Description of the ground and the positionsThe cricket is played between two teams of eleven players plus a twelfth player envisaged in the event of failure, on an oval ground generally in grass, which measures 135 meters out of 150. The teams are normally made up players having complementary qualities: some are rather of good beaters ( batsmen ), others rather of the launchers ( bowlers ). Lastly, the guard ( wicket-keeper ) which is behind the counter, with special protective gears, is a player with share, with the sharpened reflexes. Certain players are at ease in two positions, good batters and good bowlers or good batters and good wicket-keepers, they is called alrounders . All the players are beaters during the part. On the other hand, only some of them will carry out throws.
In the center of the ground, one finds a surface rectangular, whose grass is cut shorter. It is the wicket , or public garden or pitch . At each end of the pitch is a group of three wood stakes ( stumps ), sufficiently brought closer from/to each other so that the ball cannot pass between them. The stakes are surmounted by two witnesses ( bails ). The unit forms a counter ( wicket , not to confuse with the word synonymous with pitch ). The distance between the two counters is generally of 22 Verge S (Yard S) (a score of meters). On the pitch are traced lines of chalk ( creases ). A line of 4 feet (1m30) length is traced in front of the counters, it is the popping crease , territory sure for the beater, equivalent of the base to the Baseball.
The play is arbitrated by two referee S ( umpires ). The first is held behind the counter from where the launcher plays ( bowling side umpire ), the other is held with right angle compared to the other counter, behind the active beater ( public garden-leg umpire ). They can call upon a third referee who checks the course of play thanks to a camera coupled to a video tape recorder.
Structure of a match
The meeting is divided into innings (turns of beater, handles or periods). The teams play their handles consecutively. Team which beats (which attacks) is known as in . The goal of the team in is to mark the greatest number of points ( runs ).
The opposing team (which defends) tries of to prevent it by eliminating the unfavourable beaters as quickly as possible or, at the very least, by preventing them from marking points. If the ten beaters of a team are eliminated, this team is known as all out , the last beater, remainder alone, being not out . The sleeve of this team is then finished.
There are simultaneously two beaters of the team which attack on the ground: one on each side of the pitch , in front of the wicket . The unfavourable launcher carries out its gesture on the level of one of the wickets towards the beater which is on the level of the other wicket . The wicket-keeper of the team which defends places behind the wicket aimed by the launcher. New the other players place themselves in the field to try to intercept the ball.
Each handle is divided into series or salvos ( overs ) which consist of six throws of balls by the same launcher since one of the ends of the pitch . Formerly, when each country decided its duration, a over could include/understand from four to eight balls according to the countries. The throw must be carried out arm tightened . At the end of a series, the captain of the team which defends indicates another launcher which will launch since the other end of the pitch . A sleeve can be made up of a limited or unlimited number of series. Within the framework of a match to number of overs limited, the sleeve of a team stops as of the number of series played reached this number, and this same if there were less than ten eliminations in its rows.
The beater which receives the throw is known as active beater ( one strike , striker ). The other beater is known as inactive ( non-striker ).
Elimination of the beatersThe beater can be left various ways.
Bowled : the launcher succeeded in destroying the counter (to make fall at least one from the witnesses) of the active beater during its throw.
Caught : if one of the hunters (players of field) or the launcher intercepts the ball touched by the beater or the hand of the active beater before this one does not touch the ground. The particular case (but frequent) of an interception by the guard of counter located behind the beater is known as caught behind . The particular case of an interception by the launcher is known as caught and bowled .
Leg before wicket or LBW : this rule is most difficult to judge for the referees because it is necessary indeed that all these conditions are met:
- the throw touches in first impact the active beater or its equipment (not necessarily the legs, in spite of what the name of elimination lets suppose), voluntarily or not
- the throw undoubtedly moved on the counter, as well in direction as in height
- the throw does not have not rebounded on the interior side, that where the legs of the beater are located ( one side , leg side )
- the beater will be eliminated except if:
- the throw rebounded on the external side ( off side ) and the beater tried to strike the ball and the impact does not have not take place in the axis of the counter
Modern technology is particularly useful to help with the decision of the referees in the application of this rule.
Stumped : if the guard of counter destroys the counter of the active beater with the ball without any external intervention, whereas the beater is not in its sure zone and that it did not start to run to mark points.
Run out : a hunter (player of field) destroyed the counter with the ball whereas the beaters achieve their runs . It is the beater which is more close to the destroyed counter which is declared except play (except obviously if it succeeded in joining the sure zone). It is, with Obstructing the field and Timed out , a case where the inactive beater can be eliminated.
Above the most frequent cases of exit of the beater appear. Nevertheless, other rarer cases can arise.
Hit wicket : the active beater or its beater destroys its own counter at the time launching it.
Hit the ball twice : the active beater strikes twice the ball, the second striking being a voluntary striking.
Handled the ball : the active beater voluntarily touches the ball with its hand. It has the right to do it only with the approval of the hunters or to protect itself. In the history of the cricket test, that arrived only seven times.
Obstructing the field : the beater has voluntarily constrained one of the hunters. In fact, it is especially a question of preventing the beater from pushing a hunter - he completely has the right to place himself in his field of view, or to place himself in obstacle between the hunter and the counter. Only a beater in the history of the cricket test, Len Hutton (England) made such a fault.
Timed out : if the new beater puts more than two minutes to give a its opinion, after the preceding beater was eliminated. That never arrived in the history of the cricket test.
For bowled , caught , leg before wicket , stumped and hit wicket the beater can be eliminated only if the throw is considered to be valid by the referee. In the contrary case ( No ball ), it continues with batter. For run out , handled the ball , hit the ball twice , obstructing the field and timed out , the beater can be eliminated whatever the validity from the throw.
A beater can be withdrawn to look after a wound, duly noted by the referee: it “is withdrawn, not eliminated” (or “withdrawn for wound”). It can choose to return on the ground after treatment, in which case it must wait until one of its partners is eliminated. If a beater is withdrawn for a reason other than a wound, it can do it, but will be declared definitively except play and will not be able to return on the ground.
In theory, a beater can be eliminated only after a call from at least a player of the opposing team to the referee. This call generally consists of exclamation “ Howzat ” ( How' S that ). The captain has nevertheless the possibility of withdrawing a call… and thus of saving beater-which, for its part, can be also conceded eliminated by leaving the ground ( walking ).
Deduct points ( runs )
See also: Contenu=Voir the article [[Grid of score to the cricket]].
The team which beater can mark points in several manners:
each time the two beaters exchange their positions - generally while running - and that the counters remain intact, a point is marked. If only one exchange of positions takes place, then it is an individual (not single). For two exchanges, it is a double , three exchanges, a triple . There is no particular name for more than three exchanges, situation which remains relatively rare and which often results from balls badly turned over towards the counters by the hunters ( overthrows ).
if the ball leaves the limit ( boundary ) of the ground and that it touched the ground before leaving, four points are marked. It is what is called a furnace . If the ball did not touch the ground, six points are marked. Logically, it is a six .
If the beater touched the ball with its beater or the hand holding the beater, the points are personally credited to him. If not, they are it with the team under the name of will extras ( byes if the ball were not touched, leg bye if the ball touched the body or the equipment of the beater, or No ball or wide ).
There is no obligation for the beater to strike the ball to run and mark points nor, reciprocally, to run when it struck the ball. Its only obligation (moral) is to avoid the destruction of its counter and, for example, to make the decision inconsiderately to run or, generally, to leave the sure zone, which would expose it to elimination.
A beater which marks 100 points in a sleeve is known as to have marked a hundred ( century ), considerable fact with the cricket. Same manner, the beaters can mark half-hundreds ( half-century ), doubles, triple, quadruple (what did not arrive once in cricket test) even quintuple (what arrived once in cricket first classifies) hundreds.
Points can also be marked when the launcher fails launching the ball in a valid way.
There is No ball (illegal ball) when the launcher exceeds the line of its foot before (what would bring it too much closer to the counter of the active beater) or exceeds the side line of its foot postpones (what would give a too oblique trajectory to the ball) at the time to launch it. Another cause of No ball is a way of launching illegal, broken arm for example or a throw openly directed on the beater (the appreciation of this type of launching being naturally prone to frequent discussions). One can still quote the case of a launcher which would not indicate to the beater, of the indications on his throw: with which hand, on which side, etc There is also No ball if the guard of the counter or a hunter makes an illegal action during the throw. The penalty for an illegal ball is at least of a point, addition at the points possibly marked on the throw. Moreover, the throw does not count in the calculation of the throws of a series and the ball is thus rejouée.
a throw out of reach beater is declared unplayable ( wide ball ). The definition of such a throw, with the appreciation of the referee, is more strict for a match with limited number of series. The penalty of a wide ball is also at least of a point. Moreover, the throw does not count in the calculation of the throws of a series and the ball is thus rejouée.
If the ball is lost, one of the hunters must declare it. If the referee confirms that the ball is indeed lost, the team with the beater marks six points in addition to the races already carried out at the time of the declaration. The thing practically never arrives in cricket of high-level, the rule being rather conceived for grounds amateurs, comprising trees, bushes, high grasses or… visited by facetious animals.
the referee is free to give five points of penalty to a guilty team of certain reprehensible behaviors, among which: intentional deceleration of the play, intentional degradation of the playing field, attempt at cheating to gain points, attempt at distraction of the beater, etc
Rules of the cricket
The rules of the cricket constitute a unit codified by the Marylebone Cricket Club ( alias MCC), one of the leading authorities of the cricket, and published in 1775. They standardize the course and the correction of the meetings in two periods everywhere in the world.
The rules changed much since the 18th century but the following points remain identical:
choice of the first team with batter: pile pulling or face
- dimensions of the pitch and placement of the line in front of the counter ( popping crease )
- dimensions of the stakes and the witnesses
- weight of the ball
- many throws per handle
- rule of the No ball (to launch illegal)
- rules of exit of the beater
- time allocated with the beater to replace the preceding beater
The rules strictly speaking comprise a foreword, a preamble, a corpus of 42 rules and four appendices. The milked foreword of the MCC and the history of the rules. The preamble is a recent addition about the spirit of the play. He was assistant of the Rules to prevent the development of nonsporting practices.
The International counsel of the cricket ( International Cricket Council , ICC) created, him, the standard Conditions of play for the test matches and the standard Conditions of play for One Day Internationals . This two whole of rules is added to the rules of the MCC. In the same way, each country cricketer implemented rules of play for the national meetings.
Control on the ground
With the cricket, a honourable behavior is necessary on behalf of all the players. According to the payments of the ICC, the players can see their decreased wages or be suspended during a certain number of matches, even of years. The ICC name a general referee for each test match and each ODI. This referee does not have any capacity during the play, it acts more than one the official in charge one of good progress of the match. He can receive the requests of the players, of official of each team, and the referees. He can audition the parts in conflict, to impose to the players fines proportional to their premium of match. The referee of match can also ask for the intervention of a higher body, which can inflict sanctions going to the suspension with life.
Among the grave offenses, involving the heaviest sanctions, appear:
bets on the exit of the meetings
- the faking of a match
- the corruption of a player for one of the two preceding faults
- the misprision of the faking of a match, or bets on a match
The other infringements are classified of categories of level 1,2,3 or 4:
Infringements of level 1
infringement with the code of the colors and logos (commercial logo or preparing of the beater excluded)
- misuse of its equipment or of the installation (to throw or strike its beater, for example)
- dispute, by the word or the gesture, of a decision of a referee
- language obscene, coarse or insulting
- excessive disputes
- makes show aggressively the house (where the players withdraw themselves), with an unfavourable beater which will withdraw
Infringements of level 2
repetition of an infringement of level 1 in the 12 months which follow
- serious dispute, by the word or the gesture, of a decision of a referee
- infringement with the code of the colors and logos concerning a commercial logo or the preparing of the public beater
- critical of an incident of the match, or official of the match
- physical contact deliberated and unacceptable with another player, during the match
- led aggressive towards a referee during a dispute
- distraction deliberated on the other players, obstruction on the ground
- makes throw violently the ball in direction of a player, ofa referee or of official a
- language obscene, aggressive or very insulting towards another player, a referee, official or a spectator
- faking of the ball, in infringement with the rule 42.3
- any attempt to fake a match, that it is from the point of view of the result, of the number of points or any other statistics
Infringements of level 3
repetition of an infringement of level 2 in the 12 months which follow
- intimidation towards a referee
- threats towards a player, official or a spectator
- language or insulting gesture with racial connotation, religious, social, national or ethnic
Infringements of level 4
repetition of an infringement of level 3 in the 12 months which follow
- threats towards a referee
- aggression of another player, referee, official or spectator
- act of violence during the play
- language or gesture very insulting with racial connotation, religious, social, national or ethnic
The sanctions for each infringement vary according to the level:
level 1: amends - from 0% to 50% of the premium of match
- level 2: amends - from 50% to 100% of the premium of match; suspension of a test match or 2 ODI
- level 3: suspension - from 2 to 4 test matches or 4 to 8 ODI
- level 4: suspension - of 5 test matches to the suspension with life, or of 10 ODI to the suspension with life
For the infringements of level 3 and 4, the amount of the fines is fixed by the ICC without correlation with the premium of match. The infringements concerning the bets or the faking of matches are punished of a suspension which goes from the 12 month old suspension to the suspension to life. The fines can be fixed freely.
Forms of cricket
Cricket “ Test ”
The cricket “test” is a form of international cricket. The first test match took place the March 15th 1877, during the round of the team of England in Australia in 1876 - 1877. There was no time limit, and the number of throws per series was fixed at 4. The match ended in advance the March 19th by a victory of the Australia with 45 points.
Since, more than 1000 test matches were played. In 2000, the number of countries which can play of the test matches passed to 10, with the arrival of the Bangladesh. Nowadays, the test matches are played in 5 days, without day of rest.
Cricket “first class”
The cricket “first classifies” ( first-class ) resembles the cricket test, except that the matches last at least 3 days. Technically, the cricket test is a cricket first classifies, but the expression is usually reserved for the national meetings, between areas or cities.
Cricket “ One Day International ”
It is following the pressure of the television channels, which wanted a format shorter and more palpitating, that the cricket “ one day ” (in only one day) was introduced into the Années 1960. In this form of cricket, each team is with the beater only for only one period, that is to say two periods in all. Generally, the first period takes place the afternoon, and the second the evening, enlightened with the projectors. The number of series is limited, generally to 50 for the international matches.
This form of play attracted new amateurs immediately: there does not need more to hold 5 days to follow a match, the players can carry coloured behaviors (from where the nickname of “cricket pyjamas”), contrary to the test matches where the players play in white. Lastly, the play is faster, with more dramatic interest.
However, much of purists affirm that the cricket “ test ” request much more strategic direction, and that only deploys all the aspects of the play to him. They reproach the cricket “ one day ” for stressing too much the fast marking of points. At all events, the cricket “ one day ” does not form part of the cricket first classifies.
Cricket “lists has”
The cricket “lists has” is with the cricket “ one day ” what the first-class is with the cricket test. The majority of the nations of the cricket have competitions of form “lists has”. The handles are generally limited, the limit court from 40 to 60. This category does not have an official existence for the ICC. It is an invention of the Association of the historians and statisticians of cricket (ACHS), forged for the parallel with the fist-class"
This form of cricket is played in the majority of the great nations since its invention in 2003. The objective acknowledged at the time of the setting at the day of this form of cricket is of redynamiser the world of the cricket by folding it a little more with the desires of the consuming televiewer.
In a Twenty20 match, the number of overs is limited to 20 per team and the position of the fielders is arranged so as to maximize the number of " tonks". The matches of twenty20 are played, like the matches " one day" with a white ball and the players wear clothing of colors. However with the difference in the matches " one-day" , the players do not bear their name on their shirt but a pseudonym. A Twenty20 match lasts three hours on average.
The cricket club is a cricket amateur, but equipped with formal rules. In the large majority of the cases, the number of handles is limited, usually to 30 or 35 per period. The cricket club is practiced in an intensive way in the nations of the cricket, but also elsewhere by their emigrants. It is frequent to meet grounds of cricket club whose pitch is out of synthetic grass.
Cricket of beach
The cricket of beach ( beach cricket ) is a term applied to all the abstract forms of cricket, even if he is not exploited a beach. The rules result usually from a consensus between the two teams, before the part. Very often, the most complex rules and most subtle of the cricket, like the LBW, are ignored or adapted
Country playing cricket with an international level
See also: Contenu=Voir the article [[Cricket in the world]].
The teams having the statute “test” (entitled to play of the test matches) are, by order of seniority, the Australia, the England, the South Africa, the “West Indies” (the British Antilles), the New Zealand, the India, the Pakistan, the Sri Lanka, the Zimbabwe and, since 2000, the Bangladesh. The Kenya had formerly, him, the international statute one-day . Although Kenya is not entitled to play of the matches test, just like the countries “test”, it did not have to dispute the eliminating heats for the World cup. It was deposed of this statute in 2005, but Kenya appears among six countries forming a kind of " second division" world cricket and of which matches the one day are counted like ODI, with the Bermuda, the Canada, the Scotland, the Ireland, and the Netherlands.
Leading authorities of the cricket
It is with the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) that returns the historical role of legislator of the cricket. At present, it is the International counsel of the cricket (ICC) which governs the international cricket. Each nation of the cricket also has institutions sporting, charged to select the national team and to govern national competitions. These institutions are:
in England: the Office of the English and Welsh cricket ( England and Wales Cricket Board , ECB)
- in Australia: Cricket Australia (CA)
- in South Africa: the unit Office of the cricket of South Africa ( United Cricket Board off South Africa , UCBSA)
- in the Caribbean: the Office of the cricket of the Caribbean ( West Indies Cricket Board , WICB)
- in New Zealand: New Zealand Cricket (NZC)
- in India: the Office of monitoring of the cricket in India ( Board off Control for Cricket in India , BCCI)
- in Pakistan: the Office of the Cricket in Pakistan ( Pakistan Cricket Board , PCB)
- in Sri Lanka: the Office of monitoring of the cricket in Sri Lanka ( Board off Control for Cricket in Sri Lanka , BCCSL)
- in Zimbabwe: union of the cricket of Zimbabwe ( Zimbabwe Cricket Union , ZCU)
- in Bangladesh: the Office of the cricket in Bangladesh ( Bangladesh Cricket Board , BCB)
Structure of the international cricket
Rounds, series and tournaments
The international cricket strictly speaking does not have a formal structure. However, the countries where the cricket is played always organized, without intervention of the ICC, their own meetings. The majority of the test matches and the series of ODI take the form of rounds.
During a round, a national team goes in another country and plays of the matches of drive or first class against regional teams of the host country. She also plays of the test matches against the national team of the country, or the ODI. Lastly, it can play of the “triangular tournaments” against the national team of the host country and another nation in round. Generally, these triangular tournaments take place at the beginning or the end of a round. In this type of tournament, the three teams play one against the other two or three times. The two teams having marked the most points (one counts 2 points for a victory, 1 point for a tie and 0 for a defeat) play a final.
A series of test matches can count from one to six matches, although this last figure is very seldom reached. The most important series are played into five matches, the least important into two to four. In fact, the duration of the series depends much on the attitude of the host country towards the ODI: the more preserving nations like the England or the Australia organize series of five matches, whereas the countries amateurs of ODI, like the India, prefer series of three meetings.
For the majority of the rounds, there exists a trophy decreed with the winner of the series. For the rounds England against Australia, they are Ashes (the '' Ashes ''), for Australia - the Western Indies, it is the trophy Frank Worrel.
The series of ODI count from three to seven matches. It is usual to play a short series of ODI at the same time as a long series of test matches. In addition to the rounds, the nations of the cricket can organize ODI in neutral ground. The Sahara Cut was a series of played ODI every year between the India and the Pakistan with Toronto (Canada), before the Indian government does not order the suspension of all the bonds of cricket with the Pakistan. Contrary to the ODI, the test matches are never played in neutral ground.
In addition to the series and the tournaments arranged by the countries themselves, the ICC organize two events. The World cup of cricket takes place every four years. Y take part the countries having the statute “test”, Kenya and other countries resulting from the eliminating heats. The Trophée of the champions is held every four years, between the World cups. It is a tournament where only one defeat involves elimination.
The Championship “test” was created by the ICC to make it possible to the amateurs to compare all the teams having the statute “test”. The team which is at the head on a given date gains the Trophy test. The points are allotted to a team according to her results. The classification is done according to the relationship between the full number of marked points and the number of meetings and played series.
Championship ODI was created for reasons similar to those of the Championship test. The structure in is similar. The championship does not replace the World cup, which has much more importance in the spirit of the majority of the amateurs.
Structure of the national cricket
In the majority of the countries, the organization of the national cricket is less thorough than that of the international cricket. There exist usually trophies of first class and trophies for the meetings of limited number of handles. There are generally teams by city, then by area. Sometimes, of the teams made up of employees of the same company are authorized to play.
- Wasim Akram (Pakistan)
- Ian Botham (England)
- Geoffrey Boycott (England)
- Sir Donald Bradman (Australia)
- Kapil Dev. (India)
- Sunil Gavaskar (India)
- W.G. Grace (England)
- Sir Richard Hadlee (New Zealand)
- Sir Jack Hobbs (England)
- Imran Khan (Pakistan)
- Brian Lara (the Western Indies)
- Harold Larwood (England)
- Muttiah Muralitharan (Sri Lanka)
- Sir Viv Richards (the Western Indies)
- Sir Garfield Sobers (the Western Indies)
- Sachin Tendulkar (India)
- Inzamam-ul-Haq (Pakistan)
- Shane K. Warne (Australia)
- Sanath Jayasuriya (Sri Lanka)
- Blog of French cricket
- Official site of the ICC
- Rules of the cricket
- Lexicon of the cricket
- Cricinfo.com (articles, histories, statistics)
- CricketArchive.com (statistics)
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