on the model of Barks, the stories of Donald counted among best, which stress the life of the every day of duck, while the Italian authors are centered on the great adventures and approach topics of Science-fiction and resumptions of the great classics (with Massimo De Vita, wire of Pier Lorenzo).
Years 1980 mark they an renewed interest for the universe of ducks of Disney, as well as the appearance of a news " école" for ducks, the French school, in addition to American, Italian and the Scandinavian.
The interest for Donald partly is revived thanks to the birthday of its 50 years into 1984 which coincides with the arrival of a new direction to the head of the Disney company, carried out by Michael Eisner. A video game is thus produced by Walt Disney Educational Productions, Donald Duck' S Playground . Then of many titles will be published mainly with the beginning of the year 1990 then as from 2000.
The year 1985 is marked by the death of Clarence Nash.
In 1987, appears the series the Band with Picsou where Donald very seldom appears. He is an uncle absent because of his work of sailor in the army. The remainder of the stories concentrates especially on the characters of Picsou, Riri, Fifi and Loulou and of new characters. They continue the principle launched by Barks of the treasure hunts.
In the years 1990, the Dutch stories have a great success (in particular Ben Verhagen, Mau Heymans, Kirsten de Graaf). These authors take again the style of Barks of the years 1948-1952. To also mention Tito Faraci in Italy and Francesco Guerrini.
In the years 2000, Lars Jensen, Flemming Andersen and Casty are the most famous authors.
Works with Donald Duck
Catalog of films
Donald Duck appeared in the 128 short films of the series Donald Duck produced between 1934 and 1961 like good number of Mickey Mouse. Only with its own series, it exceeds 119 films of Mickey, products they enters 1928 and 1953.
See also: List of films of Donald Duck
Since 1934, Donald Duck appeared in several tens of thousands of stories or gags. The site INDUCKS counts in 2007 according to the countries and the producers:
the United States:
- Strips daily newspapers: 7493 American stories
- Comic-books: 3346 stories
- weekly Boards: 2101 stories
- Stories Studio (years 1960-1991): 1965 stories
- Gladstone/Another Rainbow: 420 stories
- Disney Studio (years 1990): 81 stories
- Italy: Mondadori/Disney Italia: 9965 stories
- Denmark: Gutenberghus/Egmont: 8458 stories
- Netherlands Oberon/GP/VNU: 4241 stories
- : Abril: 3181 stories
- France: EDI-World/Disney Hachette Presses: 2815 stories
- Germany: Ehapa: 1196 stories
- the United Kingdom: 168 stories
- minor Productions (for example Argentinian, Belgium): 843 stories
- special Stories (related to any producer in particular or on several): 188 stories
- Disney Europe (Paris): 5 stories
- Comic strips daily by Al Taliaferro
- Principal stories by Carl Barks:
- Christmas on the mount Bear , 1947.
- Bombie the zombie , 1949.
- Lost in the Andes! , Lost in the Andes , April 1949, with the famous square eggs.
- In Old California , May 1951.
- Christmas in Pauvreville , has Christmas for Shacktown , January 1952.
- Donald and the gold helmet, The Golden delicious Helmet , July 1952.
the Band with Picsou (1987-1990) (invited recurring)
- Donald Duck Present (compilation of Disney short films)
- Donald' S Quack Attack (compilation of Disney short films)
- Bonkers (1993-1995) (appearance)
- False notes in bulk (1996-1997)
- Mickey Mouse Works (1999-2000)
- Disney' S all out of box (2001-2003)
- the House of Mickey (2006)
Donald appears in the following video games:
Donald Duck' S Playground (1984)
- Donald' S Alphabet Drives out (1988)
- Quackshot , a play left on Sega Megadrive in 1991
- The Lucky Dime Caper starring Donald Duck (1991)
- World off Illusion Starring Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck (1992)
- Deep Duck Trouble Starring Donald Duck (1993)
- Disney' S Magical Quest 3 (1995 and 2005), where it must find his nephews with the assistance of Mickey Foam
- Maui Mallard in Cold Shadow (1996)
- Donald " Cou@k Att@ck?! " (2000) on PC, cd., PS2, GC, N64, PSX, GB where it must face Merlock, which removed Daisy Duck
- Donald " Adv@nce! " (2000) on GBA
- Mickey' S Speedway the USA (2000)
- Disney Golf (2002)
- Donald Duck: Who is km No? (2002)
- the saga of the Kingdom Hearts , where it divide the high-speed motorboat with Sora, Mickey Mouse and Dingo.
Like the majority of the characters high-speed motorboats of Disney, Donald saw appearing with the courses of the decades of many derivative products. However, it remains in this field a supporting character. He is often associated to the Mickey-Minnie-Nutcase group for example in the intended products with the babies (range Disney Baby), with the objects of kitchen, food (range Disney Garden).
Contrary to Mickey or Winnie the bear cub, which has each one certain transverse ranges which are dedicated to them, Donald Duck remains in margin of the derivative products, more precisely in secondary position of role.
Analyzes of the character
Appearance and characteristics
Donald is a Canard Anthropomorphique but there remains closer to duck than other characters such as the Mickey Mouse mouse or the Dingo dog.
A typical posture of Donald is that of the installation of combat, which it adopts since 1934 in the Official reception of the Orphans to try rosser the rascals who exasperate it. This posture shows the flexibility of the body of duck, such as Mickey in its first years could have it but that Donald also preserves and gives to these ascending-descendants. Donald, and the other ducks of Disney, can adopt really fantastic postures, at such point that Walt Disney declares that they have " a plasticity more! ". The face of Donald is already very expressive with its large surmounted eyes of eyebrow very mobile, often underlined by wicks on its head. But each element of its behavior and its body reacts according to the situation and increases the significance. Thus the ribbon of its beret falls to him on the nose in one moment from contrariety or the beret flies away in one moment of surprise, while its jacket is rolled up sometimes under the blow of anger, its tail becoming even a hand for various actions.
One can however note the appearance since the summer 2006, of a named product range Disney Cuties introducing Donald Duck under an aspect cute , graphic style inspired by the Manga, and more particularly the characters of Hello Kitty and Pucca.
Donald Duck is characterized by several features of character:
- coleric and grumpy enters the years 1930 and the years 1950, it assagit gradually (without losing its side grouser) with the entry of the nephews at the Castors Juniors and thanks to avarice and the side bougon of the uncle Picsou;
- it is abused by a formidable bad luck. The shameless chance of the idler and sufficient cousin Gontran Happiness all the more the mad one.
- the authors of the end of the 20th century, like Gift Rosa, added to this portrait an aspect of paternal love which binds Donald to his three nephews and who erases the parental authoritarianism of the first years of cohabitation between them.
The features of Donald are due to the department of the scenarios of the Disney studios which granted only catastrophes to the character of Donald in order to be in adequacy with its character. The character of Donald according to Jack Hannah is all that the human being can have like feeling: " nice, malicious, cordial, cold and this with any moment". The list of the adjectives to qualify it could be without end but to retain only some of them:
- Credulous, dreamer, persevering, determined to see stubborn, heroic but bold, grumpy, not distressed, proud, egocentric person, hysterical and especially coleric.
Its character evolved/moved especially as from 1937, like Mickey Mouse, Donald was an affected character by the depression. He had thus exerted many employment, and its temperament to some extent helped it at 'SEN to leave. With the year 1937, it takes again a little calm, it moves into a house. In 1938, it takes courses of Self control in film precisely entitled the Coolness of Donald ( Self Control in English). It is a first stage before its role of guardian angel in the Guardian angel of Donald and the birth of sound with dimensions paternalist for Riri, Fifi and Loulou in the Nephews of Donald , both also of 1938.
It has a feature similar to Pluto, a conscience doubles at the same time angelica and diabolic which appears in the form of miniature counterpart of itself in the form of angel or the form of devil.
Donald Duck divides many common features with the duck Daffy Duck: physical features of duck, a character coleric, a difficulty of speaking (although tinier for Daffy). They will play besides together (like Bugs Bunny and Mickey) in Which wants the skin of Roger Rabbit? .
An important family
Donald is the son of Hortense Picsou, sister of Balthazar Picsou; Donald of it is thus the next of kin with his nephews Riri, Fifi and Loulou. Side of Duck, he is the son of Rodolphe Duck and the grandson of Grand-Mère Donald, peaceful farm of the Calisota.
- Gontran Bonheur, as insolently Chance ux as Donald is continued by the guigne,
- Popop the cousin sympathetic nerve and impulsive, whose passions and whims often lead at worst the catastrophes,
- Gus Glouton, a supporting character known for his idleness, which works with the farm of Grand-Mère Donald.
During the many stories of voyages throughout the world, the family saw appearing many members, who even turned to genealogy when that one looks at the stories of Gift Rosa, especially with its Family tree of Donald Duck established starting from 1993. However this tree is not stable and of many authors do not follow it to the letter.
See also: Family tree of Donald Duck
A complete universe
Around Donald, the authors created many elements inspired by reality. Thus like Mickey and Mickeyville, Donald lives Donaldville, a city located in the fictitious state of the Calisota. Barks and Rosa locate this state on the west coast of the United States at places different either at north or at the south from San Francisco.
- For more detail to see the localization of Donaldville
A popular character in many countries
The French Donald
In France, the character of Donald Duck is very popular as in many countries. However, there is and remains primarily a supporting character, eclipsed a little behind Mickey Mouse or the Uncle Picsou.
In France, as in the United States, the Donald character is mainly present in the field of animation, the cartoons and the derivative products. Let us compare these various fields.
In animation, Donald is visible thanks to the repeat broadcasts of the cartoons of his own series, the Mickey Mouse series, and by the episodes of the series the band with Picsou , Disney' S all out of box and the House of Mickey . Apart from his own series of drawings animated little diffused regularly, Donald is either in position of supporting role or seldom present.
In the literary field it is especially by the cartoons that Donald is present. One can note the publication between the March 23rd 1947 and the March 22nd 1953, of a weekly magazine named Hardi introduces Donald (often shortened Donald ) devoted to duck. This publication stopped at the end of 313 publications. The universe of ducks is nevertheless taken again in 1972 by Picsou Magazine. The presence of this title called according to the character of Picsou (with the image of the Uncle Scrooge American) watch obviously that the uncle of Donald is more salesman than that of the honest nephew. Its presence is especially due to the importance of the European productions close to France like the Scandinavian Italy and countries.
Concerning the derivative products around Donald, one often finds duck in product ranges associated with the universe with Mickey Mouse is like third or fourth member of the “band with Mickey”. These ranges are composed primarily of products of the house: pieces of furniture, accessories of kitchen, clothing. It should however be recalled that the second character more appreciated of Disney, behind the Mickey mascot, is Winnie the bear cub, whose product ranges are very numerous.
One can thus notice that Donald is very often present in French the Disney universe and places himself in the leading bunch of the characters of the company but it is characterized by a place of second, probably due to his character. However in certain countries the popularity of Donald equalizes, as it is the case in Italy, even exceeds that of Mickey, for example in the Scandinavian countries such as the Sweden.
The Italian DonaldIn Italy, the presence of Donald goes back to very far, thus Federico Pedrocchi draws the series of Donald since 1940. The importance of Donald is especially marked by an abundant production of centered stories ducks of Disney. However, Mondadori continues to produce many Disney series. The Italians intend nevertheless to mark the series of their print, while keeping the higher quality of the work of Barks. These series differ from Danish and American in this direction where they are produced in pocket format: instead of the 10-15 pages per series, the Italian series make approximately of 30 pages.
A point which was regularly raised about the Italian series is which is the large rival of Picsou. Carl Barks created 2 competitors: Archibald Gripsou, which appears 3 times; and Crésus Flairsou, which is seen 1 time. But none of these characters east began again by the American creators. The Danish creators take again Gripsou, the Italians them, Flairsou. Insofar as the Danish series are published, Gripsou is then regarded by the readers as the antagonistic character of Picsou, while Flairsou is regarded more as an italo-Italian creation.
Donald, a very popular character in Sweden
In Sweden, Donald makes his beginnings as a cartoon in 1935 in the magazine Hemmets veckotidning . It is this newspaper which publishes also the strips of Mickey in its edition of Sunday. Later this same year, Donald is published in the newspaper of Stockholm, Stockholms Dagblads , always in the series of daily adventures of Mickey.
In 1936, Den kloka lilla hönan , the Danish version of small advised hen is published in Svenska Journalen . In 1937 the first number of the Newspaper of Mickey is in its turn published, in this Donald newspaper is upon the departure, a recurring character. The Newspaper of Mickey is a remarkable element, firstly by the fact of being historically the first newspaper of comic strip in Sweden, secondly to publish until now Disney series produced in Sweden.
The same year 1937, the book of images Musses små kusiner ( small cousins of Mickey ) is published. In this history, Donald has the role of dealing with the nephews of Mickey (called then " cousins of Mickey"). To note that Donald receives here the name of Uncle Magnus . The continuation is that the complete Swedish name of Donald is transformed into Karl Magnus Anka . It is under this name that it is presented in the family tree of Gift Rosa. It is also as that which it is named in the series the childhood of Donald ( Kalle Ankas barndom ), published in Kalle Anka & C: O and the Kalle Ankas Pocket since 2000. The daily stories of Donald begin in the edition from the April 7th 1938 from the newspaper Aftonbladet . The publication of these stories continues until 1977. The page of Sunday is published in the weekly newspaper Vårt Hem , that is to say “Our House”, starting from the number 14 of 1940. In the article which launches Donald, this one is named Karl Anka (“Karl Duck”). It is necessary to await 1941 to see a publication containing the name Kalle: the book of Christmas of Donald Duck (“julhäftet Kalle Anka”), history which is nowadays published at the end of each year. However it is called Kalle Anka in the following series (where " Kalle" is apparently thought like a nickname). In September 1948, the first number of Kalle Anka & C: O leaves, this series is still published nowadays.
The stories of Donald are currently published in five regular Swedish publications, apart from the newspapers and of the books, which propose also stories. These publications are:
- Kalle Anka & C: O - It is the most important publication of comic strip in Sweden, published since 1948. In this publication was published the series developed by Egmont, but also of the German stories, Frenchwoman and of American older.
- Kalle Ankas Pocket - this publication began in a sporadic way in 1968, and since gradually increased its publications. Today, 13 numbers are published per annum. It was specialized in the reproduction of Italian series but currently as well uses series of Egmont as sometimes of the series written with the Brésil. Since 1997, a special version doubles is published thus that since 2005, a version of named pocket Donald Duck' S Minipocket .
- Stål-Kalle - It is a monthly magazine published since 1997 proposed stories of Donald Duck in a style inspired of Marvel having Italian origins.
- Drove Pigg & C: O - named in the beginning Walt Disney' S series , this publication before 1980 with the introduction of the stories of Donald Duck. Since 1999 it includes/understands mainly republications of Kalle Anka & C: O and of the French stories.
- Oppfinnar-Jockes kluriga store - newspaper publishing since 1982 of the little stories.
A universe influenced by some authors of exceptions
The universe of Donald and ducks of Disney was strongly influenced by some authors, here four more important.
The influence of Al Taliaferro and Bob Karp
The daily strips devoted to Donald were published starting from February 2nd, 1938, while the Sunday page began on December 10th, 1939. These publications were the work of Al Taliaferro, the draftsman and of Bob Karp, the scenario writer. As it had always done, Taliaferro also takes part in the scenarios in terms of ideas. Studies suggest that its ideas have to have transformed the stories into the true traditional ones. Taliaferro worked on the series of Donald until his death the February 3rd 1969. Its daily last comic-strip was published the October 10th 1968 and its last page of Sunday the February 16th 1969.
During this period, several supporting characters were created. Even if Taliaferro did not invent the majority of the characters not mentioned above, it is nevertheless that which developed their personality. It posed the bases to make possible the development of the characters under the era of Carl Barks and his following:
- Bolivar, the dog Saint-Bernard of Donald, appears the March 17th 1938. It is present since 1936 in a short-measuring.
- the cousin Gus Glouton appears the May 9th 1938
- the Grand-Mère Donald is seen for the first time on a mural portrait the August 11th 1940, then appears “in flesh and in bone” the September 28th 1943
- Daisy arrives it in the series the November 4th 1940, after having begun a few months before with the cinema.
Taliaferro is nevertheless responsible for the introduction of the red car of Donald with 313 like number plate. This machine, always falling splits, is the source object of many sketches and humor.
The influence of Carls Barks
The first hunting for the treasuresThe first adventure of Donald in the newspapers with series in the United States is entitled the treasure of the Captain Morgan ( Donald Duck Finds Pirate Gold ) and is published in October 1942. The action at the beginning had been suggested by Harry Reeves and Homer Brightman for a short film which was not born. The notes were given to Bob Karp which used them to design the script of this history. In its turn, he entrusted the scenario to Carl Barks and the drawings with Jack Hannah. They created with this scenario a history of 64 pages. The history is the following one:
- Donald, with his nephews, leaves to hunting to the treasure Henry Morgan. According to the manuscript, it must draw a port and a sailing boat.
This history was important so much for Carl Barks, who signs here his first series, that for Donald, which inaugurates an aspect of its personality, that of hunter of treasure. It thus joined the other characters of Disney to the recurring role, almost their trades like the Mickey detective, or Nutcase, the demonstrator.
First years of Barks
Barks quickly gives up its station of organizer, mainly on short films, within the studios of Disney to work at Western Publishing, company which obtained the rights of production of cartoons with the Disney characters.
It is paid 12,50 American dollars the page. At the beginning, the company urged it to illustrate a manuscript, whose instructions were: “here is a history of Donald on 10 pages. I hope that you will appreciate. With you to illustrate it. If you think of being able to improve it, or if something does not stick to the personality of Donald, with you to modify it”.
Insofar as Barks wanted to make its own manuscripts, it briskly changes received script. The result then does not contain large any more thing of the original. The new history is called The Victory Garden and it is published for the first time in April 1943. Consequently, Bars is authorized to write and draw its own stories, and not already written scénarii.
The annual rate/rhythm of production of Barks arrives at its cruising speed at the end of the years 1940: He then writes eight stories of 10 pages per month which is published in Walt Disney' S Comics and Stories, as well as a longer history published in the American magazine of Donald, at the rate/rhythm of publication him more sporadically. The first long series for which Barks writes the scenario, are entitled The mummy' S boxing ring , it is a history of 28 pages.
The short stories relate mainly to the life of the every day of Donald and are centered on the comic one. The longer stories are they more dramatic and dark, Donald and his nephews are confronted with often dangerous situations there.
In both cases, Donald proves to have a personality multi-facets, each one being proposed according to the situation. Barks says later: “it was sometimes unpleasant, sometimes adorable, but it was always left, just like a normal being”. Another realistic sign of the stories of Barks is that Donald could leave like winner or loser. Often even, its victories were rather “hollow”.
Its nephews also have this aspect multi-facets. Sometimes, and to the great displeasure of Donald, they act like small shadies. Sometimes, they are put in the kneader and Donald must save them. Of another time, they prove to be wise and inventive, and help even their uncle in significant situations. Sometimes even, they show sensitivity, comprehension, as well as a courage more marked than Donald.
The first character created by Barks
The first character created by Barks is Lagrogne ( Neighbor Jones ), the neighbor of Donald Duck. This character initially seems a simple name in the history the B.A. - BA of the B.A. , written the February 24th 1943 and published in July 1943. Donald likes to annoy this neighbor, however in a way more teases that cheap.
In November 1943, Lagrogne intervenes like a character with whole share in Dear neighbors , written the June 22nd 1943. In this history, Donald and Lagrogne buried the hatchet, but badly interpret a series of awkward behaviors which they have one towards the other what leads to the resumption of the hostilities. They arrive at practically destroying the house of the other. The nephews, who have enough of it, repeat it with the respective owners. They must then seek other dwellings. To final, they realize that they are new neighbors… Obviously, the continuous war of vicinity. The situation with Lagrogne, which seems always of bad hair, and Donald, which always seems to manage to irritate it, is the source of many stories, often long of more than ten pages.
The introduction of Picsou and Gontran
The following character produced by Barks is Balthazar Picsou, or Uncle Picsou , which and the brother of the mother of Donald. Its first appearance is in Christmas on the mount Ours , published in December 1947. Gontran appears as soon as after and this, in the history a ridiculous bet , of January 1st, 1948.
On this date, none of these two characters have their characteristic personality yet. At that time, Picsou has a beard, small glasses. He is a relatively rich old man who uses his cane as support. He only lives in a great property - a situation which seems influenced by film “Citizen Kane” (1941) of Orson Welles. He invites his nephews with the mountain and spends his time frightening them, which was at that time its way of having fun.
Gontran, is presented to him like an arrogant cousin applicant to have a right on the house of Donald. Indeed, it is known as that Gontran had succeeded in making a bet with Donald: either Donald bathes in a lake for Christmas, or Gontran receives in pledge the house of Donald. In this time, it was not called yet “the luckiest duck of the world”. Daisy, which helps Donald to keep his house, does not seem yet to have sentimental interests for Gontran - their triangle in love will be put in scene later.
The years pass and see Gontran and Picsou to appear in a regular way. One sees Gontran defying his Donald cousin in any kind of blows. Its incredible chance appears in Donald in the South Seas (1949). This history also sees for the first time contributing these characters to know who would be the favorite of Picsou, and thus being eligible with the heritage. Gontran is also the rival of Donald for Daisy. This Triangle in love was a long time the inspiration of the scenario writers.
The development of Gontran to its current character takes approximately a year. Picsou, as for him, takes much longer. At the beginning, Barks does not think of using Picsou more once. However, it changes opinion quickly. Picsou seems then second character headlight with Donald. In 1952, it is so popular in the United States which a clean publication to him is devoted, the magazine Uncle Scrooge . As from this moment, Picsou is the star of Barks in the long stories, and Donald obtains a less important role. However, Donald remains the character headlight in the stories of ten pages.
The influence of Gift RosaA contemporary author of Donald is distinguished from all: Gift Rosa. It is even called “the heir to Carl Barks”. It has not only in heart to converse the heritage of Donald, character trait which can be measured with that of Barks, but it has also the desire to stick so that made Barks. That is seen in practice, where many of its creations are the direct continuations of the most famous adventures created by Barks.
Nevertheless, Rosa concentrates in priority on the character of Picsou. Amongst other things, he writes in the years 1990 the series of 12 episodes the Youth of Picsou , which recalls the history of Picsou thanks to the elements distilled in these stories by Barks. During the same time, Rosa compiles the Family tree of Donald Duck.
Don Rosa is very popular within the readers for its often rich and detailed drawings. Its series, real objects of collection, leave with titles in capital letters, element which was then only used for the series of Barks.
The series of Rosa nevertheless are not appreciated of all. Some reproach him for breaking the charm of the histories by taking with the letter each detail cartoons of Barks (with the difference of Barks which forever sought to build a coherent model of all). Certain signs show that Barks was not always in agreement with the choices of Gift Rosa. He declares in particular that Vicar (Victor Jose Arriagada Ríos) is its preferred draftsman while he chooses William Van Horn in 1994 to draw his last history. However, Barks was at the time under the influence of the manageurs Bill and Katy Grandey of which the methods were strongly criticized.
- Its number of number plate is 313.
- Donald is involuntarily at the origin of a rather known enigma: Does Pourquoi Donald put a towel around his size while leaving the shower, whereas usually it never puts pants or other?
- the character of Donald was enormously used like badge for the American troops during the Second world war.
Names abroadDonald Duck is the name of the Dutch and French, German, English character. There exist however other forms according to the countries and the languages:
Arab: بطوط ( Batout ) Danish
- : Anders And
- Esperanto: Donaldo Anaso Finnish
- : Aku Ankka
- Italian: Paperino Portuguese
- : Pato Donald Swedish
- : Kalle Anka ( Anka means Canard while Kall means cold.)
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