The Dalmatie (in Croatian Dalmacija ) is an area of Croatia.
Dalmatie is a littoral area of the Croatia, along the Adriatic Sea, which goes from the island of Pag, in the North-West, bay of Kotor (Montenegro) in south-east. It extends on 350 km on the east coast from the Adriatic Sea on approximately 60 km broad, covers 12 100 km ² for 897 000 inhabitants (2001). It is crossed by the the dinaric Alps.
The period of the kingdoms Illyriens and DalmatesThe name of " is bound; Dalmatie" with name illyrienne of the sheep -- of the Albanian , via old the delmë (" pasteur" , " shepherd of ovins" , bari delësh in contemporary Albanian).
At sixth century BC, the Greek found colonies in the kingdom of Illyrie, of which the Dalmatie made partie.
In -229 and -228, the Roman fleet fought the pirates illyriens who sheltered in the multiple islands of this area, and from -219, the Romains took the control of the coast of Dalmatie to guarantee the safety of the Tyrrhenian Sea.
In -168, the Roman consul Paul Emile the Macedonian overcame the Royaume of Macedonia and its ally the kingdom of Illyrie. The Romans took the control of Dalmatie, to secure a permanent terrestrial road towards Macedonia and Greece. On the other hand they did not go more deeply in the territory illyrien, and Jules César, proconsul of Gaules and Illyrie starting from -58, directed its legions towards the Gaulle.
The Roman period
Between -9 and -6, the Romans ordered by Tibère make the conquest of Illyrie. Tibère must intervene again between years 6 and 9 to reduce a revolt of Illyrie during a difficult war, not engaging less than 15 legions and as many auxiliaries, is a considerable manpower ranging between 150.000 and 180.000 soldiers. After its victory, Illyrie is divided into provinces of Dalmatie and Pannonia.
Because of the presence of two legions, old the senatorial Province of Dalmatie is reorganized in year 10 in a imperial Province, with like capital `' Salonae'' (Salone, with the important Roman archaeological vestiges: powerful ramparts, thermal baths, basilica). Other Roman cities were prosperous: `' Tarsatica'' (Trsat, in the south of Rijeka) `' Iader'' (Zadar, where the vestiges of the Roman forum are still visible), `' Narona'', `' Burnum''. The money and gold mines contribute to the prosperity of Dalmatie.
Even after the departure of the legions towards the provinces borders of the Danube, Pannonia and Messiah, Dalmatie preserved its statute of imperial province entrusted to a former consul. It preserved an auxiliary garrison which was reinforced during the reign of Marc Aurèle. The province at that time seems to be touched by phenomena of armed robberies. Didius Julianus, future emperor, and then governor would have carried out operations against the brigands towards 175 - 178. Its strategic importance had been also reaffirmed since the barbarians had crossed the provinces borders to arrive to Italy.
During the third century Dalmatie thus occupied an important place, component, with the Rhétie and the Norique the connection impossible to circumvent between the Danubian Italy and borders. Dalmatie can then seem to be the heart of Illyricum, together extending from Balkans in the Danube, concentrating important armies. Many officers originating in these areas played a part impossible to circumvent in the defense of the empire at the time of the crisis of IIIère century: the political importance of Dalmatie grew.
Are originating in Dalmatie: the Roman Emperor Carus (282-283), born in Narona according to certain authors, his sons and successors Carin (283-285) and Numérien (283-284), and illustrates it Dioclétien, emperor from 284 to 305. Dioclétien was done built close to Salone a vast palate strengthened on the Dalmate coast, where it was withdrawn into 305 after its abdication. This palate was at the origin of the town of Split. Saint Jerome, the translator of the Vulgate, was also of Dalmatian origin.
The replanning of the provinces under the Tétrarchie preserved Dalmatie in only one province. Its control is frequently disputed between the emperors reigning on the parts Western and Eastern of the Romain Empire. During the ultimate division of the Romain Empire in 395, Dalmatie is attached to the Roman Empire of Occident.
During the Germanic invasions of IVère century, Dalmatie becomes the refuge of what remains Roman army of Illyrie and the last terrestrial bond between the Western Empire and the Roman empire of the East. She sees the passage of the candidates to the Western Empire supported by Constantinople (Valentinien III, Anthémius, Julius Nepos), then passes towards 490 pennies the domination of the Ostrogoths.
The Byzantine period
In 535, the emperor of the East Justinien Ier sends the general Bélisaire against the Ostrogoth kingdom of Italy. In the passing, Bélisaire brings back Dalmatie in the Romain Empire, for a few years.
The Avars, which conquered the majority of the towns of Dalmatie to the Life century, pushed towards 614 the Roman populations of Salone on the littoral, involving the foundation of Split, on the site of the Roman palate built by Dioclétien. Other Roman refugees were installed on a small island easy to defend and founded Raguse (Dubrovnik). Some coastal towns like Zadar or Trogir remained isolated Roman possessions.
The installation of the Croats
In the years 640, the Croatian (of Slavic) overcame Avars; Dalmatie was integrated into the duchy of Croatia, then with the kingdom of Croatia. Capitals of the Croatian duchy/kingdom: Biaći, Nin, Biograd, Šibenik, Knin, Split, Omiš, Klis, Plaster filling.
In 1102, Dalmatie, like all Croatia, is linked in Hungary. Of 1115 with 1420, Dalmatie was the theater many wars between the Kingdom hongro-Croatian and the Republic of Venice; the latter ends up annexing the area, other than the Republic of Raguse (Dubrovnik), to do one of its provinces of them.
The modern period
The Venetian periodIn 1403 Ladislas de Duras, King angevin of Naples and claiming with the throne of Hungary - Croatia, " vend" Dalmatie with Venice for 100.000 ducats. Venice settles durably on this coast of the Adriatic, even if she never manages to conquer nor to eliminate her rival Raguse. Venice will definitively lose Dalmatie only with the abolition of its own République by Bonaparte in 1797.
The Austro-Hungarian period
After the fall of the Venetian Republic in 1797, during the French revolution, Dalmatie became possession of the Austrian Empire by the Traité of Campo-Formio. It French under the First Empire, then was again attached to Austria with the Traité of Vienna in 1815.
The Yugoslav period
By the treated of Rapallo in 1920, following the defeat of the central powers in the First World War, Dalmatie (except for the town of Zadar, yielded to Italy) was included with the remainder of the Croatia in the Royaume of Serb, Croatian and Slovenien the, renamed a little later Royaume of Yugoslavia. During the Second world war, the Italy NS conquered part of the coast of Dalmatie, of 1941 with 1944, date on which they were driven out by the Yugoslav combatants. In 1991, after the Croatia had declared its independence with respect to the socialist Federal republic of Yugoslavia, the area became again a battle field.
Dalmatie in the Republic of Croatia
August 17th, 1990 with Knin, under the impulse of Colonel Ratko Mladić named to this end in this city, the majority Serbes in Dalmatie of north revolt against the Republic of Croatia. They bar the roads, cutting the terrestrial connection between Croatia of north and the remainder of Dalmatie: it is the Révolution of the tree trunks to which the Armée popular Yugoslavian (JNA), accomplice, prevents the Croatian police force from putting an end. In 1991, whereas Dalmatie of North had never belonged to the military border of Habsbourg, its Serb leaders, then directed by Milan Babić, after having massacred and having expelled its Croatian inhabitants, attach it to the " Serb Republic of Krajina " they make of Knin the " capitale". Encircled by the Army of the Republic of Croatia and the the Croatian Council of defense in Bosnia-Herzégovine (HVO) during an operation carried out in 1994-1995, Knin will fall on August 5th, 1995 to the Croatian hands of the army and the police force at the time of the Operation '' Oluja ''.
The principal resources of Dalmatie are industry (naval constructions, metallurgy), tourism on the littoral, as well as the agriculture and the fishing but which are declining.
Culture and inheritance
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