The Denmark , in long form the Royaume of Denmark or the Royaume of Denmark , is a country of Northern Europe, and smallest of the Scandinavian countries (if one disregards his two autonomous region, the Greenland and the Faroe Islands). He is member of the European Union since 1973.
See also: History of Denmark
The Jutland and the Danish islands are populated since several thousands of years. The unit of Denmark was carried out by Harald “with the blue tooth” '' (Harald Blåtand) '' towards 980. Until the 11th century, the Danes took part in forwardings Viking S, colonizing, trading and plundering everywhere in Europe.
Denmark a long time held an important role in Northern Europe. The kingdom controlled, at one moment or with another, the England, the Sweden, the Norway, the the Baltic and of the territories in Germany. The southern part of modern Sweden, called Scanie (Skåne) , was an integral part of Denmark until the Traité of Roskilde in 1658. The concretization of this power resulted in the sealed Scandinavian Union with Kalmar into 1397 which joins together under the authority of the queen Marguerite, Denmark, the Sweden and the Norway. If the Sweden quickly sought to recover its independence thanks to Gustave Vasa in 1523, in particular by making profitable the conflict between the Danish nobility and the king Christian II, the union with Norway was dissolved only in 1814 after the fall of Napoleon with which Frederic VI had chosen to be combined.
Remained neutral during the First World War, Denmark recovered most of the the Schleswig-Holstein which it had had to give up in 1864 with the Prussia and the Austria following the Guerre of the Duchies.
The April 9th 1940, Germany invaded Denmark, proposing in vain the Protectorat to him, and the country was occupied during all the Second world war, in spite of the efforts of some resistant Danish. After the war, Denmark renonça with its neutrality and, following the failure of the introduction of a Union of Scandinavian defense, joined NATO. Its entry within the European Union date of 1973.
See also: Geography of Denmark
Bordered by the the Baltic and the the North Sea, Denmark is located at the north of the Germany, the south-west of the Sweden and the south of the Norway. Denmark consists of a peninsula, the Jutland ( Jylland ) and of 443 islands, from which 76 are inhabited. Most important are the island of Fyn ( Fyn ) and the Zeeland ( Sjælland ). The island of Bornholm is located at the east of the remainder of the country in the the Baltic. Many islands are connected by bridges; the bridge of Øresund connects the Zeeland with the area of Scanie in Sweden.
The country is relatively flat (the highest points are Møllehøj, Yding Skovhøj and Ejer Bavnehøj, which is to 170,86; 170,77; and 170,35 meters of altitude). The climate is moderate with soft summers and fresh winters. More the big cities are Copenhagen (on the island of Zeeland), Aarhus (in the Jutland), and Odense on the island of Fyn.
See also: Cities of Denmark
See also: Areas of Denmark
Since January 1st 2007, and following a government decision of July 2004, the 13 amter are replaced by 5 areas and the 270 communes are gathered in 98 structures of 20.000 inhabitants with responsibilities close to those for old the amter.
See also: Political of Denmark
In 1849, Denmark became a Constitutional monarchy with the ratification of a new constitution. The monarch is formally the Head of State, but it is a position rather symbolic system. The executive power is held by the Ministers for the cabinet; the Prime Minister is the “first among its pars” ( latn primus inter pares ). The legislative power is exerted by the Parlement, known in Danish as the Folketing which includes/understands only 179 members (of which 175 represent metropolitan Denmark). The courts of Denmark are independent of the legislative power and executive (Séparation of the capacities of the type of Montesquieu). The elections are organized every four years, but the Prime Minister can decide to call the voters with the ballot boxes earlier, which is almost systematic, the party in power seeking to benefit from one moment favorable to his renewal. All the parties which obtain at least 2% of the voices are represented in Folketing.
Since 1972, the queen of Denmark east Marguerite II of Denmark. Between 2001 and 2005, the country was controlled by Anders Fogh Rasmussen of the left Venstre (liberal) in coalition with the conservative party and the support the populist party of extreme right-hand side. Its policy is based on the support for the the United States in the war in Iraq (530 Danish soldiers), the stop of the rise of the taxes, a reduction of immigration by Draconian conditions of entry and the maintenance of the social skills of the État-providence. It was renewed in 2005 in spite of a light reduction in voice.
The foreign policy of Denmark has, since the end of the 19th century, consisted primarily of the assertion of its Neutralité, policy which made it possible to the Danes to escape the First World War.
But the invasion of the country by the Germany Nazi in 1940 showed the limits of neutrality and the country, since the end of the Second world war, adopted for its foreign policy an Atlantic orientation very .
The government and the Parliament are in addition in permanent dialog with the others Scandinavian countries within the framework of the Scandinavian Conseil.
The Danish political principal parties, like their score with the last national elections (parliamentary), are listed in the table below. In Denmark, each party is indicated by a letter of the alphabet. The current government (Anders Fogh Rasmussen III) is composed of the parties liberal (V) and conservative (C) with 19 ministers: 12 for V and 7 per C). It is a minority government which has the support of O (extreme-right-hand side) and Y (center-right).
Only the parties having taken part in the poll of November 13rd, 2007 are listed above. There exists a multitude of minority parties not represented in Folketing (of which Centrum-Demokraterne, Minoritetspartiet). The movement against the European Union and the movement of June (a scission of the precedent) are represented with the the European Parliament and present themselves only at the time of the European elections. With the Greenland and the Faroe Islands, local parties are represented in Folketing.
Rate of participation with the elections of November 13rd, 2007 was of 86,6% (against 84,4% in 2005).
See also: List of the political parties of Denmark
See also: Economy of Denmark, List of Danish companies
Denmark has a modern market economy. The standard of living is high, the Danish Couronne (krone) being stable because related to the Euro (1 € = 7,42 DKK). The economy depends on the foreign trade and the country exports mainly food products (pig, fish, cereals) and manufactured goods thanks to a dynamic specialized industry. Several Danish companies thus acquired a world notoriety on niches specialized in strong growth (beer, chains high fidelity, windows of roof, wind mills, components for the heating and air-conditioning, maritime transport, toy, etc). Very depend on the foreign trade because of the size of its own market, the country draws an important part of its growth from her exports (32% of its GDP), concentrated on certain products, in particular industrial medicinal products, capital equipment, but also oil and natural gas. Deprived of resources energetics hydraulics and nuclear, the country resolutely turned to the wind one by putting in place a considerable park of wind mills terrestes and into full sea, which answers year in year out 10% of the electric needs for the country. The differential of the needs comes from thermo plants and imports mainly for Sweden. Denmark does not take part in the Euro because the Danes disallowed this proposal by a referendum of September 2000. With the the United Kingdom, it is the only State of the European Union to have signed with the other Member States a clause of opting-out as regards single currency, which will allow him, if necessary, to remain indefinitely apart from the Euro area.
The operation of the Job market is characterized by a system of Flexicurité.
See also: Demography of Denmark
The majority of the population is of origin Scandinavian. There is an small group of Inuit S (of the Greenland), of Féroëns, and immigrants besides. According to the official statistics, 8,9% of the population were immigrants in 2007.
Danish is spoken everywhere in Denmark. There is an small group of German-speaking close to the German border.
See also: Culture of Denmark
Hans Christian Andersen, a writer especially famous for his tales, like new Clothes of the emperor and the Ugly Duckling . Other very famous Danes are the Philosophe existentialist Søren Kierkegaard, the physicist Niels Bohr, the writers Karen Blixen and Hans Scherfig, the astronomer Tycho Brahe and the scenario writers Carl Dreyer and Lars von Trier.
In the field of painting, Denmark also has a dominating place in Scandinavia, grace, on the one hand with the richness of some of its museums (museums of modern art LOUISIANA close to Copenhagen, and Aalborg) and at several schools which made it possible Danish painting to radiate abroad (school of Skagen, movement CoBrA).
SubculturesChristiana, the “free Commune” of Copenhagen (Denmark), self-management and founded in September 1971 on the ground of the barracks of Baadsmandsstraede by a group of squatters, unemployed and of hippies, is a rare historical libertarian experiment always in activity in the North of Europe.
83,0% (2006) of the population belong to the Church of the Danish People, a church Lutheran (Lutheran). The remainder of the population belongs for its greater part to the other Christian churches , or are Musulman S.
The Christianisme was introduced in Denmark there is more than 1000 years. Before the year 1536, the Danish Church catholic and Roman and was subjected to the authority of the Pape of Rome. At the beginning of the 16th century, protests (in particular those of Luther in Germany) protested against the catholic practices. They led to creation of the Protestant Église, which does not use any more the Latin but the national languages, and in which the priests can marry and found a family, inter alia changes. In 1536, the Protestant Church was introduced in Denmark. One calls that the Reform. The Lutheranism is now the dominant religion in Denmark
Denmark is divided into 10 évêchés (Aalborg, Viborg, Århus, Ribe, Haderslev, Odense, Maribo, Roskilde, Helsingør and Copenhagen). Each évêché has a cathedral and is directed by a bishop. Évêchés are divided into parishes, directed by pastors. The parishes are 2300. In the Constitution it is written that " the evangelic Church Lutheran is the Church of the people danois" and that it is supported by the State.
When one is baptized with the Danish Church, one becomes about it automatically member, but each one is free to be withdrawn some thereafter. Nevertheless, 90% of the Danes are members of the Danish Church. A baptized child receives a certificate of birth and baptism where are registered its birthplace, its birth date its personal number (more or less like that of the social security) as well as the identity of his/her parents. If one does not wish to make baptize his child with the Danish Church, one must all the same address to one his offices to receive the certificate of birth and identity. The child is then not member of the Danish Church, but all the children must have their personal number, a number that only the Danish Church is entitled to deliver. The certificate of birth and identity contains the name of the child, his personal number, its place and birth date as well as the identity of his/her parents, and possibly if the child is baptized in another Church. In the south of the Jutland, the rules are different. One must address oneself to the " register of the peuple" (folkregistret)
The Minister for the Church is responsible for the churches and the pastors. But each church has an autonomous management. Every four years, the members of the Church choose a " council of opinion" (menighedsråd) for their local churches. These councils appoint the pastors, but the latter receive their wages of the State.
The members of the Danish Church pay the tax of the Church. This tax covers part of the expenditure of the Church. It is raised at the same time as the tax of State. One should not however discharge some if one is not member of the Danish Church, or that one withdrew oneself some.
Since 1947, the women can be pastors in Denmark. That led to a strong increase in the number of women in the studies of theologies and which became pastors thereafter. The most station in the hierarchy of the Church is évêché. Several women reached these last years it.
The role of the pastors is above all to take the actions of the church, like the baptism, the confirmation, the marriage, the burial or the mass. The latter is held every Sunday midday. One there sings psalms and listens to the sermon of Pasteur concerning the selected text of the Bible. There are also masses particular to Christmas, Easter or the Pentecost. Moreover, the pastors often have a social role. They speak with people who have problems, visit the elderly or the patients of their parish.
Population : 5.447.084 inhabitants (in 2007). 0-14 years: 18,618%; 15-64 years: 66,057%; + 65 years: 15,324%
Superficie : 43.094 km ²
Currency : Danish Crown
Densité : 128 hab./km²
GDP (2006): 215,7 billion euros
Unemployment rate: 4,5% (in 2006) (3,3% (90.500) (July) 2007)
Borders terrestres : 69 km (Germany 69 km)
Littoral : 7.314 km
Ends of altitudes : - 7,5 m > + 171 m
Life expectancy of the hommes : 75,9 years (in 2005/6)
Life expectancy of the femmes : 80,4 years (in 2005/6)
Growth rate of the population : 0,3% (in 2001)
Rate of natalité : 11,59 ‰ (in 2003)
Rate of mortalité : 10,53 ‰ (in 2003)
Death rate infantile : 4,63 ‰ (in 2003)
Rate of fécondité : 1,7 children/woman (in 2001)
Rate of migration : 1,98 ‰ (in 2001)
Indépendance : unification with the 10th siècle
Lines of téléphone : 2,4 million (in 2006)
Telephones portables : 5,6 million (in 2006)
Stations of radio : 6 million (in 1997)
Stations of télévision : 3,12 million (in 1997)
Users of Internet : 3,763 million (in 2005)
Many subscribers with Internet : 2,416 million (in 2006)
Routes : 71.474 km (71 474 km tarred) (in 1999)
Ways ferrées : 2.859 km (in 1998)
Ways navigables : 417 km
Number of aéroports : 119 (including 28 with tarred tracks) (in 2000)
Many parabolas: 12.345.678 (including 23.456 Danish parabolas!)
CodesDenmark has as codes:
- DA, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-2,
- DEN, according to the Code list country of the CIO,
- DK, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-2,
- DK, according to the international Code list of the number plates,
- DNK, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-3,
- DNK, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-3,
- EK, according to the List of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports
- OY, according to the List of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft,
- List of the Danish newspapers
- rail-bound Transport in Denmark
- technical DTU University of Denmark
- University of Roskilde
- Official site of the Danish government
- Freedom of the press according to Reporters without borders: Classified 10th of 139 countries
Beats-smg: Danėjė Be-X-old: Данія Fiu-vro: Taani Nds-nl: Denmaark Roa-rup: Danimarca Simple: Denmark Zh-min-nan: DaN-kok Zh-yue: 丹麥
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