PresentationCreusot is a city of the area Burgundy, chief town of cantons (Creusot-Is and the Creusot-West) Département of Saône-et-Loire. With 26.283 inhabitants, Creusotins, it is the third city of the department behind Châlon-sur-saône and Mâcon (prefecture). Its economy is dominated by the presence of metallurgical industry (Industeel, Alstom), but also of SNECMA. Creusot, strong of its rich person industrial history, shelters Écomusée as well as the Academy François Bourdon, center of industrial files, which recall the epopee of the dynasty Schneider, founder family of the city. Since the years 1990, the city develops its tourist assets with, like principal window, the Park of Combes, where fond of delicacies of attractions and of stroll in tourist Train côtoient sporting and amateurs of relaxation in full nature. Creusot is in addition the second university center of Burgundy (behind Dijon), with its IUT (4 departments, 6 professional licenses) and the University center Condorcet (4 dies DEUG, OF the), antenna of the Université of Burgundy.
Geographical locationCreusot is a town of Saône-et-Loire, in the south of Burgundy. The surrounding area is marked by the breeding (with a scrap-metal landscape very present) but also by the vine growing since famous the Cépage S Burgundian opens out to some 20 km in the north and the east of Creusot. One can also note the proximity of the solid mass of the Morvan (and in particular of the Mont Beuvray). Although no River crosses it, the water levels are not rare all around the city (Lake Torcy, pond of Breuil, pond of Torch and Lake Montaubry).
HeraldicBlasonnement: of azure to the money power hammer posed on a gold prick, the summoned anvil of an ingot of mouths, accosted as a chief of two old lamps of minor of gold lit of mouths, with the chief bent of very charged with an alongside money anchor of two flowers of gold lily.
The miner's lamps point out the extraction of the coal, and the Marteau-pilon is emblematic city. The anchor was the emblem of the corporation of the fondeurs-forgerons.
This blazon was drawn by Robert Louis in 1950.
Creusot until 1836Until 1782, Creusot is only one small borough without industry, the most important village of the area being then Montcenis. In 1782, a royal Fonderie is built in Creusot to benefit from the resources Houille of the area, it is the first factory of the city. An engineer and industrial English, John Wilkinson will take part in the development of the metallurgy. The royal family also decides to build in Creusot the Cristallerie of the queen in 1786. After the Revolution, in 1818, the foundry and crystal manufacture change owner. The forging mills are repurchased in 1826 per Manby and Wilson, but go bankrupt in 1833. It is in 1836 that enters in scene a Lorraine family, the Schneider family. Eugene and Adolphe Schneider, in the search of a site allowing the establishment of Steel-works S, decides to repurchase the forging mills of Creusot which had the carboniferous reserves essential to the realization of their project and whose area did not miss a Iron ore (mines of Mazenay-Changes). Schneider set up an industrial and urban development plan of Creusot.
1836-1960125 years of Schneider domination start then on the city of Creusot. Eugene and Adolphe Schneider turn to resolutely modern productions, intended in particular for the Railroad (locomotive, steel rails) or for the army (guns, shieldings) and whose quality is universally recognized. The company is characterized by the production from special steels like by the use of modern tools like, for example, the Marteau-pilon with vapor which makes it possible to forge parts with a high degree of accuracy. Thus steels of Creusot are often shown with their advantage at the time of the contests (World Fair) compared to their competitors (Vickers, Krupp Ag, Škoda).
Creusot is not any more one village but a city-factory. It is the stronghold of Schneider which is made there arrange in residence royal crystal manufacture (called castle of the Glassmaking). The town hall is on several occasions directed by family members. Adolphe and Eugene make use of the city to support their political ambitions: Eugene Schneider is several times appointed and even president of the legislative body of 1867 with 1870.
The city and its factories, which count approximately 10.000 workmen then, are also the hearth of social movements whose development faces a severe repression. Around 1870, figures of the working militancy such as Eugene Varlin, Benoit Malon, Adolphe Assi or Jean-Baptiste Dumay are implied there.
In January 1870, the question of the control of the mutual relief fund gives place to sick leave which lead in March to a 23 days strike. After the fall of the Second Empire in September, Eugene Schneider takes refuge in England. Jean-Baptiste Dumay is named mayor of the city. March 26th 1871, in echo with the Parisian insurrection, Dumay and the national guard proclaim the Commune of Creusot. But the army takes the control of the city and as of on March 28th, the movement is choked.
The end of the 19th century knows a renewal of tension social which culminates with the great strike of 1899, very hard. Again, Schneider call upon the army. Repression antisyndicale results in references into mass and mark durably the spirits. Later, in 1936, Creusot will not know only one day of strike.
The Schneider company diversifies its factory construction with the construction of new factories with Châlon-sur-saône, Montchanin or later with the Breuil, but Creusot remains the heart of the company. At the time of the First World War, this one takes part in the manufacture of the first French tanks with the Char Schneider CA1. The activity also diversifies in the production of electrical equipment.
During the Second world war, the city, great industrial center equipped with production capacities of weapons, on June 18th 1940 by the Germany Nazi is occupied. To stop any production, aviations English and American bombard the city on several occasions. The bombardment of the October 17th 1942, by RAF, makes 63 dead and more than 250 wounded. The assessment is even heavier in the night of the 20 with the June 21st 1943: more than 300 died and 1000 wounded, destruction at least partial of the hospital, the town hall, the castle of the Glassmaking and three churches. These bombardments left a very strong memory in the memory of Creusotins because it is primarily the population, more than the factories, which was touched.
PaternalismFrom 1836 with 1960, to Creusot, all turns around the Sidérurgie and of the dynasty Schneider. This one deploys a paternalism which tends to control all the aspects of the life of Creusotins. The steel-works employ at least a member of each creusotine family. Schools are created (the last will close their doors in the middle of the 20th century), a dispensary then a Hôpital are set up, of the residences are built for the workmen and the Engineer S (one can still see today in Creusot their respective districts). All these installations make it possible to improve the life of Creusotins which often worked under difficult conditions (one quotes in particular the puddlers whose life expectancy was very limited).
The inhabitants maintain the passion relations with their owners (the Schneidre ), sometimes engaging against them in trade-union fights very hard (the great strike of 1899), to sometimes paying vigorous homages them while cotisant themselves to set up Statue S to them or while mobilizing themselves at the time of the events of the family (marriages or burials for example).
Some great achievements of the factories of Creusot at the time of Schneider
- Of the engines with vapor with, in particular, the Gironde (1838), one of the first French engines.
- Of the electric engines like the BB 9004 holder in 1955 of the world speed records on rail with 331 km/h.
- Of the special Steel S with the Nickel (1889).
- French guns of the Franco-German wars.
- Of the armor-plates for the ships.
- the Power hammer with vapor of Creusot, allowing a very precise work of steel.
- first French rails in 1827, of the steel rails since 1868, (for the anecdote, the TMB - Tram of Mont Blanc - still uses the Schneider rails).
- Of the ships and Underwater S for the ministry for the war (of the building sites were installed in Châlon-sur-Saône).
- Of many electrical materials.
- Of the metal frames of Bridge S or Station S (station of Santiago of Chile in 1896).
The fallThe company, with the passing of years, becomes an immense conglomerate where are côtoient the iron and steel and electric activities (developed starting from the XIX century end). But this beautiful mechanics is seized up in 1960 with the death of Charles Schneider. Orphan, the company is not any more the same one. The golden age is well far when the Oil crisis of 1973 bursts. The factories Schneider (called then Creusot the Loire Industry) enter during a terrible time of financial problems which leads to voluntary liquidation in 1984. The social movements multiply in Creusot in 1983-1984 but without success and most of the factory disappears. The iron and steel activities having survived the difficulties are integrated into the group Usinor (from now on Arcelor, and now Arcelor Mittal) while the company is centred on its electric activities (Schneider Electric). The city loses here its larger provider of employment.
Current economic situationBled with white by the disappearance of the near total of its iron-foundries during the Eighties, Creusot tries to survive by diversifying its branches of industry. Today, some great world groups have factories in Creusot. It is for example the case of General Electric through the factory of Thermodyn, Arcelor Mittal via in particular Arcelor Industeel or of Safran via the SNECMA. Factory SNECMA is besides one of the symbols of the rebirth of Creusot, from its modern architecture and its localization. It was indeed built on the ruins of the Creusot-Loire factories. Other companies made the choice of Creusot like BSE, Siag, Haulotte Group… One of the principal Alstom factories is also in Creusot, it in particular produced there the bogies of the TGV. Group AREVA has the forging mills of Creusot and realized into 2007 of important investments (75 million euros) in order to modernize them by buying three giant turns (largest of Europe) making it possible to carry out parts for the nuclear plants.
In this economic situation, Creusotins try to renovate their city in order to develop new sources of employment in particular in the tertiary sector.
Current concernsThe city, since 1984, changed much. The vast ones extended from workshops disappeared to leave room to other activities. The city thus developed a policy of leisures by creating an amusement park proposing the topic, history for the city, of the engine. The old royal crystal manufacture which had been transformed into Château by the Schneider family is moulted in Musée. Old the market S of construction of Locomotive S was transformed into university Bibliothèque. Important work is always carried out to give again life with the commercial streets of the city. An association, the academy Bumblebee, was created in order to organize the files of the factories which are availability of the researchers. Association also creates exposures. To give moreover great ways, Creusot cofondé the Community Creusot Montceau-the-Mines (CCM), an urban community which gathers 16 cities of the area.
TransportCreusot lays out of a network of Public transport by bus ensured by the CCM (the company names Transport company of the Community, the CTC). The station of Creusot is served by the FOR THE THIRD TIME Burgundy but Creusotins also have access to TGV thanks to the station the Creusot-TGV. The city is close to the Autoroute since the Trunk road 80 connects Creusot to the A6 in 25 minutes, André Jarrot is at the origin of its layout.
The castle of the Glassmaking is partly occupied by Écomusée charged to emphasize the inheritance, in particular industrial, of Creusot and its area.
Creusot has a national scene, the Arc, located in the middle of city and which accommodates each year of the artists of reputation (in particular Julien Clerc, Bernard Lavilliers or the theater company occurred Deschiens).
The main thing Festival of music of Creusot is the National Festival of Blues, which exists since 1992. Creusot accommodates also the Festival of the Showers, which as its name indicates it takes place at the end of March - at the beginning of April. This Festival mixture local groups in a scene off and stars main roads and international with the Market of the Sports. This festival is opened more on the level of the style since one as well finds there groups of Dub or French Chanson that of Electronic music.
The groups of music of Creusot reflect these influences, because in addition to the heavy metal, the influence of the blues and the musics jamaicaïnes is important. Some names of groups last and present: Kaktus, Battaglia (rather marked blues), Pilgrims, Kalimero Dub Nation, Royal Macadam Orchestrated (rather influenced by the ska, the dub, and the French song " jazzy" for the last), as well as Monky Band Arm. In the scene of " metal - rock" creusotine, one can find young promising groups such as Exortal or The Sons Off Retaliation (ex-Retaliation), or in a register more oldie the group Overlord rock'n'roll. These groups play regularly in room of the E.S.C.A.L.E, thanks to generous association éponyme, in free concerts where the accustomed young people find themselves in user-friendliness.
Creusot vibrated a long time at the rate/rhythm of the performances of its team of Rugby, formerly present at the more high level of the French championship (Olympic Club Creusot Burgundy).
Famous characters related to Creusot
- the family Schneider
- Jean-Baptiste Dumay, born with Creusot, working turner with the factory, mayor of the city, appointed under the Third Republic, author of Memories of a working militant of Creusot (1841-1905)
- Adolphe Schneider, owner of the factories of Creusot, mayor of the city, appointed under the Monarchy of July
- Eugene I Schneider, owner of the factories of Creusot, mayor of the city, politician under the Second Empire
- Eugene Varlin, creator in Creusot of a section of the International association of the workers
- Benoit Malon, working militant, author of a series of articles on the great strike of 1870 in Creusot
- Adolphe Assi, militant and garage hand in Creusot, organizer of the strikes of 1870
- Jean-Paul Anciaux, appointed current of Creusot
- Andre Billardon, current mayor of Creusot
- Claudie Haigneré, born in Creusot on May 13rd, 1957, doctor, spationaut, minister delegated in the governments Raffarin II and III
Artists and writers
- the painter creusotin Raymond Rochette (1906-1993) paid homage to the workmen of Creusot throughout his work.
- Christian Bobin, born in Creusot in 1951, writer
- Robin Renucci, born in Creusot in 1956 of a family originating in Corsica, actor
- Christophe Alévêque, born in Creusot in 1963, humorist
Places and Monuments
- the castle of the Glassmaking and its park
- the Crystal manufacture of the Queen
- the academy François Bumblebee
- the Power hammer
- the plain of Riaux
- the tourist Park of Combes
- Common of Saône-et-Loire
- Creusot, a new energy, telefilm of Marc Desoutter on the industry of Creusot.
- the official site of the City of Creusot
- the site of reference of information to Creusot
- the official site of the club cyclist of DN1 of Creusot
- the site of écomusée of Creusot-Montceau
- the site Creusot on line - Webcam Live
- the site of the academy François Bumblebee
- the site of the Tourist Park of Combes
- the site of the Urban community
- the site of the IUT of Creusot
- the site of the Condorcet university center of Creusot
- the site of the Le2i laboratory of Creusot
- the site of association PILONET for all to find on Creusot
- (direct link reporting ithistory of Creusot since 300 million years until our days)
- a document of the Departmental records of Saône-et-Loire on paternalism schneidérien
- an article of the R.A. Forum on the Commune of 1871 in Creusot
- Creusot on the site of the National Geographical Institute
- Creusot on the site of INSEE
- Creusot on the site of Quid
- Localization of Creusot on a chart of France and communes bordering
- Plane on Creusot on Mapquest
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