See also: Dîme (homonymy)
History of the dîmeThe idea of a tax for the maintenance of the clergy is in the Bible (Genèse, XIV-20 and XXVIII-22). At the Jewish , it is it tenth part of the harvest taken for maintenance of the Lévites and on all the incomes to organize a feast for all the household.
In the Christian world, the dîme is initially a religious practice which becomes obligatory at the 4th century. The Capitulary S of 779 and 794, make it exigible from all the population, including on the personal goods of the members of the clergy, in all the frank Empire.
It corresponded to a certain share of harvest (the share varying of a évêché with the other and even of a Paroisse with the other, even sometimes inside the same parish. The rate was high in the South-west of France (until the eighth), in Lorraine (until the seventh). It was eleventh in Normandy, the thirteenth one in the Berry, of fiftieth in Flanders maritime, almost so weak in Dauphiné and Provence.
In order to carry out the collection of this tax, the primitive Curé passed by a Fermier, either for the totality of the dîme, or for a part (half, third, quarter, sixth, etc) and in general for a duration of six or seven years according to the areas.
The dîme was the tax perceived before all the others. The Farm , in kind preserved it with the help of a versed yearly rental either, or in currency, with the Décimateur, i.e. the primitive Curé. The serving priest received " then; priest primitif" the adequate Portion. The dîme on cereals dissatisfied the private peasants of the straw necessary for the litter and the manure. The monopolization of the dîme by the large décimateurs who diverted the original use of it (maintenance of the churches, of the serving clergy, assistance with the poor, creation of the schools…) created also a faintness. Far from requiring disappearance of it, the faithful ones claimed a better use. The dîme was removed with the privileges on August 4th, 1789. The civil Constitution of the clergy of 1790 created a paid Clergé by the State.
One could distinguish, according to the areas and the periods, different standard from said:
- dîme large : relate to the coarse grains, wheat and Seigle.
- dîme pledged : dîme secularized perceived by laic.
- dîme small : carry on the cattle (also called " carnelage") and the Wool.
- dîme mixed : relate to the animals.
- dîme novale : relate to grounds cleared since less than 40 years.
- dîme personal : relate to the fruit of work.
- dîme solite : perceived since unmemorable times (said them strange being occasional).
- dîme real or prédiale : relate to the fruits of the ground.
- dîme green : relate to the flax, the hemp, the fruits and vegetables.
- not to confuse the dîme with another tax: the Ten-per-cent tax S ;
- the Dîme saladine created at the 12th century
- Dîme royal , delivers Vauban.
- Dîme in the Bible and the Book of Mormon
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