See also: Puy de Dôme (homonymy)
The puy of Dome (in Occitan Puèi de Doma/Puèi Domat ) is a volcano in sleep of the Chaîne of Puys, in the Massif Central. It is with about fifteen kilometers of Clermont-Ferrand and gave its name to the Département of the Puy-de-Dôme. The Chaîne of Puys became in 2000, a Site classified.
GeologyThe puy of Dome is an explosive volcano of type Péléen deadened since approximately: 12000 years. It consists of two encased blocks of Trachyte, fruits of two eruption S successive. It rests on a granitic plate located at: 1000 meters of altitude, like all the volcanos of the Chain of Puys. In south-west beside the Collar of Ceyssat, there is: 8500 years, the eruption of the crater Kilian covered it with projections. The weight of the volcano is estimated at: 1200000 tons for a volume of a million cubic meters.
A site dedicated to the divinitiesThe Gallo-Romans installed at his top a temple dedicated to Mercure Dumias, installed in Ier or IIe century on the site of an old Gallic temple, and whose radiation exceeded by far the limits of the territory arverne. It was abandoned towards IIIe or IVe century and was redécouvert in 1873 during the construction of an atmospheric observatory. According to Pline Old the, this temple was decorated of a monumental statue of God Mercure, work of the Greek sculptor Zénodore towards -60, but there is currently no proof of its existence.
The experiment of Pascal on the atmospheric pressureIn 1648, it is thanks to an experiment carried out at the top of the puy of Dome that Blaise Pascal could show the variation of the Atmospheric pressure according to altitude.
The first permanent laboratory of meteorology of mountainJuly 22nd 1876, Emile Alluard founds, at the top of the puy of Dome, the first permanent laboratory of Météorologie of mountain. There exists always a weather station of study depending on the Université Blaise Pascal of Clermont-Ferrand.
A railroad to central railIn 1906 was undertaken the construction of a Railroad to central rail which connected the Place Lamartine of Clermont-Ferrand (altitude 390 meters) to an artificial platform near to the top with: 1414 meters. The line had length a 14,7 km and this railroad circulated of 1907 to 1926 with a cost of exploitation always remained overdrawn.
The Michelin priceIt was created by the brothers Edouard and André Michelin on March 6th 1908 and rewarded for a sum for: 100000 francs the first pilot who on the basis of Paris would pose his plane on the top of the puy of Dome. March 7th 1911, Eugene Renaux accompanied by Albert Senoucque gains the price. A Stèle set up in 1923 commemorates this exploit. At the time, such a distance had never been traversed in the plane. This victorious attempt made following that of Charles Weyman which arose for Volvic on September 7th 1910 and with those of the Morane brothers who were crushed with Boissy-Saint-Leger on October 5th 1910.
The automobile roadThe current road with Péage which leads to the top was inaugurated the July 12th 1926 and put an end to the access by railway.
The Tour de France
The puy of Dome accommodated several stages of the Tour de France. The first arrival took place in 1952 with the indisputable victory of Fausto Coppi. The most memorable year will undoubtedly remain 1964 with the mano has mano opponent Jacques Anquetil and Raymond Poulidor.
Pylon TDFIn 1956, a pylon TDF, high of 60 meters, was installed. Intended to support the antennas of diffusion of the audio-visual programs, it became today a symbol of this volcano and makes it possible to recognize it by far.
A project of trainIn 2006, a study was launched in order to study the possibility of reinstalling a funicular to go up at the top of the puy of Dome.
Two means can be used to climb it: on the one hand a broad way pedestrian, known as the path of the muleteers , on the basis of the collar of Ceyssat (: 1078 m) and leading by a succession of laces to the Mercury temple (: 1450 m) and in addition a toll road of 6 km with 12% being rolled up around the puy and allowing to go up by car (or in the bus in summer in order to limit the traffic and to preserve the environment). The road is accessible to the bicycles only certain days, before 9 hours of the morning.
AnecdoteIn 1862, an artificial eruption was to greet the arrival of Napoleon III and the Empress: 600 faggots, 20 wood tanks, 1 ton of resin and oil… but the result was only one thick smoke!
- the puy of Dome on Volcanos of the World
- the puy of Dome on Google Map
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