Dallas (to pronounce however ) of the State Texas is a city, with the the United States. It covers a surface of 997 km ² and it is the Siège of the county of Dallas. In July 2006, its population was estimated at 1.232.940 inhabitants (9th city of the United States). The city belongs to vast a urban surface of 6.003.967 inhabitants (estimate 2006), Dallas/Fort-Worth Metroplex, or simply the Metroplex, 4th of the United States. Dallas is listed like world Ville gamma by the university of Loughborough of London.
Dallas was founded in 1841 and built-in like city the February 2nd 1856. Third city of Texas after Houston and San Antonio, of which it is concurrent, " Big D" is a great industrial center specialized in the field of technologies of the Oil industry, the Télécommunications, information, the banks and transport. It is the core of largest the interior metropolitan zone in the United States because it does not have any navigable bond with the sea, but in spite of that its historical importance as a center of industries oil and cotton comes from its position located along the railway lines.
EtymologyAccording to the town of Dallas, the origin of the name " Dallas" is a mystery, in spite of the complaints to the contrary effect. The founder of the city, John Neely Bryan, stated only that she was baptized " name of my friend Dallas ". It was often said that the county and the city were baptized name of George Mifflin Dallas, the 11th vice-president of the the United States. However, there is no proof that Bryan met George Mifflin Dallas, and the sector was called Dallas several years before this last was elected.
The other principal candidates for the eponymy of Dallas are:
- Commodore Alexandre James Dallas, brother of George Mifflin Dallas, posted in the Gulf of Mexico.
- Walter R. Dallas, which fought in San Jacinto.
- James L. Dallas, brother of Walter and Texas To arrange.
- Joseph Dallas of Arkansas, which lived in the area of Cedar Springs in 1843, and moved county of Washington (close to the grounds of John Neely Bryan in the county of Crawford) to the area of Dallas a few years after the arrival of Bryan.
HeraldicLike all American City , Dallas has its clean Drapeau and its Armoiries.
See also: Amorce=Pour of the precise details on their contents and their significance, to see the articles, Flag of Dallas, Seal of Dallas
Before DallasBefore the Texas was claimed like part of the News-Spain by the Spanish colonial Empire in the years 1500, the area of Dallas was inhabited by the Indian Caddo. An European who probably visited the area of Dallas was Athanase de Mézières in 1778. Wall, a French with the service of the king of Spain, probably crossed the river Trinity close to the current Fort Worth, having followed the Timbers Cross-country race through the village of Tawakoni on the river Brazos close to Waco. Later, the France also claimed the sector, but in 1819 the Traité of Adams-Onís made Red Rivière of the South the Scandinavian border of the News-Spain, placing Dallas in the Spanish territory officially. The zone is remained under the mode Spanish until in 1821, when the Mexico declared its independence and that the territory became part of the Mexican state of Coahuila there Tejas. In 1836, the République of Texas separated from the Mexico to become an independent nation.
Birth of the cityJohn Neely Bryan, seeking a good commercial counter to serve the Indian and the colonists, examined for the first time the area of Dallas in 1839. Bryan, which shared the perspicacity of Sam Houston in the wisdom of the Amerindian habits, realized that the Indians Caddo, that it found by chance, crossed the only natural passage to hundreds of kilometers on the river Trinity. With what became the " Bryan' S Bluff" , the river was an insuperable water and mud barrier. The route in North-South and the " Bryan' S Bluff" became more important when the the United States annexed the Texas in 1845.
After Bryan examined the sector, it returned in the Arkansas. While there, a treaty was signed to remove all the Indian north of Texas. When it is turned over in November 1841, half of its customers, the Indian , had left. It decided that instead of creating a commercial counter, it would create a city, that it founded the same month. Approximately 35 kilometers in the North-West of its territory was a community called Bird' S Foot, Bryan invited the colonists of this community to live in Dallas. John Beeman arrived in April 1842 and it planted the first Maïs. Other families followed the movement, including members of the colony close to Peter.
John Neely Bryan was at the origin of almost all in Dallas: he was post-office employee, owner of a store, operator of the ferry (he actuated a ferry where Commerce Street crosses the river Trinity today, and its house was used as court. In 1843, the first doctor arrived at Dallas; in 1845, the first lawyer made his house there. In 1845, the first election was held in Dallas compared to the annexation of the Texas by the the United States. On 32 citizens in right to vote, 29 voted for the annexation and 3 voted against it. In 1846, the République of Texas is annexed by the the United States and the county of Dallas is established then baptized name of George Mifflin Dallas, which was the 11th vice-president of the the United States. The origin of the name of the city is debatable because John Neely Bryan stated only that she was baptized " name of his/her friend Dallas". In 1855, a group of musicians and artists European founds a community fourierist called the Meeting. In 1860, the village of Dallas in full expansion incorporated the Meeting in its own territory and the last colonists melted themselves in the general population to which they brought their competences. Currently the tower of Meeting Tower, one of principal constructions of Dallas, owes its name with the colony although it is located at some distance from the place where existed formerly the Meeting.
1856-1873Dallas was legally built-in like " town" the February 2nd 1856. Dr. Samuel Pryor was elected the first mayor with a police officer, a treasurer, a judge and six city council men. In 1859, Dallas had its first hairdresser and a photographer. In 1860, the population reached 678 inhabitants, including the 97 Afro-américain S, the Belgians, French, Germans, and Swiss. The city had some slaves Afro-américain S, brought most of the time by colonists of Alabama and Georgia. This year there, the railroad approached by the south, and several Diligence S crossed already the area. In July 1860, a fire burst in the public garden, destroying the majority of the buildings in the zone of businesses of Dallas. Many residents supposed that the slaves were behind this blow and two abolitionists were driven out out of the city. Three slaves Afro-Americans were hung, and all the other slaves of Dallas were whipped. In December of this year, the major part of the city had been rebuilt. The population developed so much quickly that the residences was difficult to obtain. In 1861, the county of Dallas voted 741-237 in favor of the secession. The June 8th of this year, the state of war was declared. The city was decorated and of the processions were held, it did not have there no lack of volunteers for the war. As Dallas was far from the engagements, the citizens gave money, flour, and other provisioning with the confederated cause. A factory of ammunition was also built in the city.
Dallas was right a small village dotting the border of the Texas until after the American Civil War, in which it belonged to the States confederated of America, legally in 1871 became a city. The arrival of several railway lines about 1870 gave a whiplash to the economic activity, Dallas became an agricultural center of exchange. The city paid Houston and Central Texas Railroad $5 000 USD to shift its route of 32 kilometers in the west and to build its ways on a North-South axis while passing by Dallas, rather than by Corsicana as envisaged. One year after, the leaders of Dallas could not pay Texas and Pacific Railway, thus they found a means of deceiving the railroad. In 1873, the North-South and East-West routes principal of railroad of the Texas intersected in Dallas, of this fact ensuring its future like shopping mall.
Industrial periodIn the beginning a small community established around agriculture, the convergence of several railway lines made city a strategic place for several industries. During this time, Dallas thrived and became the most populated city Texas. The transition towards manufacture and heavy industry created problems penalizing for the farmers of the area of Dallas. They owed to the traders the majority of their harvest because of the high dispatch costs towards the coast and of the price in fall of cotton. A group known under the name of Farmers' Alliance, created in 1877, hoped to break this cycle of poverty by installing a warehouse in Dallas to embark cotton with St Louis because the dispatch cost to the Missouri was appreciably lower than that towards the coast. However, the bankers refused to finance the warehouse, and the company with cast in the twenty month which followed.
Developing with the richness of its bright economy, the city started to light its streets with lamps with gas (appeared in 1874) and to pave the lanes. In 1880, the first phone line arrived at Dallas, with the water-company and the barracks. In 1888, the zoo of Dallas is inaugurated like first zoological garden in the state. In 1890, Dallas annexed the town of East Dallas, becoming more the big city of the Texas with approximately 40.000 inhabitants. In 1893, after national financial panic, of many industries and five banks of Dallas closed. The prices of cotton plunged below five hundreds per book. In 1898 however, the city started to still recover and to develop. Economic panic has also affected the syndicated work, which had just started to be organized: American Federation off Labor granted a charter to the Parliament commercial of Dallas in 1899. In 1894, Parkland Memorial Hospital opened just in the west of Oak Lawn. In 1903, Oak Cliff, a city at the edge of the river Trinity, were annexed. The same year, Wilson Building, modelled according to the opera of Paris, opened on Main Street in the center town.
With the turning of the twentieth century Dallas was an important commercial platform in the south-west of the the United States. The city quickly became the center of exchanges of cotton, cereals, and the bison. The agricultural trade, dominated by cotton, made its prosperity. Later in the century, Dallas changed of an agricultural center in a center of bank transactions, of insurance, and other companies. Finance and the insurances also played a paramount role.
During the flood of 1908, the river Trinity reached a 16,03 m depth and a width of 2,4 kilometers. Five people died, 4.000 were homeless person, and of the property damages were estimated at 2,5 million USD. After the flood, the city wanted to find a manner of controlling the carefree trinity and of building a bridge connecting Oak Cliff and Dallas. In 1911, George Kessler, a town planner, created a project for the river and the city. Its plans were at the beginning ignored but finally updated in the years 1920 and 1930. In 1915, the Southern Methodist University is open and it is still operational today. Aviation became an important thing in the city at the time of the First World War. The airport Dallas Love Field was established like ground of formation for the military aviation. The city bought Coils it Field in 1927 to employ it like municipal airport. In August 1922, the Magniolia Building (now Magniolia Hotel) is inaugurated and becomes the most building of Texas with its 29 stages.
Era of oilIn spite of the beginning of the Great Depression, the businesses in the construction industry were flourishing in 1930. This year, Columbus Marion " Dad" Joiner discovered an immense layer of Pétrole to 160 kilometers in the east of Dallas with Kilgore, generating the oil boom in the east of Texas. Dallas becomes a great center of oil industry to the Texas and in the Oklahoma. In the first months of 1931, 28 companies move or is formed in Dallas for oil. The banks make loans to develop the oil reservoirs. This deferred the majority of the thoughts of depression until the medium of 1931, when the prices in fall and the overproduction have affected the saving in city negatively. By then, more than 18.000 people in the city were without employment. Before the policy of the New Deal started, the city had a program work-for-food (work-for-food) which helped much. In 1931, the city had achieved the construction based within George Kessler.
After a long several year campaign, the state of the Texas chose Dallas like site of Texas Centennial Exposition of 1936. More than fifty buildings were built for the exposure in Fair Park, and 10 million visitors came to see the spectacle.
During the Second world war, Dallas was used as center of manufacture with the effort of war. In 1940, the population of the city had reached 294.734 people. Into 1942, the factory of Ford Motor was converted, producing only Jeep S and military trucks. In 1943, University off Texas Southwestern Medical School was also founded.
Half of the 20th centuryIt is in 1957 that 2 creators, Trammell Crow and John Mr. Stemmons, open the Home Furnishing Mart (gone of furnishing) which grown in the Dallas Market Center and which is the greatest complex of Wholesale in the world. The same year, the Dallas Memorial Auditorium (now Dallas Center Convention) is inaugurated close to Canton and Akard Street. One year later in 1958, the Integrated circuit was invented in Dallas by Jack Kilby, employed with Texas Instruments, which punctuated the development of the area of Dallas like centers high-technology. During the years 1950 and 1960, Dallas became the larger third centers technological country, with the growth of large companies such as Ling-Tempco- Vought (LTV Corporation) and Texas Instruments.
In the years 1970 and 1980, Dallas knew a real boom which produced a new downtown area with the many ones scrapes-ciels, influenced by nationally acclaimed architects. Because of the immense world success of the series televised Dallas, the city became one of most famous the United States during the years 1980. During these years, the city also saw many of its oil companies leaving to Houston in order to be more close to the coast and the port of Houston. However, Dallas started to draw benefit from the rise of technologies, led at the same time by the computer, the chip, and increasing industries of telecommunications. Dallas also remained a banking center, insurances, and businesses. In 1983, the voters of Dallas and sector approved the creation of the Dallas Area Rapid Transit to replace the Dallas Transit System. In 1984, the Dallas Museum off Art moved of Fair Park to the district of arts of Dallas (Arts District). The same year, Republican National Convention was held in the Reunion Arena. In 1985, with the point of the real boom, the Bank off America Plaza, higher tower of the city with a 281 meters height and 72 stages is inaugurated.
The middle of the years 1980 was also tumultuous for the city when many banks crumbled because of the crisis of the savings banks. The crisis put the economy of the city at knees and of the development plans for several hundreds of million dollars were cancelled.
RecessionMiddle of the years 1980 with 2005, no structure high was built in the center town. This because of the crisis of saving which practically destroyed the city economically. In 1987, Annette Strauss was the first female mayor of Dallas. In 1989, the Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center is built.
Dallas todayThe city remained in the recession during the years 1990 but the explosive growth of the companies of high-technology, particularly in the sectors like Las Colinas and the Telecom Corridor, kept the rather stable economy, Dallas became Silicon Valley of Texas, called the " Silicon Prairie". As much of American big cities, Dallas knew a " urban renewal " since 2000.
In 2004, the signs of an economic rotation started to appear. In 2005, three turns was in construction among tens of residential reconversions and smaller projects. Downtown counted approximately 1.600 residents in 2000, for the year 2010 the North Central Texas Council off Governments expects that 10.000 residents live in this district. Just in north, Uptown Dallas is one of the real estate markets most active of the country. At the beginning of 2006, nine residential buildings or high hotels were in construction in this zone. A project of more than $3 billion USD is in building site to reinvigorate the city, the Victory Park. It should contain more than 4.000 residences and 370.000 m ² of office and commercial space. The starting point of the project was the opening of a new ultramodern sports hall of $420 million in 2001, the American Airlines Center.
The Dallas Center for the Performing Arts Foundation applies the construction of several new projects in the district of Arts District which is in full expansion. When new the Winspear Operated House (architect: Foster and Partners) and Wyly Theater (Office for Metropolitan Structures - Rem Koolhaas) unite the Nasher Sculpture Center (Renzo Piano) and Meyerson Symphony Center (Ieoh Ming Pei and Partners), Dallas will be the only city in the world which has four buildings in a sector which all are designed by gaining Prix Pritzker.
- 1841 - Foundation of the town of Dallas .
- 1873 - 2 railroads intersect in Dallas, ensuring its economic future.
- 1888 - Dallas Zoo opens its doors
- 1903 - Dallas annexes the town of Oak Cliff, increasing its size by a third.
- October 19th 1917 - the airport Love Field is created.
- 1922 - the Magniolia Building is inaugurated.
- 1927 - Love Field is opened with the civil use.
- 1927 - the first Dépanneur (Southland Ice Company) in the world opens in Dallas, which will become 7-Eleven.
- 1930 - Discovered of a reservoir oil to 160 km of the city.
- 1930 - Bonnie and Clyde meets with Oak Cliff.
- 1958 - Jack Kilby invents the first integrated circuit whereas he works for Texas Instruments.
- 1963 - on November 22nd, the president of the the United States, John F. Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas.
- 1974 - Opening of the international airport DFW (Dallas Fort-Worth).
- 1976 - Thanks-Giving Square is finished in the center of Dallas.
- 1978 - First diffusion of the series TV Dallas
- 1984 - Dallas accommodates Republican National Convention in the Reunion Arena.
- 1985 - Inauguration of Bank off America Plaza (InterFirst Plaza), higher tower of the city with a 281 meters height and 72 stages.
- 1987 - Annette Strauss is the first woman with being a mayor of Dallas.
- 1996 - Dallas Area Rapid Transit sets up the first system of Light subway at Texas.
GeographyDallas is the seat county of Dallas. The parts of the city extend on the counties close to Collin, Denton, Kaufman and Rockwall.
According to the Office of the census of the United States, the city has an entire surface of 997,1 km ² including 887,2 km ² of ground and 110 km ² of water (water 11,03%). Dallas is the principal city of the urban surface of Dallas-Extremely Worth Metroplex (DFW) which gathers 1/4 of the population of the Texas.
ClimateDallas roughly receives 942,3 millimetres of rain per annum, of which much is delivered to spring.
Dallas has a wet subtropical climate, however this part of Texas also tends to receive the hot and dry winds north and west in summer. During the winter, the cold faces coming from north passes by Dallas, sometimes the temperatures of night go down between -12 °C and -7 °C. The snowfalls are rare and occur approximately three days in the year. From time to time, the hot air and wet coming from the south is unaware of the cold air and dryness, driving with the Verglas, which usually causes major ruptures in the city during one day or two if the roads and the highways become dangerously smooth.
Spring and the autumn bring a very pleasant climate in the area and are usually the best seasons to visit the city. In spring, the residents and the tourists appreciate the beauty of the " wildflowers" (" flowers sauvages" such as the bluebonnet, castilleja and another flora) which flower in spring and are planted at the edge of the roads in the whole of Texas. During this season, time can change clearly into a few minutes and transfer with the storm. Spring is very soft and pleasant in the city. The climate in Dallas is also very good enters at the end of September and at the beginning of November, and with the difference in spring, the storms are rarer.
The Tornade S are perhaps the greatest threat for the town of Dallas. Most recently, the city was struck by a powerful tornado the April 2nd 1957. The tornado would be probably recorded like F3 on the scale of Fujita. The minor tornado most recent with notable damage occurred in 1984 where a tiny formation landed close to Lovers Lane and Greenville Avenue. Against spring, the faces of cold moving Canada run up against the hot air and wet in the area of the Gulf of Mexico. When these faces meet with the top of Texas, of severe storms are produced with spectacular flashes, sometimes torrents of rain, hail, and tornadoes. Dallas is at the southernmost end of Tornado Alley. In May 2000, the " Fort Worth Tornado" the center of the city close to Fort Worth struck, damaging considerably several of the skyscrapers with smaller buildings the periphery of the center of the businesses.
The Department of the Agriculture of the United States place the town of Dallas in the Zone of rusticity of level 8. Dallas with the 12th worse air in the country according to American Lung Association. Most of atmospheric pollution in Dallas, and DFW Metroplex generally comes from a factory of material incineration located in the suburbs of Midlothian, and of the factories of the county close to Elect. Another contributing principal to pollution are the exhaust fumes of the cars.
Averages and given
On census of 2000, there were 1.188.580 people, 451.833 households, and 266.581 families residing in the city. The population density was of 1.339 hab. /km ². The city was then made up of:
50,83% White (Hispanic 35,55%)
- 25,91% Asian Afro-Americans
- 0,54% Amerindians
- 17,24% Other ethnos groups
MayorSince the June 25th 2007, the mayor of Dallas east Tom Leppert (republican).
Structure and urban landscape
Town planning and architecture
DistrictsThe principal sectors in the city are:
- Downtown Dallas, the center of the city and the epicentre of the urban rebirth, coupled to Oak Lawn and Uptown Dallas, new urban sectors thriving with stores, restaurants and nightclubs.
- East Dallas, includes/understands the districts of entertainment (music, arts) of Deep Ellum, Lakewood and Fair Park.
- North Dallas, districts of middle class such as Lake Highland and White Lake Rock'n'roll and shopping malls with Galleria Dallas.
- South Dallas, the district of Oak Cliff is a splendid broken sector with beautiful old houses and zones of entertainment such as Bishop Arts District.
The city is surrounded by tens of suburbs and locks up enclaves such as Cockrell Hill, Highland Park and University Park.
EconomyDallas is and the forwarding distribution center of oil, natural gas, the ores and the agricultural produce of the surrounding area (cotton, cereals, cattle and fruits). Specialized in light industries and in precision (car accessories, electronic material and electric, missiles), Dallas occupies the third rank for the textile clothes industry. First banking center of south-west, it shelters the head offices of many insurance companies or oil.
The area of Dallas is sometimes called the Silicon Prairie ( Silicon Valley texane). The " Corridor" telecom; in the north of the city is the center of large companies such as Southwestern Bell, AT&T, Alcatel, Ericsson, Fujitsu, Nortel, Sprint and MCI.
Among the companies having their general headquarter in Dallas, one finds Blockbuster Video, CompUSA, Greyhound Bus Lines, Kimberly-Clark Corporation, Kinko' S, Mary Kay Cosmetics, Neiman-Marcus, Pizza Hut, Southwest Airlines, Texas Instruments and TXU.
3rd rank for the head offices
Many shopping malls: the galleria (skating rink, 200 shops)
TeachingThe town of Dallas includes/understands several universities as well as many community colleges .
University off Texas of Dallas (1961)
- Southern Methodist University
- University of Dallas to Irving (1956)
- University off Texas Southwestern Medical Center At Dallas
- Art Institute off Dallas
- Richland College
- Mountain View College
CultureDallas counts many museums:
- Dallas Museum off Art
- Nasher Sculpture Center
MonumentsDallas has a great number of parks, green areas, museums, a symphony orchestra and an opera. The center of the performing arts of Dallas (Dallas Theater Center) is the work of the architect Frank Lloyd Wright (1959) and the symphonic center Morton H. Meyerson (1989) was designed by the architect Ieoh Ming Pei. Photographed by Andreas Praefcke, 2003
The highest Gratte-ciel S are the following:
Bank off America Plaza (281 m)
- Renaissance Tower (270 m)
- Chase Center (240 m)
- JPMorgan Drives out Tower (225 m)
- Fountain Place (219 m)
See also: Sport in Dallas
Dallas is the residence of the Dallas Desperados (Arena Football League), Dallas Mavericks (National Basketball Association), and Dallas Stars (National Hockey League). Each one of these three teams plays American Airlines Center. A team of the Major League Soccer, FC Dallas, formerly Dallas Burn, played before in the Cotton Bowl but she moved in the Pizza Hut Park with Frisco since the opening of the stage in 2005. However, the university American football game Cotton Bowl is still played at stage. The Dallas Sidekicks, a former team of the Major Indoor Soccer League, played in the Reunion Arena. The Texas Tornado, three times champions of the North American Hockey League, play in the Deja Blue Arena of Frisco.
In the suburbs, at Irving, is located the residence of the Dallas Cowboys of the National Football League while Arlington is the stronghold of the Rangers of Texas of the Major League Baseball. From here 2009, Dallas Cowboys will be also located at Arlington in the Dallas Cowboys New Stadium.
Other teams in the area of Dallas include the Dallas Harlequins of the Rugby Super League, and the Frisco RoughRiders of Minor League Baseball.
- Lance Armstrong (September 18th, 1971)
- Jessica Simpson (July 10th, 1980)
- Michael Johnson (September 13rd, 1967)
- Norah Jones (March 30th, 1979)
- Jamie Foxx (December 13rd, 1967)
- Stevie Ray Vaughan (October 3rd, 1954)
- Owen Wilson (November 18th, 1968)
- Dimebag Darrell (August 20th, 1966)
- Jensen Ackles (March 1st, 1978)
- Stevie Ray Vaughan (October 3rd, 1954)
- Ashlee Simpson (October 3rd, 1984)
- Larry Hagman (September 21st, 1931)
AirportThe town of Dallas has two commercial airports: Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport or DFW and Dallas Coils Field .
DFW is located between Dallas and Fort Worth. In the United States, from the point of view of the size, DFW is the second airport whereas in term of traffic, it is the fourth. In 2005, DFW had a traffic of: 59176265 passengers.
Bus and tramsPublic transport is managed by DART , Dallas Area Rapid Transit. To date, Dallas has 2 tram lines as well as a network of very important bus. Two additional tram lines are under development in order to reach a network of 93 miles (150 km).
Highway networkThe city is crossed by several major highways: the Highways inter-states 20, 30, 35E and 45. Several important roads surround also the city and its urban surface.
- Dallas has the greatest number of shopping malls and restaurants per anybody compared with the other American cities.
- the downtown area of Dallas has some interesting districts, such as Deep Ellum, West End Historic District, Arts District, Farmer' S Market, Dallas Convention Center, Reunion Arena and finally American Airlines Center where are played the matches of Basket-ball and of hockey.
- Put besides some external catches, the television serial Dallas was filmed in the south of the California.
- In Dallas, the museums, arts centres, theaters and other cultural activities and artistic bring back some 500 million dollars each year.
- Dallas is more the big city located on the " Tornado Alley" .les scientific provides that the city could be struck by a powerful tornado in the near future
Notes and references of the article
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