Demography of the Ile-de-France
With more 182 758 births and a natural surplus of more than 110 000 people in 2006, the Île-de-France is one of the areas of Europe démographiquement most dynamic. As comparison, the number of the births is about equal to that of the Netherlands of which the population exceeds the sixteen million, and corresponds to half of the figure recorded in a Poland of more than 38 million inhabitants.
Evolution of the population
Throughout the XIXe century the area of Ile-de-France knew a spectacular growth of its population, especially related to the attraction which the town of Paris exerted on the provinces. In 1911, Paris whose population constituted already the essence of that of the Ile-de-France (4.500.000 out of 5.335.000), was the third most populated city world (after London 7.160.441 and New York 4.766.883, and before Vienna 2.083.630 and Berlin 2.071.257).
Between the First World War and 1945, the population of the Ile-de-France slows down some little, following the wars, but was maintained in spite of the fall in the birth rate which prevailed in the country.
From 1946 to 1975, the population of the area made a jump of almost 50%. The twenty-five following years are characterized by a definitely less growth, dependant above all on an important emigration towards other areas of France (Atlantic areas and Southerners), and that in spite of a dynamism of the births and a fruitfulness become higher than the average of the country, and in spite of the contribution of a positive migratory current coming from the foreigner. Since the end of the year 1990 however, it seems that one attends a new constant period of growth.
Recent evolution by department
Sources: INSEE and IAURIF.
Whereas between 1990 and 1999 the population of the area had not increased that by 291.000 inhabitants - that is to say 32.000 per annum -, the rate/rhythm of increase since then accelerated considerably. From 1999 with 2006, the average annual increase was of 0,7% is more than 75.000 inhabitants annually, including 0,89% per natural surplus of the births on the deaths, and -0,19% per migratory deficit. For the only year 2005, the increase was of 92.000 inhabitants. To the first January 2006, the population of the Ile-de-France had passed thus to 11.491.000 inhabitants
Natural movement of the population
Here data of the natural movement of the area for the last years:
Births and death by department
Provided figures by INSEE -.
The figures published by INSEE for the year 2006, show an important increase in births, which progress of more than 6 200 units compared to the previous year (either 3,5%). That increases the number of the births of the area to 182 758 units (ref.: and). The Ile-de-France consolidates its position in Europe thus where it reaches almost, this year, the birth total observed to the Netherlands, populated country of 16,5 million inhabitants. More spectacularly, the birth total of the Ile-de-France exceeds from now on the cumulated figures of Länder German of Rhineland-of-North-Westphalia and the Rhineland-Palatinat however populated together of more than 22 million inhabitants (see Natalité of Länder German).
By department, the rise observed over six years, between the years 2000 and 2006, is particularly clear for the departments of Seine-Saint-Denis (more 2 834 units, is 11%) and of the Val-d'Oise (more 1 637 births is 9%). It is on the other hand negative in Paris (less 192, i.e. -0,6%) and tiny in Yvelines (more 134, is 0,7%). It is interesting to note that in fact the departments had already highest fruitfulness into 2000 which progresses more.
Fruitfulness by department
From 1999 to 2003, the median number of children per woman or index of the economic situation of fruitfulness was the following, for each department and the whole of the area:
The very low service of Paris contrasts violently with those of its suburbs. Because of that the Ile de France does not reach yet the level of 2 children per woman. The level of the unit is however among the best of France and many European neighbors do not dare to dream withsuch rates. To note the figure of the Seine-Saint-Denis, highest among the metropolitan departments and which seems to progress always more.
In the years 1960, the Ile-de-France belonged to the French areas " with low fécondité" , as well as the whole of the areas of the center and the south of the country. At that time the area of high fruitfulness formed vast growing called " growing fertile" who left Brittany and of the Vendée in the west in direction of Picardy and North-Not shifted, then curved towards south-east, including Champagne, Lorraine and the Franche-Comté, but circumventing the Ile-de-France by north. Since then the area profited from a general phenomenon of homogenization from fruitfulness in the various areas from metropolis. Fruitfulness dropped less where it was weak but seriously dropped where it was raised, and overall, the difference between the most fertile areas and least fertile was strongly reduced since then. Thus the area of Ile-de-France east with the area Provence-Alp-Coast of Azure, that which knew the weakest reduction in fruitfulness between the end of the year 1960 and the middle of the years 1970. This one started to go up in the area starting from the middle of the years 1970 (+ 0,07 child by woman between this period and 1997-1998). As in the whole of France, it still climbed since the end of the XXe century. Thus, since the end of the year 1990, the Ile-de-France became one of the most fertile areas of France, characteristic which it shares from now on with the whole of the French North-West.
This tendency was probably reinforced, in Ile-de-France, by the importance of the flow of immigration. Indeed, the foreign mothers constitute a big part of the mothers of the area. In 1999,22,1% of the women who were confined in Ile-de-France were foreign (in PACA 11,2%, Corsica 17,3%, the Rhone-Alps 10,0% and Languedoc-Roussillon 8,8%), and this figure reached already 25,9% in 2004. The foreign women have, in the area like elsewhere, a fruitfulness more important than the Frenchwomen (2,84 against 1,72).
It is however not the behavior of the foreign mothers which explains all the growth of fruitfulness. Since 1975 their share remained rather stable between the two dates and their fruitfulness decreased. In fact the fruitfulness of the women of French nationality increased in the area since 1975, as shows it the following table.
Indicating of the economic situation of fruitfulness by nationality
Recent evolution of fruitfulness in Ile-de-France
The data concerning fruitfulness, after 2003 are very fragmentary. INSEE Franche-Comté reveals us however that in 2003-2004, the index of the economic situation of fruitfulness of the area was of 1,98. The Ile-de-France thus consolidates its position within the most fertile areas of the country.
See also: Fruitfulness of the areas of France
Demographic trends since 1962
Shifts in population since 1999
Sources: INSEE, and.
Distribution of the births by nationality of the mother
Figures of INSEE for the year 2004:
On the whole 1.432.000 foreigners had 45.355 children in 2004. What gave a birth rate of 31,7 ‰. Conversely, the 9.888.000 French of the area had had the same year 129.927 children, corresponding to a birth rate of 13,1 ‰. The rather impressive difference between these two figures is due on the one hand to the great number of foreign women from 20 to 40 years, and on the other hand with a fruitfulness of the foreign women much more important. To note that for the whole of the Metropolitan France, birth rate within the foreign population was less (26,23 ‰), which results above all from a composition different from the foreign population in the various areas from the country.
Immigrants and foreigners
By immigrant one understands somebody residing in France, born foreigner abroad. He can be become French by acquisition or have kept his foreign nationality. On the other hand the group from abroad is consisted the whole of the residents having a foreign nationality, which they were born in France or out of France.
Let us recall that the newborns in France of foreign parents born out of France are foreign, but become French full at 18 years, if they reside there and resided at it in a continuous or discontinuous way during five years since age the 11 years and if they do not wish to preserve their nationality of origin. However, as of the 13 years age, the parents can ask for French nationality for their children, with his agreement (under condition of having resided five years in France since the 8 years age). Moreover minor the 16 year old accomplished can make the request for acquisition anticipated of nationality without the agreement of his/her parents and under the same conditions of duration of residence in France during five years since the 11 years age.
Many foreigners and of immigrants in Ile-de-France
By 1990 to 1999, the foreign population of the Ile-de-France had decreased, in particular under the effect of naturalizations, and the fall of immigration between 1992 and 1997. It had thus passed from 1 377 416 with 1 301 386 people, during this period. Since then their number went back to grow.
Thus, 1,905 million immigrants resided in Ile-de-France at semi-2004. They were only 1,611 million in 1999, that is to say an increase in more or less 294 000 people in 5 years and half. In 1990,35,5% of the immigrants lived in Ile-de-France; this percentage was of 37% in 1999 and 38,6 in 2004. To measure the total contribution of immigration to the population of the area since 1999, it is necessary to add the deaths of still alive immigrants in 1999, and the departures towards other areas of France of some which resided in Ile-de-France in 1999 (on the whole more or less 16 000 people per annum - to see note). One arrives thus at an average balance of 70 000 additional immigrants per annum since then. On the whole the immigrants account for 17% of the population of the area. Part of these immigrants, all foreigners at the time of their arrival in France acquired French nationality. Thus 37,6% of them are French. This proportion is in strong progression since the beginning of the years 1980: it was of 21% in 1982, 24,6% in 1990 and 31,4% in 1999.
- the young people are very few among the immigrants, which results owing to the fact that by definition, the immigrants are not born in France, and that few children were concerned with family gathering. They are only a little fewer at the high ages. With semi-2004, 7% of the residents in 75 year old France or more are immigrant (against 8,1% for all the French population). That implies a death rate among immigrants slightly lower than the rate observed among not-immigrants.
But these figures are misleading and strongly underestimate the impact of immigration on the population francilienne. They enter only the " first génération" (i.e. the total of the immigrants) and a small portion of the " second génération" (foreigners born in France). One since then finds no trace of the children of immigrants born on the French soil and become French, and absolutely nothing the third generation, nor of the French resulting from mixed marriages almost all French of birth.
One of rare information which INSEE provides us is that with the beginning of the year 2000,2,3 million elderly from 0 to 65 years born and alive in France have immigrant parents or only one known relative immigrant. Among those 1 million are young people of less than 17 years, remainder the 18 years old or more. Being given that from 30 to 40% of the immigrants in France lived or live in Ile-de-France, one can consider that from 0,7 to 0,85 million these people the Ile-de-France lives today and constitutes part of what is called the second generation, the other part above all being consisted the French resulting from mixed marriages. But these figures can be only indicative (see also further the chapter entitled " Children of immigrants - the second génération").
As for the distribution of the immigrants by sex, the women constituted in 2004 half of the immigrant population of Ile-de-France. In 1968, they accounted for only 41% of the immigrants franciliens. The increase in their proportion during the years 1970 to 2004 is due to the entries with the title of the family immigration, of which family gathering within the foreign families.
Distribution of the immigrants by area of the world and country of origin
The following figures show the evolution of the various components of immigration in Ile-de-France between the last two censuses of 1990 and 1999, as well as the situation at the first January 2005.
Distribution expressed as a percentage of the immigrant population (1999 and 2004)
(100% = all immigrant population)
During the last period, one witnesses a concentration in Ile-de-France of the immigrants of African and Asian origin. This is particularly true for immigration resulting from the Black Africa or sub-Saharan, which constitutes already in 2004 18% of the immigrants of the area, whereas five years before, it weighed only less than 15%. On the other hand the immigrants of European origin lose much of their relative importance and thus lose some 5%.
Children of immigrants - the second generation
In 1999, households immigrant (households whose person of reference or her spouse is immigrant - concept thus including the mixed couples), more or less represented a household francilien on five, i.e. 910.000 households. The intermediate size of the immigrant households was of 3,1 people against 2,4 for the average of the households of the Ile-de-France. 48% of the immigrant households consisted of couples with children, against 32% for the households franciliens. Among these immigrant households, one counts 720.000 families including 55% with older children of less than 16 years. The proportion of families comprising three children or more was almost twice higher among the immigrants.
In 1999,1,1 million children of immigrants lived in Ile-de-France with their parents, that is to say 37% of the total of the children franciliens. 83% of these children had been born in France and were thus not immigrant. The three quarters of them were of French nationality, proportion which varied according to the seniority of the migration, but also according to the propensity of such or such nationality to jump the step by acquiring French nationality. As for the children of immigrants born, therefore immigrant abroad they also, they were only 17%. This proportion varied according to the countries of origin, mainly according to the seniority of the migrations. It was of 12% for Europe, 16% for Africa and 27% for Asia.
Many children of immigrants according to the birthplace of the parents in 1999
- a child of immigrant is an alive child in a family where one of the parents at least is immigrant, without condition of age of the child. These children can be themselves immigrant, or be born in France .
Children from abroad
As for the children from abroad, category a little more restricted than that of the immigrants because excluding the naturalized immigrants but including the foreigners born in France, INSEE teaches us that in 2004,35,8% births franciliennes resulted from at least a foreign relative (against 18,1% for the entirety of the Metropolitan France).
Distribution from abroad by department
Foreign population by nationality
- 151.773 foreigners gathered in the heading " America, Oceania and other Asie" were distributed grosso-modo thus (1999): Asia 100.000 foreigners, America (northern, center and south) 50.000, and Oceania 1.000.
- the rate of acquisition of nationality : it is the French population by acquisition having for former nationality foreign nationality considered (numerator), compared to the sum of the numerator and the foreign population of this nationality (denominator). This rate indicates the importance of naturalizations within a given nationality. The higher it is, the more the number of French by acquisition is important compared to the foreign population of this nationality.
One notices the importance of the rate of acquisition within the populations originating in old French Indo-China (Vietnam, Laos and Kampuchea), as well as the very clear progression of this rate within the populations of African origin.
- the new arrivals are the foreigners residing in Ile-de-France at the beginning of 1999 which did not live there at January 1st, 1990, year of the preceding census. The newborns between these two dates are regarded as new arrivals if their parents are it.
The foreigners, new arrivals in the area, choose Paris like place of residence in a very strong proportion (34%). The same behavior is observed among French, but to a lesser extent (29%). In a second phase, this flow is distributed in the other departments of the area.
The fall of the number of Africans of the Maghreb (- 1,9% per annum) is due to a strong increase in the rate of acquisition of French nationality. Thus among the people of Tunisian origin, about half had become French in 1999. In addition the flow of arrival in Ile-de-France from abroad of Maghrebian nationality remained rather important throughout the years 1990, as the rate of new arrivals indicates it. Nearly 18% of the Morrocans residing in Ile-de-France into 1999 lived out of the area to the beginning of the year ninety.
The same remark is true for Europeans of the South. The fall of their number is due above all to acquisitions of nationality, and not to a drying up of the flow of the new arrivals. On the contrary these flows remained relatively important both for the Italians the Portuguese and the Spaniards.
To also note the importance of the movement of arrivals coming from the " remain of Europe" (Eastern Europe above all), as well as various countries of America and " remain of Asie". Oceania is not very concerned since in 1999, one counted in Ile-de-France hardly thousand people originating in this area of the world.
For the years which follow the census of 1999, the figures detailed for the Ile-de-France are not yet available beginning 2007. But the total figures for France published and analyzed by the INED indicate that the arrival from new abroad developed considerably throughout the years 1999-2004, and that 40% of the total of the arrivals from abroad in metropolis moved towards the area of Ile-de-France (see the detail and the analysis of these figures in the article concerning the family Immigration in France).
Acquisition of French nationality among the immigrants
The following figures provided by INSEE refer to the only immigrants (and not foreigners) having acquired French nationality and the evolution of these acquisitions between the censuses of 1990 and 1999 shows us.
Let us recall that with semi-2004 the immigrants having acquired French nationality were 717.000, that is to say an increase in 211.500 people in five years and 6 months, or in 38.500 per annum. Of this fact the proportion of immigrants franciliens become French was on this date of 37,1% (717.000 out of 1.905.000 immigrants).
In 2004, one recorded 59.529 marriages in Ile-de-France, of which:
- 40.304 between two joint French
- 4.028 between foreign couple
- 6.603 mixed marriages between French husband and foreign wife
- 8.594 mixed marriages between French wife and foreign husband
Ventilation of the mixed marriages
One thus witnesses an important mixing of the populations, since on 23.253 joint foreigners implied in these marriages, 15.197 (that is to say nearly two thirds) were it in mixed marriages. These figures must however be interprêtés with precaution. It has indeed much more mixed marriages than the posted number, about half of them being necessary abroad, in the country of the foreign spouse. In addition, a great number of marriages known as " mixtes" are it by no means, because they are contracted between a foreign citizen and a French naturalized or born in France and become French, but from the same origin that the foreign spouse.
The number of mixed marriages and their ventilation according to the various foreign communities implied in these marriages, are with the number of acquisitions of French nationality one of the principal indicators of the integration of the various foreign communities. Consequently, one can only consider it regrettable that many data published by INSEE are those which it was certainly interesting to know in the years 1970, but which became nonsignificant in XXIe century and without utility for the demographers (Spanish and Italian couple). It had been interesting to firstly know the number of mixed marriages with foreigners of Turkey, sub-Saharan Africa and especially of Morocco. But we must unfortunately pass some to us at the regional level at least.
Let us note however that 3.052 Algerian mixed marriages for a population of more or less 200.000 people in 2004, is a figure really extremely raised, representing proportionally more than 3 times more than the average of the marriages in metropolis. It is interesting to compare to this number with that of the mixed marriages free-Portuguese, which is assembled to 701, for a Portuguese community 20% fewer (more or less) that Algerian community.
Longevity - Life expectancy
The life expectancy in Ile-de-France is rather definitely higher than that of the remainder of France. These last years it increases definitely more at the men that among women, the first catching up with thus gradually part of their delay.
In 2002, the life expectancy with the birth was the following one in metropolis and in the area (in years):
The Ile-de-France is also the area having the strongest proportion of Moslems (nearly 1.700.000 is 15% of the total population).
Both in France and in the area Ile-de-France, the number of vacant housings increases with the wire of the censuses whereas the complaints of badly-housed persons continue to be made hear. For example the only town of Paris has 100.000 requests for housing on standby representing more than 200.000 people, whereas there was in 1999 some 136.000 vacant housings.
Source: INSEE, censuses of the population of 1962,1975,1990 and 1999
According to the " Nouvel Observateur " , only 32.000 residences in Paris pay the tax for vacant housing whereas 136.000 residences are vacant.
The most populated communes Ile-de-France
Population at July 1st 2004 (provided figures by INSEE), except Courbevoie which curiously does not appear nowhere any more in the recent states of INSEE.
- Source and
Principal communes of Ile-de-France in term of employment
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