The Dartmouth College is a private Université the North-East of the the United States, located in the town of Hanover, in the State of the New Hampshire. It belongs to prestigious the Ivy League and constitutes one of new the founded colonial universities before the Guerre of Independence of the United States of America. It is one of the oldest establishments of American higher education and smallest of Ivy League with: 5744 students. Created in 1769 by Eleazar Wheelock, with funds raised partially by the efforts of a preacher called Samson Occom, Dartmouth College functions today with an annual budget of: 629.4 million dollars and an equipment ( endowment ) of 2,2 billion dollars. Three specialized schools are on its campus: a medical school, of engineering and trade. The university contributes to the cultural life of the area with its libraries, its museum (Hood Museum off Art) and its center Hopkins. She affirms her identity thanks to her traditions old coeds and her many sporting teams.
Dartmouth College was founded in 1769 by the reverend Eleazar Wheelock (1711 – 1779). This last had opened in 1754 Moor' S Indian Charity School with Lebanon (Connecticut), a school intended for the instruction of the Amerindian S. It wished to transform this establishment into college , but the Connecticut refused. With the assistance of the one of its Indian pupils Samson Occom, it created Dartmouth College in the New Hampshire, a rural region in the course of settlement.
The foundation of Dartmouth College was officialized by the granting of a Charte signed by the king of Great Britain George III. The financing of the institution was ensured by William Legge, count de Darmouth. The establishment was built in New England on grounds allotted by the lieutenant-governor of the province of the New Hampshire, John Wentworth (1671-1730). The goal of Dartmouth College was then to train ministers of religion and to give a religious teaching to the children of the colonists and Amerindians. The college delivered its first diplomas in 1771 and obtained a Sceau in 1773.
John Wheelock took the succession of his/her father like chair institution, function which he assumed of 1779 to 1815. For this period, it had to face the disorders of the American Révolution and its main concern was to find funds to guarantee the perenniality of the college . He managed nevertheless to build Dartmouth Hall and to develop the establishment: thus, in 1797, was founded one of the oldest medical schools of the United States. It was placed under the direction of the doctor Nathan Smith (1762-1829).
In 1816, the legislature of the State of New Hampshire wanted to reform the charter of foundation of 1769: it was a question of making to establishment an public institution and of changing its name into “Dartmouth University. ” The controversy was carried by the president of the college Francis Brown and the council in front of the Supreme court. The cause was defended by Daniel Webster in 1818 and concludes off by the stop “ Supreme Court hearing Trustees off Dartmouth College v. William H. Woodward ”, in favor of the college. But this business plunged it in a financial crisis.
Nathan Lord, president of 1828 to 1863, succeeds in making up the deficit of the budget and developing the institution: the number of students increased significantly and the Campus was equipped with new buildings. But he was criticized for his slave standpoint and presented finally his resignation during the American Civil War.
With Asa Dodge Smith (1863-1877) and Samuel Colcord Bartlett (1877-1892), Dartmouth College continued its growth: the purses and the gifts multiplied, Thayer School off Engineering and New Hampshire College off Agriculture and Mechanical Arts were founded. New buildings were set up (Rollins Chapel, Bartlett Hall and Wilson Hall). The students of promotion 1881 claimed nevertheless the resignation of the president Samuel C. Bartlett; the council inquired into him and reproached him for having alienated the teaching body, to have neglected its function and not to have held its rank of president. Bartlett remained in station until 1892.
It is under the presidency of William Jewett Tucker (1893-1909) that the college entered truly modernity. It made build more than 20 new buildings, the number of students exceeded them: 1100 and the formations suggested were widened.
John Sloan Dickey, president of 1945 to 1970, made take with the college a new orientation: it opened it with the foreign cultures for example with the installation of a Russian department of civilization. He also proposed social programs whose spearhead was the foundation William Jewett Tucker. He doubled the number of students Afro-Americans. He made build the arts center Hopkins and Kiewit Computation Center dedicated to data processing.
It is into 1972 that the college became mixed. The establishment was touched rather little by the dispute coed. David T. McLaghlin (1981-1987) attempted to develop the sporting infrastructures (Berry Sports Center) and cultural (Rockefeller Center, Hood Museum). It made renovate the classrooms and stressed the vocational schools of the campus.
The president James O. Freedman (1987-1998) created or restored many dies turned towards the foreign cultures, the ethnic minorities in the United States (Roth Center for Jewish Life) and the environment (Institute off Arctic Studies). He succeeds in making apply the Parité among the students and with the project of a modern library started (Baker-Berry Library, 1998).
Teaching and academic reputationDartmouth college counts approximately: 4100 students undergraduate and: 1600 graduate . It is one of the American universities most selective.
In front of the importance of student manpower and the lack of buildings, the academic year is divided into four quarters ( terms ) and which correspond each one to one season: for example, the Fall Term (quarter of the autumn) for 2007 begins on September 26th and is completed on December 11th with the last examinations. Courses take place also in summer, which counts like one quarter.
The college which counts 597 teachers while occupying the 9th national place according to U.S. News and World Report .
Administration and budgetList presidents of the Dartmouth College :
Between 1769 and 1909, all the presidents of Dartmouth College were pastors, except notable for John Wheelock. The Board of directors ( board off trustees ) account 18 members. The president of the university and the Gouverneur of the State of the New Hampshire are members of right. Since 1891, eight members ( Charter Trustees ) are named by the Council, the eight others ( Alumni Trustees ) are indicated by the Association of the former students of the college ( Association off Alumni off Dartmouth College ) which exists since 1854 and which represents more: 60000 former students. The Board of directors chooses the professors, determines the wages, decides new constructions, etc It is responsible for the financial, administrative and teaching businesses of the institution.
In 2007, the function of chairman is provided by Charles E. Haldeman Jr. and that of senior ( provost ) by Barry P. Scherr. Dartmouth succeeded in raising 1,3 billion dollar of various donations in 2004, of the Philanthropie, the Fondation S, the Mécénat of company. The department of finances and the administration deal of the budget and human resources.
AdmissionsFor the re-entry 2011, there will be approximately: 1100 incrits for a total of: 14176 candidatures. The ethnographic collections are richest (arts African, Amerindian, mélanésien). The museum also has six Bas-relief S Assyrie NS coming from the palate of Assurnazirpal II and dating from Xe century before J. - C. American painting is well represented (portraits and landscapes).
The campus of the university counts eleven libraries for a total of more than 2,3 million works and: 21000 Periodic S (theater, dance, concerts) with the Hopkins Center. Opened in 1962, this cultural complex was financed by a gift of John Davison Rockefeller Junior. It was drawn by the architect Wallace K. Harrison who took as a starting point another arts center, the Lincoln Center of New York. Called the “Hop” by the students, the center accommodates the production of the troops coeds like Dartmouth Dance Ensemble, Barbary Coast Jazz Together, Wind Symphony and Symphony Orchestra, among others. The students are given a cheap rate to see the spectacles, but the center is also a cultural place with the regional radiation.
Nelson A. Rockefeller Center for Public Social Policy and the Sciences, called “Rocky” by the students, is a center of action and discussion policies. Inaugurated in 1983, he was baptized in the honor of the Magnat and statesman Nelson Rockefeller (1908-1979) which studied in Dartmouth at the end of the Années 1920. The center offers the possibility to the students and to the teachers to learn and discuss political and legal subjects. It maintains the close relationships with the British university of Oxford and allots purses to the students.
Founded in 1982, the John Sloan Dickey Center for International Understanding was named in memory of the twelfth chair university John Sloan Dickey. The goal of this center is to coordinate, support and enrich international dimension by teaching with Dartmouth. For that, the center seeks to promote research on the international problems, by encouraging work interdisciplinary and innovating. It supports by purses and rewards associations which sensitize the students with the international businesses, like Dartmouth World Affairs Council (WAC) and War & Peace Fellows. It allots in particular each year the “price of Chase peace” ( Chase Peace Prize ) to the Thèse which contributes more to comprehension of the causes of the war.
Sports75% of the students of Dartmouth belong to a sporting group. The university proposes 34 inter-University sports, 24 sports collate and 17 clubs. The Dartmouth Review is another newspaper of the campus, founded in 1799, with preserving tendency . The Dartmouth Free Close is regarded as more with left.
The first experiments of radio at the university date from the years 1920. But the first official radio goes back to 1958: WDCR (W. Dartmouth Radio operator College) is always in activity today. It is competed with since 1976 by another radio coed, WFRD (FM Radio operator At Dartmouth).
Fraternities and sororities
Like all the American universities, Dartmouth counts many fraternities coeds. In 2005: 1785 students were members of a fraternity, that is to say approximately 27% of the total staff complement. These organizations propose residential and social advantages, but do not allow to be restored. The tradition of the associations coeds goes back to the end of the XVIIIe century with Dartmouth; at that time, the students met in literary companies. The first fraternity was founded in 1842 (Psi Upsilon). For their multiplication throughout the XIXe century, it was necessary to build several buildings, which contributed to the expansion of the university campus. After having known financial problems during the Great Depression, fraternities of Dartmouth were among the first of the country to abolish the Racial segregation. Then, in the Years 1970, of associations of girls (Sororité S) and mixed ( coeducational Greek houses ) transfer the day. Today, there exist 16 male fraternities, 9 female and 3 mixed one. They are managed by three independent councils (Interfraternity Council, Panhellenic Council and Coed Council).
List fraternities, and their date of foundation:
- Alpha Theta (ΑΘ), 1920
- The Tabard (ΣΕX), 1857
- Phi Tau (ΦΤ), 1905
Traditions and festivities
The academic year is rythmée by many events in Dartmouth College. In each quarter “ big weekends ” or “ party weekends are celebrated”: “Dartmouth Night Weekend” in autumn, “Winter Carnival” in winter, “Green Key” in spring and “Fieldstock” in summer.
The Dartmouth Night (literally: the “night of Dartmouth”) goes back to 1895. It is the occasion of speech and parades in the campus. The evening, large to rough-hew is lit by the first-year students. They must make some several times the turn. In the beginning, these bûchers celebrated the sporting victories at the end of the XIXe century. Since 1936, football games American are organized during the weekend. Later in the year, a Christmas tree is high on Green.
The carnival of the winter ( Winter Carnival ) was founded in 1911. During the Inter-war period, it was about a relatively popular event in the country and he was even used as subject with a film of 1939 with Ann Sheridan ( Winter Carnival ). He takes place in February and includes/understands several demonstrations: competitions of ski, concerts, sculptures in snow, festivals in fraternities coeds and of course a carnival. In 1987, the students of Dartmouth worked largest Snowman of the world approved by the delivers records .
The Green Key Weekend takes place in spring. During three days, fraternities coeds organize festivals in their buildings and in the open air. Until 1984, a race of tanks took place, but it was finally prohibited because of the accidents and the casualties.
Until 2006 was organized the festivities of Tubestock , a nonofficial tradition of the college : the students manufactured boats and descended the river Connecticut. It from now on is prohibited by the local authorities. The students organize an alternative demonstration called Fieldstock in order to preserve the spirit of group and to start a new university tradition.
Another tradition which goes back to year 1935 calls Freshman Trips . It consists in interesting the new students ( freshmen ) in the Dartmouth Outing Club , an association coed which proposes sports and activities of outdoor, by excursions in the surroundings of the university. It precedes back to university and makes it possible to the future students to make knowledge. The excursions end in one night in Moosilauke Ravine Lodge, a property of Dartmouth College located close to the Mont Moosilauke. Organized by the students, these excursions are the occasion for the new ones to be integrated and learn the traditions from the university, like the song Men off Dartmouth and the dance of Salty Dog Rag .
In each spring since 1973, the students Amerindian S of Dartmouth organizes large a Pow wow with two days of ceremonies, dances, exposures of craft industry and of Article That recalls that in the beginning, the college accommodated the Amerindian children. The pow wow attracts approximately: 1500 people with Hanover each year: it is about the second plus great event of this nature in the North-East of the United States.
The Ledyard Challenge is a nudist race during which the students cross to the stroke the Connecticut starting from Ledyard Canoe Club to join bank of the Vermont and return to the starting point by Ledyard Bridge while running naked.
The handing-over of the diplomas is the oldest tradition of the university since it goes back to 1771 and never stopped, even during the disorders of the American Révolution. It begins with the brass band which plays since Baker Tower; then one sounds the bells and the procession of the students is started since East Wheelock Street towards Green, where they receive their diploma.
Symbols of the collegeThe currency of Dartmouth College is Vox Clamantis in Deserto , which the administration does not translate “a voice crying in wild nature” ( has voice crying in the wilderness ). It is about a reference to Jean-Baptiste but also to the fact that the college was founded at the XVIIIe century at the border with the Indian territories.
The song of Richard Hovey entitled Men off Dartmouth (“men of Dartmouth”) was recognized like best college in 1896; it is used still today as school anthem, even if it underwent modifications, since, Dartmouth became mixed.
Former famous students
- Salmon Portland Drives out – (1808 - 1873) politician and lawyer;
- Robert Frost – (1874 - 1963), poet who gained four Prix Pulitzer;
- Theodor Seuss Geisel – (1904 - 1991), author of children's literature;
- Henry Paulson – (born in 1946), business man and Secretary with the American Treasury;
- Nelson Rockefeller – (1908 - 1979), governor of the State of New York and 41e Vice-president of the United States (1974 - 1977);
- Fred Rogers – (1928 - 2003), actor, TV host, type-setter, producer and scenario writer;
- Daniel Webster – (1782 - 1852), Secretary of State and senator of Massachusetts.
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