The doctorate (of Latin doctorem , of doctum , supin of docere , to teach) is generally the university Grade highest. It is about the rank of doctor. According to the countries, the doctorate can be a rank of State (case in France, in Russia) or a rank of establishment (case in the United States, the United Kingdom), governed of manner total, or per discipline. There currently exists in the world mainly four types of doctorate: doctorate of research, which is the result of the first original work of research, followed drafting of a thesis and its defense in front of an academic jury, doctorate higher of research, which is conferred following the realization of several research tasks during a career of researcher, the doctorate of exercise or professional doctorate, which obtaining is not related on a research task but to the result of a training cycle to a trade, generally in the disciplines of health or the right, and the honorary doctorate. Before the development of the doctorate of research existed a doctorate of scholarship and eloquence, founded on the argument oratory.
The doctor and research
In the majority of the Country, the researchers are doctors , i.e. holders of a doctorate ; to Quebec, one says also Philosophiæ doctor, (shortened Ph.D.), just like in the Anglo-Saxon countries (one speaks then about Doctor off Philosophy , Philosophie in his direction veilli and broader of “science”, as with the Renaissance). Other abbreviations exist (for example: Ed.D. for Doctor in education Doctor off Education , D.A. for Doctor be arts Doctor off Arts , etc, to see below).
Historically and this since the medieval tradition European of the Theology which had its first doctors, the holder of the title of “doctor” is a person entitled to produce Idée S and to spread them like those of his/her colleagues, like Galileo for Copernic and Kepler, in the debate on the heliocentric theory .
In France and to the Quebec, only the doctors in Medicine, Dental surgery, Pharmacy and Veterinary medicine carry usually their title of doctor; however, the thesis of medicine is seldom an experiment of research, it in general acts of track records in hospital medium (Internat), associated with a bibliographical study on a precise subject.
In Germany, the doctor has the right to carry his title only once it published his thesis (the publication can be done on line, on more traditional Internet, or then in ways, on paper). On the other hand, once this stage passed, if the person wants it, the title can become part of its civil statue and be added to its family name, even on its identity papers.
The doctorate: an experiment of research
The doctorate is a title sanctioning an experiment of research, variable duration according to the countries, as well as the drafting and the defense of a memory or a Thèse (thesis of doctorate). The access to doctoral studies is carried out normally after obtaining a certain rank or specific diploma.
During its thesis, the Doctorant (or thésard ) carries out a research project framed by an experienced researcher, the Reader (often a professor, or the holder of an enabling in the countries where exists this diploma). In theory, the framing researcher defines, sometimes with the doctorand, the subject of the thesis and discusses with him regularly to give a progress report on the projection of his project and to make him benefit from his experiment.
In the Exact sciences, the thesis comprises a bibliographical part (study of the articles already published on the subject or a related subject) and can be accompanied by the drafting of a review of literature, a theoretical reflection part and a realization part: definition of a Problematic , establishment of a protocol, realization of experiments. This sequence can be more or less well observed according to the nature of work of thesis (in terms of innovation, scope of application, leaning rather theoretical or experimental, etc ). In the Social sciences or the Right, the thesis can be a library search, a case study or a reflection on a subject. A thesis of history, for example, is most of the time the result of a research in files which until had never been exploited there.
The thesis and defense
See also: Defense of thesis
A doctorate in general lasts at least three years (lasted considered to be normal in formal Sciences and natural) but being able to be prolonged very a long time (six or seven years in Droit), whose considerable share (a sixth at least) is devoted to the drafting of a report called “manuscript of thesis”, “memory of thesis” or “Thèse of doctorate”. This manuscript must summarize research, to present work and to synthesize the new results. It is sent to Rapporteur S (two or more). These rapporteurs are experienced researchers of the subject to which the thesis relates and read in detail the manuscript of thesis. They write critical reports/ratios about it. Within sight of the reports/ratios and on a proposal from the reader, the doctorand can be authorized to support its thesis by the president of the Université delivering the diploma (or another organization there being entitled, according to the countries).
The doctorand orally presents then its work in front of a jury composed of experienced researchers of the field. The rapporteurs normally form part of the jury of defense. According to the countries, the universities or the discipline, the form and the duration of defense vary. In certain countries (the United Kingdom,…), defense is summarized with a series of questions and answers between the rapporteurs and the Doctorant, with door-close. In other countries (France,…), the doctorand must present its research, in public except exception, the presentation being followed of a Entretien and questions. When there are presentation and maintenance, defense is, in the formal Sciences and natural, relatively short (less hour). In the Letters and Social sciences defense is longer.
Defense is not an examination: the reader authorizes as a preliminary makes the deposit of the report and defense and it only if the thesis is “ripe”. The authorization of defense gives the quasi-certainty which the title of doctor will be delivered. It is rather of a recognition of the value of carried out work and about a Intronisation (recognition of the value of the young researcher by its pars). It arrives only exceptionally that the title of doctor is refused at the conclusion of defense.
The field of research being a field of Innovation, the subject or little was very often not studied before: work can not lead on positive” or practical results “. The important thing is normally that the doctorand carried out a step of researcher and that it made progress knowledge and the reflection on the subject.
Publication of the theses of doctorateOnce the supported thesis, the goal is that it is read by the greatest number, at the same time for the promotion of its author and to take part in the developments and the scientific reflections of the field of the thesis. The means to arrive at this goal is the publication.
The registration of copyrightIn France, the thesis as a work is subjected to the Registration of copyright. The doctorand is thus obliged to deposit its thesis near its university but also with close to the National Workshop of Reproduction of Theses (ANRT). The ANRT publishes certain theses. N the other hand the author yields part of his royalties.
The traditional edition of the theses
Certain theses give place to an edition in an editor. In this case the work published never corresponds to the canonical version of the thesis but to a version reduced and rewritten in order to be accessible to more many people that the only public of the researchers. Very few theses are published thus.
The electronic edition of the theses
The development of the Open Archives includes the electronic diffusion of the theses. The thesis is an important component of the open, free and direct scientific paper. Several distribution programmes electronic of the theses were born. The precursor with the international level is The Networked DIGITAL Library off Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD), electronic distribution programme of the theses in English language. At the French-speaking level, the first project is the project entitled Cyberthèses at its beginnings in 1998, become Cyberdocs in 2002. This project gathers the universities of Lyon 2, Montreal, Bamako and later Santiago of Chile. At the French level, the university Lyon 2 is the first university to have set up an institutional of diffusion as of its theses electronics, and to diffuse the integrality of its theses in format XML, perennial circuit and intéropérable, for the theses supported since 98, and in format pdf for the old theses. It thus frames the diffusion of the thesis and guarantees its integrity. Some other universities use Cyberdocs to diffuse their theses. There exists a French-speaking gate which reference all theses diffused by respecting the protocol OAI-Pmh (Open Files Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting). The other main actor of the electronic diffusion of the theses in France is the Center for the Direct Scientific paper, which puts on line the site SUCH (Thesis-in-Line), which functions on the principle of the open files and where the doctors can deposit the thesis that they have just supported, generally in format pdf, without control nor institutional procedure. However certain institutions or research laboratories set up upstream at the local level a circuit of management of the theses of their doctorand in TEL. the bibliographical agency of higher education, ABES, which depends on higher education and research, is testing a national device of electronic deposit of the theses, STAR but does not propose a site of diffusion. For the diffusion on line in the projects quoted above, the author remains titular in general integrality of his royalties and its thesis is protected by a contractual agreement either by a copyright, or by a system of rights such as the Creative Commons.
The statute of the doctorand
See also: Doctorand
Recognition of the doctorate
The doctorate is the highest rank of the Higher education. It is the essential prérequis to obtain an Enquiring station of or Enseignant - enquiring in the public service. However, before obtaining a station of Civil servant, the doctor must often occupy of the contractual stations, often abroad, it is then called post-doctoral post-Doc. for research fellow .
In the private Undertaken S, the doctors are recruited like Engineer S, sometimes as researchers in the companies having an activity of Research and development. In France, the doctors from the university course are often discredited because regarded as having little experiment of the company, contrary to the graduates of the Universities. Contrary, they are very famous in countries like the the United States, the the United Kingdom or the Germany what thus induces a tendency to the expatriation of the French doctors wishing to work in the private sector towards foreign companies.
The cotutelle one of thesisSince 1994, creation date of the " cotutelle of thèse" , there exists the possibility for the doctorands of all the specialities, to carry out their thesis between two countries. After signature of a convention between two establishments of two different countries, the thesis is carried out to some extent in the first country, to some extent in the other. The doctorand is then directed jointly by two readers. The thesis must be written in the two languages, if the languages of the two countries are different, and single defense also takes place in the two languages, in front of a jury for half of a country, for half of the other. At the conclusion of defense, the researcher receives the two titles of doctor of each country concerned with his cotutelle. The cotutelle one allows at the same time the exchanges between the laboratories and faculties of several countries and the mobility of the researchers. It also makes it possible to the young doctor to make recognize his work in two countries.
The doctorate in Belgium
See also: Doctorate (Belgium)
The doctorate in France
See also: Doctorate (France)
In France, the doctorate is a national rank whose regulation is fixed by ministerial decree. To prepare the doctorate, it is necessary to have the rank of DEA or master, that one generally obtains in 5 years of studies after the baccalaureat (rank allowing the entry in the higher learning). The duration advised for the preparation of the doctorate is 3 years, therefore 8 years after the vat for obtaining the doctorate. It is however and in general about the lower limit of preparation. The work contracts for doctorand are generally of a 3 years duration; the most widespread contract is the contract of allocatee of research proposed by the Ministry in charge with research and higher education.
The doctorate in Italy
See also: Doctorate of research (Italy)
In Italy, before 1980, there does not exist true doctorate. The Laurea , obtained around 23 years after 4 to 6 years of higher learning, gave however the title of doctor ( dottore ). In 1980 was set up the doctorate of research (rank of dottore di ricerca ).
The doctorate in SwitzerlandThe holders of a DEA or a master can be acceptable for the studies of doctorate. The doctorate in Suisse lasts 3-5 years according to specialization.
The doctorate in the NetherlandsThe doctorate (rank of doctor ) is generally prepared in 4 years after obtaining the rank of Doctorandus .
The doctorate in GermanyThe rank of Doktor is generally indicated by a Latin abbreviation function of the discipline. Ex: Dr. the RER. nat. (Doctor rerum naturalium - literally " doctor of the things naturelles" - for the scientific disciplines)
The doctorate in CEIIn CEI, the doctorate (rank of " Доктор") corresponds, as in Denmark, with a " haut" doctorate, obtained after many years of research and allowing to become professor in a university. The candidature (rank of kandidat ) corresponds him to PhD of the anglophone countries or the French doctorate and request at least three years of research.
The doctorate in DenmarkBefore 1988, there existed only one doctorate which was a rank obtained after long years of research. The rank corresponding to 3 or 4 years of research was the License. In 1988, this license of research was renamed Ph.D. The " haut" doctorate however always exists.
The doctorate in EstoniaIn Estonia the doctorate is the doktorikraad .
The doctorate in FinlandIn Finland the doctorate is the rank of tohtori (in Finnish) or of doktor in Swedish.
The doctorate in GreeceIn Greece the doctorate is called didaktorikon diploma .
The doctorate in HungaryIn Hungary the doctorate is called doktori oklevél .
The doctorate in LatviaIn Latvia, the doctorate is the rank of doktors .
The doctorate in LithuaniaIn Lithuania, the doctorate is the doktaro diploma .
The doctorate in PolandThe doctorate in Poland is the doktorat
The doctorate in SolvénieThe doctorate as Slovenia is the doktorat .
The doctorate as SlovakiaMore running of the doctorates is the rank of philosophiae doctor .
The doctorate in SwedenMore running of the doctorates is the rank of filosophie doktor .
The doctorate in the countries of Anglo-Saxon university tradition
The duration of obtaining a doctorate in research varies considerably: with the the United States and the the United Kingdom, the necessary minimum is 3 years after obtaining a baccalaureat ( bachelor' S dismantles ) or a control ( master' S dismantles ). The majority of the candidates devote to it much more years.
With the the United States, the " program doctoral" can start as of obtaining the baccalaureat ( baccalaureate or bachelor' S dismantles ) (~4 year of studies is the level of the control in France). The first part of this program includes/understands the follow-up of course and the success with unquestionable a number of examinations, during 1 or 2 years. At the end of this first period (corresponding to the preparation of DEA in France), the student becomes a candidate with the doctorate ( doctoral candidate ). Then, after one period of participation in seminars, the candidate chooses a subject of thesis and begins really his research activity during 4 to 5 years. The doctorate is on average obtained 7 years after the baccalaureat. The doctorand can also obtain being prepared of the doctorate a master.
A Ph.D. is necessary to make a career of research; but that is recent. The “old hand” doctorates (called now “Higher Doctorates” ) took years, owing to the fact that the candidates were to show that they were experts (leader) in their field.
These doctorates are increasingly rare and are indicated by “honorary” name. Certain British universities whose University of York, University of Oxford and Université of Sussex use “D.Phil” to indicate a Ph.D.
The Ph.D. is most common of the doctorates of research to the United States, but there are many of other types. The " D.A" (Doctor off Arts) from prestigious Universite of Miami in Florida is intended exclusively to prepare with a career of university lecturer. The " DBA" (Doctor off Business Administration) is also intends has a career of direction. U.S. Department off Education and U.S. the National Science Foundation (NSF) regard them as equivalents.
To Canada, the abbreviation of the doctorate corresponds, according to the case, with Ph.D., for a general doctorate of research, Ed.D. for Education or " X.D." for another thing. The professional doctorates, like the doctorate in medicine (M.D.), the doctorate in dental medicine (D.M.D.), the doctorate in veterinary medicine (D.M.V), the doctorate in optometry (O.D.), etc, are diplomas of first cycle which lead to the professional life and for which the detention of a control is not necessary.
- European Federation of national associations of young researchers (Eurodoc)
- Confederation of the young researchers (CJC)
- Guild of the doctorands
- PhDComics: chronicles without pity of the life of postgraduate students.
- Waiter SUCH (theses on line)
- the French-speaking gate of the electronic theses
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