The Czech Republic , also named Tchéquie , is a State of Central Europe created on January 1st, 1969 and independent since January 1st, 1993 at the time of the scission of the Czechoslovakia. It gathers the historical areas of Bohemia, Moravie, and part of the Silesia.
The Czech Republic is member of NATO, and belonged to the European Union since May 1st, 2004.
The Czechs, “populates of Čech” (name of a mythical chief) arrive, at the 6th century at the time of the Great invasions, in a region which is called “Bohemia” because of the presence of the Celtic tribe of Boïens.
With the Middle Ages, the country is called “kingdom of Bohemia” ( the regnum Bohemiae ) in the chronicles, held by clerks writing Latin. The first Czech king was Vratislav II. (1085 - 1092). When it passes, under the sceptre of the Přemyslides, of the Luxembourgois, the Jagellons, the Habsbourgs, it is qualified “Grounds of the crown of Bohemia” ( Cs Země Koruny české ).
When, in 1918, the Slavic ones of the West are émancipent of the Austro-Hungarian supervision poses the problem of the name of the new country. The Slovakia spent thousand years under the Hungarian domination and the Czechs a thousand-year-old half under that of German sovereigns: is born the Czechoslovakia ( Československo ), aggregation as of the adjective český (Czech) with the suffix - sko and the name of another country, Slovensko . Let us note that “Czech Bohemia” says Čechy .
This neologism was imported in French in the form of “Tchéquie”, by the addition of the suffix " - ie". The Czech ministry of the Foreign affairs of the new country, born from the scission of Czechoslovakia, recommended, in 1993, the use of Česko (“French Tchéquie”, “ Czechia ” in English) for all the uses other than the reference at the Czech State and its institutions, in which case, the term of “Czech Republic” applies. In other words, one should write Czech Republic where one would write French Republic or Kingdom of Belgium and “Tchéquie” where France and Belgium would be essential.
This recommendation is ratified neither by the use, nor by the official French-speaking organizations (UNO and IGN in particular) but the use of the short form gains ground .
Bohemia and Moravie
To add to confusion, there exists a linguistic subtlety which astonishes the visitor neophyte. Indeed, certain Moravians, citizens of the Czech Republic, will however refuse to say that they are “Czech” ( Čech in Czech) which designates for them an inhabitant of the Bohemia ( Čechy in Czech), but will be defined as Czech ( český ) when they seek to be defined compared to the German Nationalité S, Polish or Slovak.
Also the Czech federation of football, into Czech, Českomoravský fotbalový svaz is translated (literally) by “bohémomorave federation of football”.
Bohemia and the Bohemian one
The term “Gipsy” finds his source with the arrival in Europe, during the 15th century, of the Rroms and designated these wandering people which, come from the east, started to disperse in Europe by the Bohemia. It is not a question of in no case Czechs.
Bohemian the refers to the life of Bohème which one allots to the “Gipsies” and not the principal area of Tchéquie.
See also: History of the Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is trained by the old provinces of Bohemia and Moravie (including part of the Silesia, left the Saint Germanic Empire Roman, then of the Empire of Austria which constituted the Kingdom of Bohemia (the Couronne of Saint-Etienne ).
After the dislocation of the Empire of Austria-Hungary at the end of the First World War, the Czechs becomes independent within a country which also includes the Slovak areas Empire. This first Czechoslovakia disappears when the Nazi Germany appendix the Bohemia and the Moravie.
Reconstituted in 1945, the Czechoslovakia becomes a satellite of the the USSR during the Cold war. The Communist regime is reversed in November 1989 at the time of the “revolution of velvet”, which carries the Czech opponent Václav Havel to the presidency of the Czechoslovakian republic. The Czechoslovakia disappears after a federal episode (“Czechoslovakia”, Czech and Slovak federal republic) on January 1st, 1993 by mutual agreement between the Czech authorities and Slovak; from where the name of “velvet partition”.
The president of the Republic, Václav Klaus, names Prime Minister Stanislav Gross, in August 2004. April 25th, 2005, this one gives to president Klaus his resignation following a obvious scandal on the doubtful origin of its personal fortune. Jiří Paroubek, Minister for Regional development in the government of Mr. Gross, replaces it then.
The legislative elections of June 4th, 2006 lead to a " pact électoral" : left and right-hand side (including the Greens) laying out each of 100 deputies and any not having the majority. After six months of hard negociations, Mirek Topolánek, leader of the right-hand side, receives finally the nomination of the Czech Parliament on January 19th, 2007 thanks to the voluntary absence of two socialist deputies. The observers estimate that this coalition government joining together the civic democratic party, the democratic Christian union and the ecological left will have a too fragile majority to undertake her program of reform.
Relations with the European Union
- October 4th 1993: Signature of an Agreement of association (coming into effect the February 1996);
- March 31st 1998: Opening of the negotiations of adhesion;
- April 14th 2003: The European Council approves adhesion;
- April 16th 2003: Signature of the Treaty of Accession;
- June 14th 2003: By Referendum, 77,3% of the Czechs approve adhesion;
- May 1st, 2004: The Czech Republic becomes member of the European Union;
See also: Political of the Czech Republic
Parliamentary republic of the type. Since 1993, the Czech Republic is a democratic and pluralist parliamentary Republic. The President is elected for five years by the joined together Parliament. He names the Prime Minister who names the Government.
The Parliament is consisted of the or House of Commons, Sněmovna (200 members elected for four years) and of the Senate (81 members elected for six years and renewed per third every two years).
See also: Areas of the Czech Republic
Tchéquie is divided into 13 areas ( kraje , in the singular kraj ), Prague, the capital of the country also has the statute of area.
See also: Geography of the Czech Republic
The Czech landscape is varied; its Western part, the Bohemia ( Čechy in Czech), consists of a basin, traversed by the Elba (in Czech “Labe”) and the Vltava ( Moldau in German), surrounded mainly by low mountains like the Sudètes including the Monts of the Giants, where one can also find the most point of the country, the Sniejka which culminates with: 1,602 Mr. the Moravie, in the east, is also rather mountainous and is sprinkled especially by the Morava, but shelters also the source of the Odra ( Oder in German). Water of Tchéquie runs out towards three different seas: the the North Sea, the Baltic and the Black Sea.
The local Climat is moderate, with hot summers and winters cold, cloudy and wet, which is an example of combined influences continental and oceanic.
See also: Demography of the Czech Republic
Like the majority of the Central European country and Eastern ( PECO ), the Czech Republic undergoes a demographic Déclin Net since the fall of the Communisme.
Natalists measurements (guaranteed of one housing to the birth of the first child) disappear and the family benefits are not réindexées on the cost of living, which accelerates the fall of the births whereas birth rate was already very low.
Migratory balance remains positive (in particular thanks to immigration coming from country of the ex-USSR) but does not compensate for the decline of the birthrate.
See also: Economy of the Czech Republic, List of Czech companies
Even belonging to the European Union, the currency of Tchéquie is not yet the euro but remains the Czech crown.
See also: Culture of the Czech Republic
CodesThe Czech Republic has as codes:
- LK, according to the List of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports,
- OK, according to the List of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft,
- CZ, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), for code alpha-2,
- CZ, according to the international Code list of the number plates,
- CZ, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-2,
- CZE, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 code alpha-3 (list of codes country),
- CZE, according to the Code list country of the CIO,
- CZE, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-3,
- Czech Republic - Official site of the Czech Republic
- Gate of the Czech administration
- Czech Current events
Beats-smg: Čekėjė Be-X-old: Чэхія Fiu-vro: Tsehhi Vabariik Nds-nl: Tsjechie Roa-rup: Cehia Simple: Czech Republic Zh-min-nan: Česko Zh-yue: 捷克
|Random links:||Pussay | Roger Milhau | Megaman 6 | Uffie | Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus | Télégraphe_électrique|