The decision is the fact of carrying out a choice during confrontation to a problem in order to solve it.
There exist at least three great approaches of the concept of decision:
- the first regard which the decision is a choice of the optimisator type. Within this framework, the decision is a calculation of optimization which takes into account neither the decision maker, nor the Contexte. This approach illustrates by the current of the Operations research.
- the second approach takes into account the cognitive dimension of the decision makers and in particular their limits of rationality. Here, one speaks about decision-making process . It will be always about a choice between potential solutions, but this choice will be based on a criterion of satisfaction. (see work of H.A. Simon). The Neurosciences clarified confrontations between the Cognition and the emotion in the decision-making process, and the role of the cerebral zones corresponding to the suffering and the pleasure. Thus the decision-making process can be studied with difficulty under the only angle of the Rationalité.
- Another approach recent (G. Klein, 1998) integrates, in addition to the decision maker, the Contexte in which the decision proceeds. One speaks about Naturalistic Decision Making, the Naturalistic term returns to the work of the naturalists, i.e., one will not build a model of the decision which the decision makers will have to follow, but rather, one will observe how the decision makers behave in situation and will try to model this behavior. Here, the decision is not any more one choice between alternatives, but all will depend on the experiment of the decision maker and his capacity to recognize the situation in which he is. This approach is related to the concept of Conscience of the situation (situation awareness).
The processIt is essential to distinguish the two phases:
- the determination of the problem ( problem finding ): i.e. the decision maker determines at which problem it estimates to be confronted.
- the resolution of the problem ( problem solving ): it is the most studied phase which consists in answering the problem previously formulated. Let us note that it is possible that the stages necessary to the resolution of the problem lead the decision maker to reformulate his initial problem.
- the collection of information
- the analyzes this information and the creation of potential solutions
- the taken of the decision which makes following this analysis consists in making the choice and thus giving up the other possibilities.
The decision-making process is more or less rational, because of intrusion of oblique cognitive and emotional in these various phases.
Once the decision taken, a certain number of effects will occur conditioning next decision makings then.
For example in a legal framework, the instruction of a Business which is the stage, long, of preparation and the deliberation of the jury which is short in spite of the number of the speakers.
The decisions can be basically caught within two frameworks:
- future some , a typical example consite to choose the shortest route to deliver a certain number of customers.
- dubious future , throw a new product not having an equivalent.
In the first case it is about a mathematical problem of optimization, in the second case the chance intervenes in an important way.
The decision-making process in economic intelligence
The decision-making process is one of the 11 factors of economic Intelligence in the model of the AFDIE. It is composed of the following criteria:
- Process of management strategic and decision-making process,
- Relevance of the objectives compared to the field of the possibilities,
- Results obtained compared to the objectives,
- Experience feedback and analyzes failures.
Some examples of decision-making process
In the European Union
See: Decision-making process in the European Union
The question to know if the decisions can be taken on the level of the European Union or the level of the Member States is put at the time of the negotiations about the Traité of Maastricht (1992).
A protocol on the Principe of subsidiarity was annexed to the Traité establishing the European Community (1992), revising the the Treaty of Rome of 1957.
This same Principe of subsidiarity is the subject of a special protocol in the Traité of Amsterdam.
- Decision-making process in the treaty of Amsterdam
- Decision-making process on the level of the European commission
- Decision-making process for the European policy of sustainable development
See: Constitution of 1958:
On the level of the Constitutional council in France
Decisions of groups
Tools of decision-making aid
- Priorizer : engine of comparisons per pairs
- Decision theory
- Systems of decision making
- Operations research
- Decision making by consensus
- Problem of the decision
- Decision making
- Problem of decision
- Decision-making aid
- Comparisons per pairs
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