See also: Defense
Defense , in Paris region, is the first European Quartier of businesses by the extent of its market of offices. It is located in the Hauts-de-Seine at the west of Neuilly-sur-Seine and of intramural Paris, in the prolongation of the historical Axe which starts with the Musée of Louvre and continues by the Avenue Fields-Élysées, the triumphal arch, and beyond the bridge of Neuilly and the Grande Arche of Defense.
The district counts approximately 150000 paid and 20000 inhabitants. It is primarily made up of Gratte-ciel, connected by an immense flagstone of 31 hectares dedicated to the pedestrians: the square of Defense where one finds hanging gardens and an about sixty works of art which make a museum of it in the open air.
Defense extends historically on part of the communes of Puteaux, Courbevoie and Nanterre. Since 2000 however, the part being on the territory of Nanterre does not depend any more a Public corporation for installation of the area of Defense (EPAD) but of the EPA-Seine-Arch.
For the Chamber of commerce and of industry of Paris (CCIP), Defense belongs to a vast pole of businesses of the Parisian West including/understanding Puteaux, Courbevoie, Nanterre, Colombes, the Garenne-Doves, Levallois, Neuilly, Suresnes, Rueil-Malmaison, and the districts 1, 2, 8, 9, 16 and 17 of Paris.
The inhabitants of Defense and those which work there are officially the “ Défensiens ” but one can also say the “ Défensois ”.
HistoryIts name comes from the monument the Defense of Paris set up to the glory of the soldiers having defended the city lasting the Franco-German Guerre of 1870. It is a sculpture of Louis-Ernest Barrias in Bronze inaugurated in 1883 on what was the roundabout of Courbevoie and always visible today on the square.
From 1958 at the years 1970 the first phase of the business districtIn September 1958, the Public corporation for the installation of Defense (EPAD) is created by the State to build, manage and animate the district. Defense starts to take shape. A foreground of installation is approved by the State in 1964. The first buildings whose Turn Esso and Tour Nobel are built and come to gradually replace the factories (related on mechanics and the car), the Bidonville S neighbors and some farms. The Center of new industries and technologies (CNIT) drawn by the architects Robert Street pedlar, Jean de Mailly and Bernard Zehrfuss, envisaged as of 1956 before the EPAD, is inaugurated in 1958 by the Général de Gaulle at the time of the exposure the Floral festivals. The turns, obeying in this foreground, known as of first generation, are very of an identical gauge: a base of 42 Meter S on 24, limited to a 100 meters height and a surface of 30 000 m ². In 1966, the tower Nobel (architect Jean de Mailly) is the first tower to be drawn up with Defense.
At the beginning of the Years 1970, to answer a strong demand, the turns of second generation make their appearance. The plan of 1964 is modified to increase the surface of the buildings. Turns of 100 000 m ² make their appearance like the turn FIAT (today Areva), culminating with 184 m with its 44 stages. Starting from 1973, the Economic crisis strongly slows down the development of this district which is with most badly: not a square meter of office is not sold during four years.
The years 1980 and 1990: resumption of the expansionAs of the beginning of the Years 1980, to start again the construction of Defense, turns of third generation are built, on a more economic model: less broad and less high like the Turn Pascal, Turn Voltaire and all the Michelet district. The greatest shopping mall of Europe of the time (100 000 m ²), the Four Times , is created in 1981. In 1982, the EPAD, under the impulse of the president François Mitterrand, lance the contest “Head Defense” which will lead to the construction of the Grande Arche. During this same period, hotels are built, CNIT is reorganized (1989) and the prolongation of the line 1 of the Parisian Métro, inaugurated on April 1st, 1992, more brings closer Defense to Paris intramurally.
In 1991 is envisaged the construction of the Tour Without Ends of Jean Nouvel, second higher Gratte-ciel of the world at the time with its 426 meters after the Sears Tower of Chicago, for a delivery in 1993. The project was abandoned.
In 1993, Defense undergoes its second crisis. 1997 should be awaited so that a spectacular restarting emerges. Today, Defense is the first district of businesses of Europe. Bank S and Assurance S invested the places leaving the traditional districts which they occupied between the Stock Exchange and the Opera.
The principal companies installed are Cegetel, the General society, Total, Aventis. The largest tower is that of Total, in the past Elf turn, built in 1985. With 48 stages out of 187 meters height, it is the larger second Gratte-ciel of France after the Tour Montparnasse; the two turns are same architects Roger Saubot and François Julien.
Part of the services of the ministry for Transport, Equipment, Tourism and Sea are established in the Grande Arche and the Tour Pascal.
Defense 2015: the draft of a new great projectBernard Bled, managing director of the EPAD, proposed on December 2nd, 2005 with the board of directors of the EPAD, the Projet Defense 2015, an important development plan which comprises the construction of 850 000 m ² of offices and 100 000 m ² of new residences, the construction of 300 height meters turns (Turn Signal, Turn Generali and Turn Headlight) and the restoration of existing towers. The State must give an answer running 2006 to this plan whose realization, envisaged around 2015, would give a new dimension with Defense.
Several facts can justify this plan. The very strong real pressure (Paris is the second most expensive city of Europe after London in the real sector) pushes with the creation of news high-rise office buildings in Paris or, definitely more economic than the multiples small constructions or the transformation of residential buildings existants and which would have the advantage of not harming the housing stock of residence in Paris region. By its site, and rules of town planning more flexible than in Paris even, Defense offers real possibilities. Other sectors close to Paris are considered in Seine-Saint-Denis (more accessible and nearer also to the economic zones from the airports of Roissy-Charles-of-Gaulle, possibilities of transport being much less saturated), a department where the residential towers are extremely numerous in order to rebalance residential fabric and economic activity. However it is rather in the South of Paris (more accessible from the airport zone from Orly) than should immediately develop a new bank zone of the Seine prolonging the Parisian sectors of Tolbiac and Bercy. The promoters of the project of Defense think that it is the Defense which will be the engine making it possible to attract the foreign companies in France, and which that will support the activity of the other economic poles all around Paris.
It will have however to overcome several factors of blocking: poor prospects in the short run for the French economy, will of the public authorities to rebalance an use of the Tertiary sector too concentrated in the Hauts-de-Seine, saturated means of transport not allowing to face the surge of new employees (the prolongation of the line the RER E considered is a very heavy financial transaction which will have evil to be carried out).
The revival of the projects of demolition-rebuilding, making it possible to optimize spaces and to avoid the expensive refittings or consolidation of existing buildings in seen of their spillplate, was largely facilitated by the public decision not to more tax construction with all the built surface of offices, but only the additional surface brought by the rebuilding.
In February 2007 three projects are in hand with Defense:
- the construction of the Turn Generali of 90 000 m ² and a 300 meters height was announced by the insurance company Generali in October 2006. This tower whose design is entrusted to the cabinet of architects Valode-and-Pistre will be built on the current site of the building IRIS.
- the real estate company Unibail confirmed in November 2006 its project for the Tour Headlight which should rise from here 2012 with approximately 300 meters and to be not far from CNIT.
- the Turn Majunga, also initiated by Unibail, should measure in the 180 m height about 2011.
To work and live with Defense
Public transport and DefensePublic transport played a central role in the development of Defense. CNIT, first stake of the new district, is built not far from the suburban line Versailles - Right Bank - Saint-Lazare. The Gare of Defense dedicated is then built on this line which passes today under the square and the Arche of Defense. Defense knows its first phase of expansion when the line of Ligne has the RER of Ile-de-France is inaugurated fine 1969: the underground station the RER of Defense to particularly monumental dimensions ensures the correspondence with the suburban line; from now on Defense is at 11 minutes of the center of Paris and the residents of the suburbs East can reach in half an hour this new place of concentration of tertiary employment.
To face the growth of the traffic, the Ligne 1 of the Parisian subway whose terminus was before Pont of Neuilly is prolonged in 1992 until the Arche of Defense in correspondence with the 2 preceding lines: by doing this it partly relieves the line of the RER has completely saturated (with 1 million passengers in working day), like that of the railway line of suburbs from the Saint-Lazare station (it also saturated, in spite of its interconnection with the RER E) also served by line 1. An intermediate station, Esplanade of Defense, serves Is Flagstone close to the bridge of Neuilly.
In 1997, the Ligne 2 of the Parisian tram is inaugurated: it ensures a service road in exclusive right of way between Defense and Issy-les-Moulineaux. The capacity of this line is doubled since by the use of double oars Citadis.
According to a study carried out for ÉPAD into 2006,9 paid with Defense on 10 went there in public transport, and displacements conveys some moved back there, of 17% in 1998 to 13% in 2006. However, taking into account the growth programmed of Defense in the decade to come, 40 000 new employees should be accommodated on the site. For that, it is essential to continue to develop the offer of public transport.
The development plan of Defense 2015, finally approved on July 25th, 2006 under the name of “Plan of revival of Defense” lays down the installation of a new heavy railway service road consisted a prolongation on a new way of the line of the RER E, whose terminus is currently at the station Haussmann - Saint-Lazare (what would relieve at the same time the rail traffic of suburbs since Saint-Lazare, and that of the line 1, which are the two means of correspondence to join Defense). These means of transport are supplemented by a coach station from which 15 lines leave bus.
Defense, permanent exposure of modern sculpture
See also: List of the works of art of Defense
The site of Defense is strewn with approximately 60 works of art - frescos and modern sculptures often of size monumentale - which finds in this place a well adapted framework. Most remarkable are:
- large the Red Stabile of Alexander Calder - a sculpture of 15 mètres - located not far from the Total Turn;
- the monumental Fountain of Yaacov Agam which marks towards the East the end of the most animated part Flagstone;
- a monumental sculpture of Joan Miró very coloured in front of one of the entries of the shopping mall of the Four Times;
- the Basin of Takis piqueté of enigmatic signals closing the flagstone towards the East (which have their during in the West of the Grande Arche);
- the Chimney of Raymond Moretti high 32 meters and consisted of hundreds of coloured tubes;
- the Inch of César Baldaccini, sculpture of 12 meters.
Defense, place of lifeThe originators of the district of Defense reserved part of space at residential buildings to make a balanced and alive district of it. The bet is not entirely successful: Defense, once the left employees, is a district little animated, cut moreover cities close to Puteaux, Courbevoie and Nanterre by the circular boulevard which encircles the district. But the situation develops since the opening of Quoted the UGC-Movies cinema gave a little more life the evening and the weekend, and works in progress on the circular try to remedy the insulation of the district.
According to a study of the EPAD of 2006, the population of Defense is made up of: 150000 paid whose Middle Age is 40 years and of: 20000 residents whose Middle Age is 50 years. The distribution by type of employment is the following: | valign=" top" width=" 50%" | |}
Figures and anecdotes
- 1 500 companies including 14 of the first 20 main roads and 15 of the first 50 world;
- 3 million m ² of offices (45 million m ² for the Paris and its suburbs);
- 230 000 m ² of trade (of which 130 000 with the Four Times);
- 2 600 hotel rooms;
- 265 factories for the treatment of the air and ventilation;
- 50 terraces of coffees and restaurants;
- 150 000 paid;
- 20 000 people live there;
- 90 000 m ² of roadway systems (of which 60 000 covers);
- Surrounded by a peripheral road called circular boulevard;
- Served by the T2, Transilien Paris-Saint-Lazare, the RER has, the Ligne 1 of the Parisian subway and 16 lines of Bus the RATP.
- 17 km of drains;
- 10 km of network of drainage work;
- 10 km of pipe galleries;
- 7 hoists;
- 31 ha for the pedestrian space, divided into 12 sectors;
- 14 000 hearths of public lighting;
- 100 elevators;
- 50 escalators;
- 60 monumental sculptures of contemporary art;
- 11 ha of green areas;
- 20 basins (including 2 monumental: the fountain of Agam and the basin of Takis);
- 10 km of automatic network of watering;
- Of the falcons kestrels nests in the towers of Defense, for their period of nesting between April and August.
Monuments and turns highestThe most known buildings today are the Grande Arche and CNIT.
Principal towersNote: some towers not located on the perimeter managed by EPAD appear all the same in this classification because they are perceived, because of their proximity, like belonging to the district of Defense. It is the case of the Tour Granite, which concerns the operation Seine-Arch (new program located at Nanterre and prolonging that of the EPAD with Defense).
- Turn Generali (2011): 318 m, 56 stages.
- Turn Headlight (2012): approximately 300 m.
- Turn AXA (1974 - 2008): 240 m, 39 stages.
- Turn PB 22 (unknown date): 220 to 230 m
- Turn Air2 (2011): 200 m
- Turn Majunga (2011): approximately 195 m.
- Total Turn (1985): 187 m, 48 stages.
- Turn T1 (2007): 185 m, 36 stages.
- Turn Areva (1974): 184 m, 44 stages.
- Turn Granite (2007): 184 m, 40 stages.
- Turn D2 (2011): 180 m
- Turn Gan (1974): 179 m, 44 stages.
- Towers General society (1995): 167 m, 37 stages.
- Tower EDF (2001): 165 m, 40 stages.
- Turn Heart Defense (2001): 161 m, 40 stages.
- Tower Carp Diem (2011): 160m
- Turn Adria/Technip (2002): 155 m, 40 stages.
- Tower Égée/Ernst & Young (1999): 155 m, 40 stages.
- Turn ARIANE (1975): 152 m, 36 stages.
- Turn CBX (2005): 143 m, 34 stages.
- Turn Descartes (1988): 140 m, 40 stages.
- Tower Defense 2000 (1974): 136 m, 46 stages.
- Turn Poisson (1970): 128 m, 42 stages.
- Turn Michelet (1985): 127 m, 34 stages.
- Tower France (1973): 126 m, 41 stages.
- Turn Europlaza (1972): 122 m, 31 stages.
- Franklin Turn (1972): 120m, 33 stages.
- Turn Sequoia (1989): 119 m, 33 stages.
- Turn Cedar (1998): 103 m, 23 stages.
- Tower Eve (1975): 109 m, 37 stages.
- Turn Exaltis (2006): 70 m, 16 stages.
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