The dalaï LAMA (Tibetan: ཏ ་ ཱལའི ་ བླ ་ མ ་, Wylie: tala' I blamed) is recognized by the Tibetans like the most spiritual leader of the Tibet and he became the temporal chief of the Gouvernement of Tibet since the XVIIe century until first half of the XXe century, then chief of the Gouvernement Tibetan in exile still to date. He is a monk of the school Guélougpa (known as of the “ yellow bonnets ”), one of the four schools of the Bouddhisme Tibetan, founded by Tsongkhapa (1357 - 1419). Dalaï means Mongolian “ocean” in , Gyatso (rgyam mtsho) in Tibetan, ocean of wisdom being implied. As for LAMA (bla my), it means spiritual Maître (Guru in Sanskrit).
The dalaï spangled were, with the regents and the Gouvernement Tibetan, the political principal leaders of the theocratic mode Tibetan of 1642, following the reign of Phagmodrupas, a line Kagyupa, succeeding the reign of the Sakyapa S replacing the Royauté of Tibet. Under the 13th paved LAMA, the British army invades the Tibet between 1904 and 1908, then withdrew itself. In 1913, the 13th Dalaï Lama, Thubten Gyatso, published a proclamation reaffirming the independence of Tibet which was supported little by the international community. The government of paved LAMA in Tibet will last until 1959, date on which the 14th dalaï LAMA Tenzin Gyatso will be constrained to be exiled in India, after the entry with the Tibet of the Chinese troops in 1949. ( to see article: History of Tibet ).
On a spiritual level, the dalaï spangled are regarded as emanations of the Bodhisattva of the compassion, Chenrezig in Tibetan, Avalokiteshvara in Sanskrit, Guanyin (觀 (世) 音 Guān (shì) yīn) in Chinese. The bodhisattvas are enlightened beings which chose to reappear for the good of all the beings. The dalaï spangled constitute a line of Tulku S, Masters réincarnés. After the death of a dalaï LAMA, its spiritual monks and Masters, whose often Panchen LAMA, engage an investigation to seek its Réincarnation. Oracles, whose oracle of state of the Tibet, Nechung, are consulted. The children candidates are questioned to seek signs such as the recognition of the possessions of the precedent dalaï LAMA. The young person Tulku is then brought to a monastery so that it receives the Buddhist Lesson. The title of this line of tulkus was given by the Mongolian emperor Altan Khan in reference to the second name, Gyatso, of 3rd Dalaï LAMA, Sonam Gyatso. One says that as of the second incarnation, the child remembered his last lives and the names of the dignitaries of the entourage of 1st Dalaï LAMA, Gendun Gyatso.
Although the dalaï LAMA is a monk of the school of the Gelugpa S, he is recognized by the principal schools of the Bouddhisme Tibetan, Kagyupa, Gelugpa, Nyingmapa, Sakyapa and Jonangpa as spiritual leader, not only with the Tibet but also in the countries having adopted these traditions. For example, the 14th dalaï LAMA recognized Jetsun Dhampa Khutukhtu like Bogdo Gegen, i.e. chief of Buddhism in Mongolia, like chief of the Jonangpa. He also recognized Orgyen Trinley Dorje like 17th Karmapa, chief of the school Karma- Kagyupa.
List dalaï LAMA
See also: List of the Dalai Lama
- Gedun Gyatso, 2nd dalaï LAMA, 1475 - 1542 དགེ ་ འདུན ་ རྒྱ ་ མཚོ ་
- Sonam Gyatso, 3rd dalaï LAMA, 1543 - 1588 བསོད ་ ནམས ་ རྒྱ ་ མཚོ ་
- Yonten Gyatso, 4th dalaï LAMA, 1589 - 1616 ཡོན ་ ཏན ་ རྒྱ ་ མཚོ ་
- Lozang Gyatso, “the Great Fifth” 1617 - 1682 ངག ་ དབང ་ བློ ་ བཟང ་ རྒྱ ་ མཚོ ་
- Tsangyang Gyatso, 6th dalaï LAMA, 1683 - 1706 ཚངས ་ དབྱངས ་ རྒྱ ་ མཚོ ་
- Kelzang Gyatso, 7th dalaï LAMA, 1708 - 1757 བསྐལ ་ བཟང ་ རྒྱ ་ མཚོ ་
- Jamphel Gyatso, 8th dalaï LAMA, 1758 - 1804 འཇམ ་ དཔལ ་ རྒྱ ་ མཚོ ་
- Lungtok Gyatso, 9th dalaï LAMA, 1806 - 1815 ལུང ་ རྟོགས ་ རྒྱ ་ མཚོ ་
- Tsultrim Gyatso, 10th dalaï LAMA, 1816 - 1837 ཚུལ ་ ཁྲིམས ་ རྒྱ ་ མཚོ ་
- Khendrup Gyatso, 11th dalaï LAMA, 1838 - 1856 མཁས ་ གྲུབ ་ རྒྱ ་ མཚོ ་
- Trinley Gyatso, 12th dalaï LAMA, 1856 - 1875 འཕྲིན ་ ལས ་ རྒྱ ་ མཚོ ་
- Thubten Gyatso, 13th dalaï LAMA, 1876 - 1933 ཐུབ ་ བསྟན ་ རྒྱ ་ མཚོ ་
- Tenzin Gyatso, 14th dalaï LAMA, 1935 - today བསྟན ་འཛིན་རྒྱ་མཚོ་
Dalaï Lama current
See also: Tenzin Gyatso
In 1949, Mao Tsé Toung, at the head of the Communist party Chinese, arrives at the capacity in China and, denying the claims of independence of the Tibet, in particular marked in 1913, sends to it military troops in 1950, officially for “ libérer ” the Tibet of the foreign presence. It is in 1950, at the 15 years age, that the dalaï LAMA becomes Head of State and the Gouvernement Tibetan. He spends the nine years which follow in the search of one peaceful solution to the crisis, before being constrained to flee in India, where he establishes, with Dharamsala, a Gouvernement Tibetan in exile. During the Cultural revolution, the persecution of the population is with its roof. As in all China at this period, the Monastère S are destroyed, monks and nuns imprisoned and tortured. Today still, not only the Tibetans severely are repressed and prevented from expressing itself, but moreover, they undergo the very strong pressure of a policy of Colonisation. If nothing changes, the culture Tibetan is likely to disappear within 15 years as Dalai Lama affirms it. Since its exile in 1959, the dalaï LAMA is denounced systematically by the Chinese government which describes it as freedom fighter. In spite of that, Dalaï Lama perseveres in the way of the Non-violence and asks China to negotiate to lead to a political compromise. The March 9th 1961, it launches a call to the United Nations in favor of a restoration of the independence of the Tibet. Then, after the opening of Deng Xiaoping which declared in 1979 that apart from independence all was debatable, Dalaï Lama asks nothing any more but for one real autonomy of the Tibet within the Popular republic of China being based on the Chinese constitution. So discussions between emissary of Dalaï Lama, Lodi Gyari and Kelsang Gyaltsen, with representatives of the Chinese government began in 2002, no direct negotiation between Dalaï Lama, her government in exile and the Chinese government did not still begin.
Today in China, the Buddhist worship Tibetan of the school Gelugpa is officially authorized by the central government, even in Beijing in the very old Temple of Yonghe. However, the monks Tibetans are constrained to denounce Dalaï Lama. Many international associations denounce a repression of the religion to the Tibet, like the famous one, for example, detention under house arrest of the young person Panchen LAMA, Gedhun Choekyi Nyima, in 1995, the destruction in 2001 of the Buddhist institute of Serthar founded by Khenpo Jigme Phuntsok put under house arrest and missing in doubtful circumstances, or the judgment with a custodial sentence with life of Tenzin Delek Rinpoché in 2005. The majority of the large Masters of the Bouddhisme Tibetan were constrained to be exiled, like illustrated the escape of Rigdzin Namkha Gyatso Rinpoché in 1998 and that the day before the year 2000 of the 17th Karmapa, Orgyen Trinley Dorje.
The Chinese government declared that next the dalaï LAMA will be born in China and will be chosen by China. The dalaï LAMA however affirmed that it does not reappear in China, if the situation is the same one as today, but that it will reappear in a free country to be able to continue its work for the Tibet, the Bouddhisme and humanity.
The 14th dalaï LAMA, Tenzin Gyatso, received the support of many personalities and institutions all over the world for its non-violent fight for the freedom of the Tibet. It in particular received the Nobel Prize of peace in 1989 and the Gold medal of the Congress of the United States on October 17th, 2007.
Exceptional personality, it gathered the Tibetans in exile. According to the 14th Dalai Lama, if the movement for Tibet attracted a broad world support, it is because of the universal principles that the people Tibetan incorporated in his fight. These principles are the Non-violence, the Démocratie, the dialog, the compromise, the respect of the sincere concerns of the others, and our common environment.
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