Demography of the Limousin
For now a century, and more seriously since the years 1960, Limousins had taken the practice to see their campaigns, and even their cities to depopulate itself.
But, contrary to all the forecasts, since the year 1999, the area of the the Limousin knows a certain renewal. Indeed, the population increases again. Admittedly, it is a limited, but historical, and perhaps salutary phenomenon for the future years. In 6 years, the Limousin gained some 12 772 inhabitants. During these six years, the increase was from + 0,28% on average, being established migratory balance with + 0,58%. As for the natural balance, he records an important deficit of -0,30% during the period in question.
Evolution of the population
Source: INSEE and, IAURIF and Census of 1801.
The maximum of population was reached in 1891 with 985.689 inhabitants. By after, until the census of 1999, during all the XXe century, the number of inhabitants did not cease decreasing, except for one period of stagnation without strong fall in the years 1950-1970.
In 1999, the population of the Limousin was always on the same level as during the First Empire. But since 1999, one witnesses a rather abrupt reversal of situation. In six years, the population of the area increased 12 772 inhabitants, in spite of an important surplus of death on the births, fruit of the low fruitfulness of the women of the area, and the secular exodus of young people towards the big cities. But all the departments did not benefit from the same manner of the new demographic expansion. On the total, High-Vienna allots the lions share of it is 8 784 units and the Corrèze not less 4 452, which does not leave for the Creuse, that a demographic deficit of 1 464 people. Thus the problem of depopulation persists in this department, characteristic which it does not share any more but with its neighbor the Allier, like with the the Ardennes, the Haute-Marne and the Nievre.
An area become very quickly gravitational
The demographic upward trend noted in the area since 1999 accelerates. The Limousin thus gained on average 2.100 people per annum (0,29%). This rise succeeds one period of fall throughout the years 1990. At this time the Limousin lost on average 1.300 inhabitants annually, that is to say nearly 0,2% of its population. The growth observed since 1999, is one of fastest than knew the area since 1801. It is quite higher than that noted with the beginning of the year 1960. But it is still lower by half than that noted as a whole of the Metropolitan France (0,64% between 1999 and 2006).
It is that the area underwent since decades a persistent exodus of its young people, worsened since 1975 by a heavy fall in the birth rate. So that the average age is high there and the deaths much more than the births (7 200 births against 8.800 deaths, is a deficit of 1.600 people in 2005). This would have had to involve fall regular and important of population, if there were not an immigration resulting primarily from the other French areas, which not only comes to rebalance the assessment, but also to reverse the tendency completely.
The intensity of immigration is indeed such as from now on the population limousine progresses substantially each year. This situation is besides similar to that of close Auvergne. On the whole, if the area currently loses each year 0,31% of its inhabitants by surplus of the deaths, it gains annually on the other hand 0,58% per immigration (either more or less 4.300 people). That makes the Limousin much gravitational than the Rhone-Alps for example, since the latter garners each year 0,38% of migratory surplus. This rate of migratory surplus can be called " rate of attractivité". From this point of view, the area limousine is from now on at the seventh place within the French areas, before the Countries of the Loire and Poitou-Charentes, and right after the areas Provence-Alp-Coast of Azure and Brittany, as well as the other areas of the south.
Natural movement of the population
Evolution of the births and the deaths
The following figures are provided by INSEE -.
With 7 207 births in 2005, a upward movement seems to be engaged. It is at least the opinion of demographers of INSEE. The figure of 7 200 births had not been reached any more since 1984, whereas the population of women from 20 to 40 years decreased by 4% between the two dates.
Fruitfulness by department
The median number of children per woman or index of the economic situation of fruitfulness evolved/moved as follows for each department and the whole of the area:
The fruitfulness of the women of the area is definitely lower than that of the whole of the Metropolitan France, and the variation even seemed to develop in 2002 and 2003. Among the departments of the area, the situation of High-Vienna - department more populated - is particularly depressed. Two remarks however: initially, the fruitfulness of the area is definitely higher than that of the Italy, of the Spain, the Germany and all the European Eastern European countries. Then the birth total published for the year 2005 indicates a strong increase of fruitfulness, but the exact rate is not yet available in 2007.
By immigrant one understands somebody residing in France, born foreigner abroad. He can be become French by acquisition or have kept his foreign nationality. On the other hand the group from abroad is consisted the whole of the residents having a foreign nationality, which they were born in France or out of France. Let us recall that the newborns in France of foreign parents are foreign, but become French full at 18 years, if they reside there and resided at it in a continuous or discontinuous way during five years since age the 11 years and if they do not wish to preserve their nationality of origin. However, as of the 13 years age, the parents can ask for French nationality for their child, with his agreement (under condition of having resided five years in France since the 8 years age). Moreover minor the 16 year old accomplished can make the request for acquisition anticipated of nationality without the agreement of his/her parents and under the same conditions of duration of residence in France during five years since the 11 years age.
Many foreigners and of immigrants in the Limousin
Ventilation of the immigrants by area of the world and country of birth
The Portuguese most, are by far followed Maghrebians. The Spaniards and the Italians, formerly most see their number decreasing regularly, as it is the case a little everywhere in France, following naturalizations of the young people, i.e. with the generalized assimilation. The Turkish community is rather important, and its percentage is definitely higher than that of the whole of the metropolis. The British and the Netherlanders are also comparatively numerous.
Age distribution of the immigrants
Nearly 50% of the immigrants have more than 45 years, and among them more than 63% of the Spaniards. The latter count a strong majority of 60 year old people and more. On the other hand the immigrants Turkish are extremely young, with only 3,6% seniors and nearly the three quarters having less than 45 years. The Morrocans are also rather young.
The new immigrants are young
From 1990 to 1999,4 457 new immigrants arrived from abroad to the Limousin. Nearly a third of them had less than 25 years, and the three quarters less than 45 years.
Foreigners in 1999
With the census of 1999, one counted 20.090 foreigners in the Limousin.
Distribution of the births by nationality of the mother
Figures of INSEE for the year 2004:
The births out-marriage constitute from now on the majority, like usually in the southernmost half of the metropolis. It is true for the mothers of French nationality, but by no means for the foreign ones, at which this proportion does not reach 25%. In addition, with 568 births on 6 866, is 8,3%, the small foreign community, hardly weighing 3% of the population, carries out a service astonishing and shown a great demographic dynamism in an area traditionally not very fertile.
In 2004, one recorded 2.460 marriages in the Limousin, of which:
- 2.151 between two joint French
- 52 between foreign couple
- 119 mixed marriages between French husband and foreign wife
- 138 mixed marriages between French wife and foreign husband
One witnesses a partial dilution thus but progressive of the foreign communities, since on 361 joint foreigners implied in these marriages, 257 (that is to say more of two thirds) were it in mixed marriages. Let us note that on 4 920 united, 361 were foreign, that is to say more than 7%, which confirms the importance of the small number from abroad in the demographic dynamics of the area.
Ventilation of the mixed marriages
The following figures of population correspond to the urban surfaces in their extension defined at the time of the census of 1999.
The main causes of the demographic renewal are the arrival of British, of reprocessed in search of nature and students having finished their studies. Since now ten years, the campaigns are repopulated, especially in the zones attended by tourism says green and located along highways (for example has 20 in the Limousin and has 75).
People currently prefer to move into zones located from 15 to 30 km of the downtown areas, whereas they was rather 10 km with beginning of the year 90.
The positive tendency was confirmed in 2006, with the publication in a regional newspaper the Popular one of the Center, the Wednesday, May 31, 2006: " New baby-boom".
" the very last figures of INSEE confirm it: in 2005, the the Limousin continued its population growth well. Raise births and positive Migratory balance thus lets think that the phenomenon, started it there has 6 years, is perhaps not only of the economic situation.
last year, 7 000 babies were born women domiciled in the Limousin and the new installations, once again, were more numerous than the departures (+ 4 000 people). The saturation of the great urban areas (Ile-de-France, Nord-Pas-de-Calais,…), the renewed interest for the green areas and the search for a better quality of life thus again pled in favor of the Limousin, even if it is not the only French area which attracts more new inhabitants than it does not let any leave. Some flat however: the population limousine remains oldest of the Hexagon… "
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