This page relates to the year 1876 Gregorian Calendrier.
- January 11th: Departure of Lambaréné of the forwarding of Savorgnan de Brazza on the Ogooué and the River Congo (fine in 1881).
- 7 - March 9th: The troops Ethiopia do not inflict two consecutive defeats with the Egyptian troops close to Gura. Yohannès IV seizes about thirty guns and 20 000 modern rifles Remington. The battle marks the Egyptian crushing argument of the expansionism in the Horn of Africa.
- August: Departure of the forwarding of Antonio Cecchi and Giovanni Chiarini with the Choa and in Ethiopia (fine in 1881).
- 12 - September 19th: Conference of geography of Brussels, inspired by the king Léopold II of Belgium and organized by Emile Banning. It brings together delegates of the Germany (Georg August Schweinfurth), Austria-Hungary, Great Britain (Verney Lovett Cameron), France (admiral of Roncière Noury), Italy and Russia and aims “to plant the standard of civilization on the ground of central Africa and to fight against the draft of the slaves”. In fact, it is about the first attempt at exchanges between colonial powers of “geographical” information of order.
- the king of the Belgians Léopold II founds the African International association, a privately held company in charge of exploration and colonization in Congo (future Congo-Kinshasa) with its only profit.
- November 5th: Departure of Nyangwe of a commercial forwarding of Tippou Tib beyond the Lake Tanganyika. It mobilizes 720 people.
- Tippou Tib meets Stanley with Kasongo. They organize forwarding together. Tippou Tib turns back after 50 days.
- the vote for all is granted to four common “Frenchwomen” of the Senegal: Dakar, Saint-Louis, Gorée and Rufisque. Their deputies will sit at the National Assembly.
- Treated anglo- Oman I prohibiting the continental draft in Africa.
- April 11th: insurrection in the oasis of El-Amri, to 48 km in the south of Biskra in Algeria, easily repressed.
- Libya: the Germany sends an emissary near the Sanussis to obtain ways of export in the the Sahara.
- the sultan Hassan Ier of Morocco goes to Oujda. Whereas the disorders persist at the border algéro-Morrocan woman, the French authorities insist that the Makhzen creates civil service posts of the sherifs there.
See also: 1876 in Canada
the United States
- January 31st: The government of the the United States orders the displacement of all the Amerindian in reserves.
- Fleeing the risks of famine, the Sioux parked in the reserves of the Dakota leave towards north to join the camps of the rebels led by Sitting Bull (born with Grand To rivet, in the South Dakota, in 1831). This revolt finds also its origin in the repeated infringements of the White with regard to the treaties signed with the Indian tribes. Thus, to work gold mines, the Black Hills had been invaded whereas the Indians regarded these mountains as crowned. To restore the order, of military forwardings are sent against the Sioux. After that of March 1876, a new share in May: the troops of the general Crook (1300 men) invade the Indian territory.
- June 17th: Battle of Rosebud. Helped by the Cheyennes and their chief Two Moon, the Sioux (1 500 men) ordered by Crazy Horse push back the American army with Rosebud Creek with the Montana.
- June 25th: Battle of Little Big Horn with the Montana: The general George Armstrong Custer and his 285 men of 7th of Cavalry launch out to the attack without awaiting reinforcements. Encircled close to Little Big Horn To rivet, they are decimated by the Sioux and the Cheyennes ordered by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse.
- July 4th: Exposure of the Centenary to Philadelphia.
- : The Colorado becomes the thirty-eighth state of the American Union.
- September 26th: Died of the chief of Chiricahuas Tazha.
- the government of the United States tries to move the Chiricahuas of their traditional hearth in the Arizona towards the reserve of San Carlos with the New Mexico. Geronimo then takes the head of the revolt of the Apaches of San Carlos.
- November 7th: Election of Rutherford B. Beam (R) like President of the United States. The Republicans obtain with the elections a majority with the House of Commons.
- Movement in favor of the bimetalism. The farmers of the Greenback Labor Party join the owners of money mines, victims of the fall of the courses, which denounce the “crime of 1873”.
- Inauguration of the railway line between New York and San Francisco.
- March 10th: Military dictatorship which puts an end to the disorders in Uruguay with Lorenzo Latorre as provisional governor (1876 - 1879), then president of the Republic (1879 - 1880). For the first time, a military career and not a rural caudillo will direct the Uruguay. With supports land oligarchy and exporting tradesmen of Montevideo, the dictator will support the extension of large the estancias dedicated to the bovine breeding.
- April 1st, Brazil: Benjamin Constant of Magalhaes creates the first association positivist, inspired by Auguste Count. The Positivisme will give its currency ( Ordem E Progresso ) to the Brésil.
- August 27th: Marco Aurelio Soto is elected president of the Republic of the Honduras (fine in 1883). Succeeding in a climate of anarchy the general Jose Medina, Aurelio Soto reorganizes public finances, setting with evil by this last, and to put in building site the drafting of a Penal code, a Code of procedure and a Code of the trade.
- September 18th: Aníbal Pinto is elected president of the Chile (fine in 1881).
- September 30th - December 23rd: The French Charles Tellier crosses the Atlantic (Rouen - Buenos Aires) with a refrigerating boat of his design intended to bring back from South America of the frozen carcasses of sheep.
- November 20th: Porfirio Díaz shift the government of the president Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada and is named president of the Republic of the Mexico in 1877.
- the Indians Yaqui found a State in the Sonora, with the Mexico. Having acquired a certain experiment in the federal armies, they will resist during ten years the troops of Porfirio Díaz. Their incursions into the haciendas will continue until the beginning of the 20th century.
- February 19th (Calendar Julien): The Khanat de Kokand is submitted to the Russians. The Kirghizie is attached to the Russian Empire. The area belongs to the province (kray) Turkestan.
- February 27th: Treaty of Kanghwa. The Japanese oblige the Korea to establish diplomatic relations with them, by the signature of a treaty of friendship and trade, thus weakening the traditional bonds with the China. In the facts, it is about an unequal treaty. Several ports, whose Pusan, is opened with the Japanese trade. The Japanese nationals profit from the privilege of exterritoriality. The Korea is declared independent of the China.
- Mars, Japan:
- Suppression of the class of the Bushi and the revenues of the Samurai S.
- the Japanese government prohibits the port of the saber and the traditional costume. This measurement which aims at the Samurai S causes the revolt of former warriors of the area of Kumamoto.
- Japan: Revolt Japanese peasants disappointed by the orientations of the land reform which consolidate the layer of the landowners to the detriment of the subordinates layers.
- China: Opening of the rail link Shanghai - Wusong, by Gardens Matheson & Co. It is confiscated by the Chinese authorities which undertake to dismantle it.
- May 1st: The queen Victoria of the United Kingdom takes the title of empress of the Indies at the instigation of Disraeli.
- July 1st: Creation of the bank Mitsui with the Japan.
- July 26th: Creation with Calcutta of the Indian Foundation ( National Indian Association ) by Surendranath Banerjee, which intends to make of it an instrument of promotion of the political feeling among the middle-classes of Eastern India.
- August 21st: Treated Zhifu between the China and the Great Britain ( Chefoo Convention ), obtained after the death of a British on February 21st, 1875, Augustus Raymond Margary, which had tried to penetrate in the Yunnan with 200 soldiers: Great Britain will be able to lead “commercial investigations” to Yunnan, or to go to India starting from interior China, via the Tibet. Five new ports are opened with the British trade.
- October 17th: The Japan appendix the islands of Bonin (Ogasawara) following an agreement with the Great Britain and the the United States.
- November 1st: A Cyclone devastation the mouth of the Brahmapoutra and costs the life 250 000 people.
- December 20th: Creation of the first Hindu national song, Vande Mataram, by the poet Bankin Chandra Chattepadyaya.
- Famine in India of the South.
The Middle East
- May 30th: The Othoman sultan Abdülaziz is deposited. Its nephew Murad V succeeds to him.
- August 31st: The fate of the Moslems taken in the civil war of the Balkans pushes the population of Istanbul to be revolted. Murad V, reached mental disorders, is deposited and interned. His/her brother, Abdülhamid II becomes Othoman sultan (fine in 1909).
- In November, Franco-British Condominium in Egypt.
- Bankruptcy of the Egyptian State: whereas it sends quotas to join the Turkish armies in war against the Russians, the Khedive Isma' it is obliged to announce the bankruptcy of the Treasury. The European creditors manage from now on the national finances placed under the common control of the France and the Great Britain. Isma' it must yield 180 000 Egyptian actions of the Company of the channel to the British who obtain three seats with the board of directors, where still largely prevails the French representation. The international case of the debt, to which the taxes of Egypt are consequently affected, is made up of four police chiefs (French, English, Italian and Austrian) chosen by the creditors and named by the khedive.
- December 23rd: Abdül-Hamid II grants a Constitution to the Turkey in answer to the increasing pressure of the European powers. The Prime Minister Midhat Passed present of the institutions copied on the Western model. It envisages a Upper House, whose members will be appointed for lives by the Sultan, and a Parliament, charged to vote the budget, elected by the population.
- nationalist Opposition Arab to the Othomans: intellectuals of the Arab provinces of the empire denounce in publications diffused starting from London the usurpation of the title of Caliph by the Othoman Turks and claim his restitution with an Arab sovereign, who must belong, according to some, with the descent of the prophet.
- Creation of the Red Crescent, Moslem equivalent of the Red Cross.
- April 3rd, Portugal: Foundation of the Republican party at the time of the election of the democratic republican Directory. Fusion of the two liberal currents in the party progressist.
- April 10th: Creation, in Portugal, of the public banking institution Caixa geral of depósitos .
- April 20th: Rising of patriots in Bulgaria, repressed in blood by the Turks.
- May 18th, Repression of the Ukrainian national movement: the ukase of Ems prohibits the employment of the Ukrainian in all the publications not being historical or philological.
- May: The league of the three emperors addresses a memorandum to the Othoman sultan pressing it to achieve reforms in the Balkan Othoman provinces.
- Memory addressed to the Turkey and the powers guarantors by the government of Bucharest claiming the recognition of “the individuality of the Rumanian State” and the name of Romania.
- Constitution in Spain establishing a parliamentary monarchy bicameralist (Senate and the Cortes) into force until in 1923. Failure of the Carlistes.
- June 7th, Germany: formation of the Deutschkonservative Partei (conservative party), bringing together of Deutsche Reichpartei and the conservative party. It obtains from 23 to 25% of the voices at the time of the elections to the Reichstag.
- July 2nd: The Serbia and the Montenegro declare the war with the Othoman Turkey in front of the refusal of the Door to grant to Serbia the Bosnia and Montenegro the Herzégovine.
- July 8th: Interview of Reichstadt in Bohemia between the emperors of Russia and Austria, which shares zones of influence in the Balkans: in Austria, the supervision of Serbia and the annexation of Herzégovine, Russia reserving the supervision of Bulgaria and the annexation of the Bessarabia and Anatolia Eastern. They propose to offer the Thessalie and the Épire to the Greece and to grant Istanbul a statute of free city.
- August 5th: The liberal minister Ion Bratianu directs the Moldavie and the Valachie (fine in 1888).
- Defeats of Serb the August 9th and on September 1st with Alexinac, in spite of the surge of Russian volunteers.
- Fall: Foundation in Russia of a new organization Zemlia I Volia by the populist ones, which recommends an action closer to the popular aspirations (Georgi Plekhanov, Timofei Mikhailov, Mark Natanson, Vera Figner). Various tendencies: rioter (Bakounine, dead on July 1st), propagandists (Lavrov), conspirators (Tkatchev).
- November: Partial mobilization of the Russian army against Turkey.
- December 5th: Bismarck decides for the neutrality of Germany in the war of Balkans. It confirms nevertheless its attachment with the respect of the integrity of the Austria-Hungary.
- December 18th: Zemlia I Volia organizes a demonstration of more than 200 people in front of Our-Lady-of-Kazan to Saint-Pétersbourg.
- Léo Fränkel, former police chief of the Common of Paris, returns in Hungary to constitute a socialist party.
- the Britannique trade deficit reaches 100 million books. It will oscillate into 120 and 180 million between 1890 and 1913. It is largely compensated by the supply of capital and the performance of service (freight, insurances, banks).
- German becomes the only language of the administration and the justice of the Reich.
- Francisco Giner of los Ríos founds the free Institution of teaching (ISLAND, Institución Libre of Enseñanza ) of Madrid, laic center of culture and progressist.
- Mars: Progress of the left to the legislative ones.
- March 5th: Publication with Milan of the daily newspaper Corriere beyond Will be .
- March 16th: The government Minghetti announces that the budget deficit is reabsorbed.
- March 18th:
- Put in minority by a convergent vote of the right-hand side and left (certain deputies of right-hand side are hostile with the austerity policy and the government to nationalize the railroads), the president of the Council Marco Minghetti resigns.
- the Anarchiste Errico Malatesta leaves the Franc-maçonnerie.
- March 25th: The left arrives at the capacity under the direction of Agostino Depretis and remains there more than thirty years. An electoral reform is voted, bringing the number of voters to two million. To maintain a good performance parliamentary, Depretis, envisaging the emergence of new more agitated and claiming classes, prefers “to gather majorities coming from any edge” and forms a broad coalition (transformism).
- May - June: Lawsuit with Bologna of the chiefs “internationalists” of organized labor and anarchistic, all discharged. Among the defendants, Andrea Costa which will be the first socialist deputy at the Italian Parliament.
- November: Depretis request with the king the dissolution of the Room and new elections to consolidate its capacity.
- December: The government submits to the Parliament the law Coppino on obligatory primary school education.
See also: 1876 in France
Chronologies sets of themes
Arts & cultures
- April 16th: With Seville (Spain), alternate of Fernando Gómez García known as “El Gallo”, Spanish Matador.
- First courses of Western painting to Tokyo.
the Seine with Bougival of Sisley.
- Pierre-Auguste Renoir painted “ the ball of the Mill of the wafer ”. Sold in 1990 for US$78.1 million.
- Flood with Port-Marly , fabric of Sisley.
- Beginning of the construction of the Sacred Heart with Paris.
Births in 1876
- January 5th: Konrad Adenauer, German politician.
- January 12th: Jack London, American writer.
- January 20th: Josef Hoffmann, pianist Polish naturalized American († February 16th 1957)
- February 12th: Thubten Gyatso, thirteenth Dalai Lama (death in 1933).
- February 21st: Constantin Brancusi, French sculptor of Rumanian origin.
- March 24th: Adolphe Beaufrère, painter and engraver French.
- April 4th: Maurice de Vlaminck, French painter.
- July 11th: max Jacob, French poet.
- July 25th: Elisabeth de Wittelsbach, Duchess in Bavaria, third queen of the Belgian .
- September 5th: Abdelaziz Thâalbi, politician Tunisia N
- November 1st: Paul Rohmer, Alsatian pediatrist one of the founders of French pediatry, († March 2nd 1977).
- November 5th: Raymond Duchamp-Villon, sculptor.
- November 23rd: Manual of Falla, Spanish type-setter .
- December 11th: Mieczysław Karłowicz, type-setter Polish († February 8th 1909)
- December 20th:
Death in 1876
- January 19th: George Poulett Scrope, geologist and British economist, , (° 1797).
- January 28th: Ferenc Deák, Hungarian politician, chief of the moderate liberals (° 1803).
- February 18th: Adolphe Brongniart, botanist, French, (° 1801).
- March 19th: Jules-Antoine Paulin (° 1782).
- May 5th: Charles Gleyre, Swiss painter (° 1808).
- June 8th: George Sand, writer, Frenchwoman, (° 1804).
- June 27th: Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg Naturalist, zoologist, German, (° 1795).
- July 1st: Mikhaïl Aleksandrovitch Bakounine
- November 18th: Diaz of Peña, French painter (° 1807).
Be-X-old: 1876 Map-bms: 1876 Simple: 1876 Zh-yue: 1876 年
|Random links:||Queensrÿche (album) | Aiello Calabro | Heteroconger hassi | HongKong Film Awards 1996 | Anne my sister Anne|