This article is a general presentation of the island of Cyprus. For the State, to see Republic of Cyprus. For the part occupied by the Turkish army, to see Turkish Republic of Cyprus of North. For the territories of the island belonging to the United Kingdom, to see Akrotiri and Dhekelia.
Cyprus (Greek Κύπρος ; Turkish Kıbrıs ) is an island located in Asia in the east of the the Mediterranean, in the south of the Turkish coast and in the west of the coast syro - Lebanese. It is populated approximately 820.000 inhabitants, whose “Greek” element is majority and the “Turkish” element minority, like by “British” installed in military enclaves under sovereignty of the Crown. The northern part of the island being occupied by the Turkish army since 1974, this one is divided de facto .
the République of Cyprus only is internationally recognized. It has a seat with UNO and is member of the European Union (UE). It is considered to however exert its sovereignty on the whole of the island it controls practically only the southern part (nonoccupied) of the island.
- the northern part, autoproclamée Turkish Republic of Cyprus of North (RTCN), is recognized only by the Turkey and is populated by Cypriot Moslems of Turkish culture , but also by Turks who have the nationality of Turkey resulting from the migratory waves initiated since 1974. Since 2004, the Organization of the Islamic conference grants in this State, the statute of observer under the name of the Turkish State of Cyprus . Certains States expressed a will to treat the RTCN like a State (Azerbaïdjan, Pakistan, Albania, Bosnia, etc). Turkish troops occupy the northern part of the island since 1974: with the adhesion of the Republic of Cyprus (which claims to represent the whole of the territory except the part annexed by the British) to the European Union, part of the European territory is thus populated by Turks and is regarded as occupied by a candidate in negotiation of adhesion with the EU.
the British enclave : at the south of the island, Akrotiri and Dhekelia, two military bases of the English army were preserved in full sovereignty by the Britanniques after the independence of the island.
In spite of the failure of the timid initiatives of Europe (the EEC) and the rejection of the plan of UNO (Plane Kofi Annan approved by the EU) in 2004 by the Greek part with 75%, the Cypriot Republic used the European Union. Even if the European Union were said opposite to accept a divided island, the northern part is excluded de facto, because of Turkish military occupation, in spite of the approval of the plan of UNO with 65%. The statute of the island east thus become a point of major dispute of the Relations between Turkey and the European Union.
See also: History of Cyprus
Inhabited as of the thousand-year-old Life, the island saw appearing ceramics about the middle of thousand-year-old IVe. The Neolithic sites were abandoned towards 3000 av. J. - C. the Bronze Age, which began towards 2300, was one boom thanks to the exploitation of the mines and with the development of the trade.
In the Antiquity, the island of Cyprus belongs to a broad world hellénique.
Towards 1450 av. J. - C., the Mycéniens founded a colony there; it is starting from 1200 av. J. - C. that the Greek city-kingdoms of Chypre.
start to be founded Towards 1000 av. J. - C., had been established with Kition, a colony of Phéniciens.
One extracts from the island of Cyprus, of the Cuivre, that the Romains call aes cyprium (literally “metal of Cyprus”). This word changes with the wire of time to become “French copper”. Cyprus is then included in the Roman Empire, then in the Byzantine Empire.
Richard Lion-hearted conquers the island (1191) and gives it to Guy de Lusignan, which founds the Latin kingdom of Cyprus (1192 - 1489). In the context of the loss of the Latin States of the East, Limassol becomes the capital and the seat of the Ordre of the Temple. It passes then under the control of Venice (1489 - 1571), before being conquered by the Turks; in Famagouste Marcantonio Bragadin is tortured and carried out contrary to engagements; after the naval victory of Lépante (October 7th, 1571), Venice accepts the loss of the island with the peace of March 7th, 1573.
In 1878, the sultan yields the administration of Cyprus in guarantee of the reforms to which it engaged with the the United Kingdom. At the conclusion of the First World War, the United Kingdom unilaterally annexes Cyprus and transforms it into a colony of the Crown. In 1931 takes place the first popular rising of the Cypriot Greeks to claim the union with the Greece: the Enosis .
In 1955, the Cypriot Greeks take again the weapons against the British capacity and carry out a fight for the independence of the island. The British in order to preserve their position and to repress the anti-colonial movement (carried out mainly by Cypriot the Greeks) recruits Turkish Cypriot militia to reinforce the colonial troops. The agreements of Zurich and London of 1959 put an end to the fight anticoloniale. Cyprus becomes an independent republic in 1960, like member of UNO and the the Commonwealth. The United Kingdom, Turkey and Greece become the guaranteeing States of constitutional balance. The treaty of guarantee grants, in particular, a right of military intervention, under certain conditions, with the three powers guarantors, to restore the constitutional order if this one had suddenly been modified. The constitution guarantees to the Turkish Cypriot minority an important political weight (30 % of the stations in the public office and 40 % in the police force) taking into consideration its demographic weight (18 % of the population) and a right to veto on the decisions of the Parliament in a Community system that some judge similar to that of the Lebanon. It is to be announced that, according to the Greek part, these quotas appeared so disproportionate that during the period 1960-1962, the new Cypriot State had certain difficulties of filling them, for lack of Cypriot candidates Turkish.
In 1961, Cyprus becomes member of the the Council of Europe. In 1963, the president Makarios proposes amendments with the Constitution of 1960. This proposal, known under the name of the “thirteen amendments of Makarios”, had aimed at answering the blockade situation institutional persistent for several months. Indeed, the Greek Cypriot representatives and Cypriot Turkish using alternatively, and in a systematic way, of their right to veto, on the proposals resulting from the other community, blocking was inevitable. The tax questions and of division of the administration of the cities were, in 1963, at the origin of the complete paralysis of the institutions on these subjects. Also, the proposals of Makarios had for goal to denounce the Turkish Cypriot right to veto, and more generally the excessive weighting of the institutional capacities. This takeover by force of the Cypriot president contributed to exacerbate the tensions between the two communities, leading to violent one intercommunity confrontations in December 1963. This episode strapping very discussed in its unfolding, marks certainly the end of the hopes of peaceful cohabitation between the two communities, which will not have of cease to separate, and to clash in a fratricidal fight. Benefitting from this situation of tension, Turkey takes again and brings up to date an old claim: the partition of the island and the Turkish community, historically very related to Ankara, implement, everywhere where it can it in the island, this program of separation. At this beginning of year 1964, Cyprus is with fire and blood. The provocations, of all shares, multiply, and the answer brought by the government is unsuited. In parallel, of the militia extremists, in particular EOKA B for the Cypriot Greeks, revive the tensions by making exactions, certainly limited but extremely violent. These bloody incidents will be the occasion for Cypriot Turkish to implement their plan of partition and unilaterally to withdraw all governmental authorities of the island to weaken the legitimacy of the government and thus to paralyze the Cypriot State. The Cypriot Greeks benefit from the policy of the empty chair, decided in January 1964, by the Cypriot representatives Turkish, in all the representative authorities, to make pass from the laws rebalancing the capacities in accordance with the demographic proportion. Cypriot Turkish, is inserted as for them in the logic of separation, causing of this fact the conditions of their setting to the variation. The TMT, Turkish Cypriot militia, causes in a way concerted of the incidents, which the Cypriot Greeks answer in a way increasingly more disproportionate. The Cypriot leaders Turkish continue, during all of winter 1964, this policy of worst with an aim of showing than their safety is concerned and than the partition is the only solution preserving their existence even. This policy will concretize herself, in early June, by the call of the Turkish Cypriot community with Turkey, so that it militarily intervenes in order to ensure their protection: the Turkish troops are stationed in Iskenderun and ready to intervene (what accredits the assumption of the plan concerted between the Cypriot Turkey and representatives Turkish). However, the military invasion of Cyprus will be prevented in extremis by Johnson US president which intervenes personally June 5th and 6th 1964, in order to calm Turkish inclinations, and the operation projected by Ankara will show a bombardment campaign of the Greek Cypriot villages, but without terrestrial intervention. The United States, through the former chief of the State Department, Dean Acheson, will try a secret mediation between Greece and Turkey (in addition combined within NATO) on the Cypriot question in order to avoid a war between these two countries likely to destabilize the south-eastern side of NATO. These attempts show a failure making of Cyprus the ground of ceaseless confrontations between the militia Cypriot Greek and Turkish what will lead UNO to send an important quota of blue helmets (UNFICYP) on the island in March 1964.
Following the Dictatorship of the colonels which is set up in Greece, of many opponents take refuge in Cyprus. The July 15th 1974 the national guard directed by Greek officers launches an coup attempt of State against the president Makarios with the assistance of the group armed with the EOKA B (not to be confused with the EOKA which wished to carry out the Enosis , it is to say the unification of Cyprus to Greece). The July 20th, Turkey intervenes militarily pretexting the protection of the interests of the Turkish community while launching the operation Attila, and occupies the north of the island in two days (making sure control of 38 % of the territory). In Greece, the refusal of the army to imply itself front in this conflict marks the end of the Dictature of the colonels. Once the restored Cypriot republic, Turkey refuses to be withdrawn and imposes the partition of the country on both sides of the “green line” (called “Ligne Attila” by the Turks). 200 000 Cypriot constrained with the exodus between 1974 and 1975, are driven out occupied territory by Turkey; Turks forced to settle in north in 1975 at the request of their leader Rauf Denktash at the time of talks in Vienna (Austria). February 13rd, 1975 sets up a State, “the Republic of the turquisants” of Cyprus of the North into 1983 which is recognized only by Turkey. UNO disapproved this occupation in its resolution 541 of November 18th, 1983. Unicyp takes the control of the green line and makes respect the cease-fire. Turkey then conducts successive campaigns of emigration forced towards the occupied part of Cyprus (systematically condemned by resolutions of UNO) so reinforcing its demographic weight and turquiser the north of the island.
In 2003 the prospect for the entry of Cyprus in the European Union allows a first thaw, with the opening of points of passages on the green line and a mission of good officess of the secretary of the United Nations, Kofi Annan. But the Annan plan, intervening after thirty years of unfruitful negotiations and proposer to found a confederal State and authorizing each state confederated thus created to prevent the installation of more than one third of residents of the other community on his ground, accepted with more 65 % by the inhabitants of the north of the island, is rejected with 70 % by those of the south at the time of a referendum. For the first time during this referendum, of the mass demonstrations took place in the occupied part of Cyprus, during which the Turkish Cypriot community disputed the supervision of Ankara openly and expressed its wish to see Turkey minus mixing with the Turkish Cypriot institutional affairs. May 1st 2004, the Republic of Cyprus enters the European Union with part of its territory always militarily occupied by Turkey. The resumption of negotiations between the two communities, and any progress towards a solution with this conflict which has separated in fact the two communities for more than forty years, seems from now on largely conditioned by the projection of the negotiations of accession of Turkey in Europe. Creation since 2005 of points of passage on a side towards the other making it possible to the populations to recreate contacts gives a glimmer of hope for an improvement of the situation.
Relationship with the European Union
- the February 19th 1972 Cyprus signs the Agreement of association (coming into effect the 1999).
- the July 4th 1990 Cyprus presents the question of adhesion;
- the March 31st 1998 opening of the négociationa of adhesion (finished the December 13rd 2002).
- the April 14th 2003 the European Council approves adhesion
- the April 16th 2003 Cyprus signs the Treaty of Accession (coming into effect on May 1st 2004);
- the February 13rd 2007 Cyprus that is examined its subordination to the Critères of convergence.
See also: Geography of Cyprus
Surface of Cyprus east of 9.251 km ².
One finds a large variety there, with these mountainous solid masses of Troodos and Pendadactylos which rises under the volcanic force exerted by the tectonic plates of Africa and Eurasia; a dry climate in the area of Nicosie, and of course a very Mediterranean climate with the sea bringing a little freshness lasting the long summer months.
Political parties (alphabetically):
- AKEL (Communist party)
- CTP (Center left - Turkish - with the capacity in the invaded part)
- European Democracy
- Democratic plain (Cyprus)
- DIKO (left the current president (2005))
- Left European, created in 2005 to leave in particular the New Horizons
- DP (Center right - Turkish - takes part in the coalition with the capacity in the northern part)
- Greens (Green and environmentalists), a deputy on 56,2% of the voices in 2006
- Nouveaux Horizons
- UBP (Right - Turkish)
Aphrodite (in Latin Venus):
Goddess of the love, Aphrodite, also called Venus, was born from sea foam. She would have been brought by the wind of west, Zéphir on the shores of Cyprus. A tradition locates the birthplace of Aphrodite instead of the littoral named Pétra tou Roumiou (“the rock of the Romain”), a whole of cliffs and rocks impressive, a little in the east of old Paphos. It is said that this rock, planted in the sea with a few tens of meters of the shore, to the point of a split, would have been thrown there by Titan which would have torn off it with the mountainous chain of the Pentadactyl one, in the north of Nicosie. The “Pentadactylos” (of penta , five and typists , finger) indicates a mountain whose quite particular form corresponds, according to the legend, with the print left by the hand which tore off the top of the mountain to throw it to the sea. Scum caused by the fall of this rock in water would have been born the goddess from the Love, Aphrodite.
CodesCyprus has as a code:
- 5B, according to the List of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft,
- CY, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-2,
- CY, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-2,
- .cy, according to the List of Internet TLD (Signal level domain),
- CYP, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 (code list country),
- CYP, according to the Code list country CIO,
- CYP, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-3,
- LLC, according to the List of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports,
Site France diplomacy: http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/pays-zones-geo_833/chypre_218/index.html
orthodoxe Church of Cyprus
- List of the kings de Chypre
- Geography of Cyprus
- Towns of Cyprus
- University of Cyprus
- ''' University of Laval ''' (Canada, Quebec)
- the site of Unficyp
- a chart of pattern of the settlements on the site of the diplomatic World
- Site of the Cypriot executive
- Site of the Cypriot Room of the representatives
- the result of the elections to the Cypriot Room of the representatives since 1981
- illegal Exploitation of the Greek properties Cypriot by Turkey
- Violation of the human rights by Turkey in Cyprus
|Random links:||Lengua estonia | Rene Bouin | Patrick Macnee | Zentralfriedhof | Mary Todd Lincoln | Ogdensburg (New York) | National Commission of toponymy (France) | Buffle_domestique|