Czechoslovakian Communist party
The Czechoslovakian Communist party Czech (: Komunistická strana Československa ) was a Czechoslovakian Political party member of the Internationale Communist, then Kominform (pledged in Stalin). Its policy was copied on the Russian model including even the physical oppression of its adverse adversaries then. This party reigned, in a quasi absolute way, in Czechoslovakia of 1948 to 1989.
BeginningsThe PCT was born the April 16th 1921 from a scission of the Czechoslovakian social democrat Parti. Its first president is Bohumír Šmeral. At the time of its creation, the PCT is one of the most important Communist parties as well in relative terms as absolute. In 1925, begins the process of bolchevisation which consists of a greater affiliation with the program of the Internationale Communist.
Illegal as from 1938, the party reorganizes underground. It is constrained, under the pressure of Moscow which has just signed the Pacte germano-Soviet, to accept the principle of the invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Nazi Germany. During the war, however, the PCT takes a role dominating in resistance and one estimates has 30.000 the number of his members died in the engagements as well on the national ground as abroad.
The PCT is member of the coalition government in 1945. Organized and centralized on the model of PCUS, it is ready to take the reins of the capacity.
The putch of February 1948 and Stalinist terrorThe February 25th 1948, it is the Coup of Prague: Klement Gottwald seizes the capacity following a tactical error of the democratic parties which make confidence with the president Edvard Beneš like last rampart of the democracy. However this one, under the pressure of the Communists, accepts their claims and the National Assembly, the March 11th 1948 approves a motion of confidence to the government lately made up of Klement Gottwald.
The democratic parties either are amalgamated purely and simply with the PCT, or see their pledged directions with the PCT which formally holds the capacity within the government of Front National (Národní fronta): it holds the two-thirds of the votes there, the third remaining being distributed between the other political parties. The free elections are abolished as well as other political freedoms. Begin an authoritarian regime which will end only in November 1989.
One period of terror engages then which aims at the “enemies of class” (priests, middle-class man, intellectuals not-associates, but so old resistant “of the West” (having fled in London to join the government democratic of Beneš and thus liable to suspicion and opposable to the good resistant having found refuge to Moscow)). Following a disagreement between Gottwald, chief of the government, and Rudolf Slánský, general secretary of the PCT about the degree of infeodation to the directives of Moscow, a purging shakes the party. Under cover of charge of plot " trotsko - titisto - Zionist " , Slánský and several top-ranking executives of the PCT whose Gustav Husak, are considered and condemned at the time of the Procès of Prague (11 carried out, 3 condemned to the life imprisonment, of which Artur London).
The thaw kroutchévien and the year of the reforms (1956) do not have any impact on the PCT.
Socialism with human faceThe PCT starts a reform process in 1968 under the impulse of Alexander Dubček which seeks to found what it calls a “Socialisme with human face”. It is the Printemps of Prague which will be repressed under the caterpillars of the tanks of the armies of the Warsaw Pact which invade Prague the August 21st. Convened in Moscow, Alexander Dubček is dislocated of its functions within the party and the government. It is excluded thereafter from the party in 1970.
Gustáv Husák replaces it then. Begin the period of “Normalization” of the political life.
Purgings and the " normalization"Gustáv Husák is a skilful politician who suffered in the past from the Stalinist purgings and which wavers between the moderate pragmatic currents and holding them of the hard line.
“Standardization” consists not to cant a line imposed on Moscow, to choke in egg any reforming inclination within the party and to implacably repress any dissidence, the such Charte 77. A big number of the members of the PCT having taken an active share spring of Prague or simply suspected of ideological deviance is excluded from the rows of the party.
It is not surprising that under these conditions, the PCT does not react to the impulses of the Gorbatchevian Perestroïka (1985 - 1991) and that it does not start a reform interns contrary to certain parties " frères".
The velvet Revolution and afterwardsThe PCT survived the falls of the wall and with the Révolution of velvet in 1989. It changes name and adopts the initials of PCTS - Czech and Slovak Communist party (KSČS). But it autodissout with the December 31st 1992, day of the separation of Czechoslovakia in two independent countries, to give rise to the Communist party of Bohemia and Moravie and to the Slovak Communist party.
It reappears in 1995, on the initiative of some nostalgic of the old Communist regime which wishes to restore the mode in force between 1948 and 1989. Its leader is Miroslav Štěpán, old directing PCT. The party has a limited influence and none of its members is elected at the Parliament.
LeadersFoot-note : the leader of the KSČ is called: " Secretary général" ( generální tajemník ) of 1921 with 1953, " First secrétaire" ( první tajemník ) of 1953 with 1971, then again " Secretary général" of 1971 with 1989.
- Klement Gottwald 1929 - 1953
- Antonín Novotný 1953 - 1968
- Alexander Dubček 1968 - 1969
- Gustáv Husák 1969 - 1987)
- Miloš Jakeš 1987 - 1989
- Karel Urbánek, 1989
- Ladislav Adamec 1989 - 1990
Ritual of May 1st
|Random links:||Policy of Madagascar | Valençay (cheese) | Reversal of the stomach | Milk and Honey | Trip hammer of Chapman | William_Harrison_Ainsworth|