Counties of Scotland
The counties of Scotland were until 1975 of the local subdivisions of the government. Current the districts of the Lord Lieutenant S and counties of census ( registration counties ) are largely based on those.
The counties of Scotland see their origins going back to the Mormaerdom S, stewartrie S and sheriffdom S of the Early middle ages. Many of these entities, in spite of the fact that they often gave the name of the future counties, represent either of larger or of smaller territories. Mormaerdom de Moray in is an good example: it comprised parts of the county of Moray, Nairnshire, Banffshire and Inverness-shire.
The counties became the base of the local government of Scotland when 34 councils of counties were created in Scotland by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889. By the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973, the authorities of the counties were abolished and replaced by the insular areas, districts and councils. The Areas of lieutenancy of Scotland, of a surface about equivalent to the counties were created at the same time. The local government was still reorganized by the Loi from local government of Scotland of 1994 ( Local Government etc (Scotland) Act 1994 ) to create current the council areas .
Although the counties do not fill today any more any administrative office, the majority of their borders remain used by the Scottish Land Register like unit of calculation of the census: the registration counties . Only differences resident in the fact that Glasgow and Lanarkshire forms two different counties and in the fact that Orkney and the Shetland forms only one of them. Moreover, the borders of the counties were used to delimit the postal counties being used for Royal Mail until 1996.
Certain names, like Aberdeenshire, were restored to name council areas after 1996. Others are used for the Régions of lieutenancy of Scotland or for the subdivisions of the current council areas .
Counties until 1890
One can notice on chart a big number of enclaves far away from the county to which they are attached. The borders of the Cromartyshire, a very fragmented example, were final only in 1685, although to this time the word “county” (county) is not applied to the sheriffdom S.
The process which made that the patchwork of old the mormaerdoms, sheriffdoms and stewarties became a whole of counties can be connected to the expansion then with the concentration of the sheriffdoms. The oldest traditional counties are probably those of south-east like the Haddingshire or the Berwickshire whose territories were largely established during the Early middle ages. For some of the counties of North, the process continued during low Moyen-âge and afterwards. In England, the " term; shire" in Northamptonshire, the county associated with the town of Northampton, is regarded as a synonym of " county". But that is not true in Scotland. Many small counties, whose Clackmannanshire and Kinross-shire are the only survivors, perduré until modern times. The examples are legions. While descending the Forth river by his northern bank since Clackmannanshire, one crosses the counties (" shire") of Culross, Dunfermline, Kinghorn and Crail which do all left the same county: that of Fife, known as traditional.
Under the reign of Jacques IV of Scotland, the sheriffdoms selected commission agents (appointed) for the Scottish Parlement, forming the base of the " electoral colleges of the landward" , which had a clean existence, distinct from the districts of the burgh S, until the Representation off the People Act 1918. Before the Act of Union (1707), the commission agents could represent several counties or sometimes only one part. After the Union in England, eight counties were apparariés, electing a representative in turn with the " Unreformed House off Commons" (name given to the House of Commons before Reform Act of 1832). Some sheriffdoms like those of Ross and Cromartyshire amalgamated at the 18th century. Consequently Reform Act of 1832, this system of county per pair taken end. Elginshire and Nairnshire amalgamated in only one electoral constituency just as the Clackmannanshire and Kinross-shire. Butts and Caithness which had been paired, were, them, separate in two distinct districts.
Orkney and Zetland (the Shetland) were generally regarded as forming one county with Orkney describes like a Earldom (of Earl, Anglo-Saxon count) and Zetland describes like a seigniory. These islands formed only one district with the House of Commons as they were it in the Scottish Parliament and were counted together in the census.
At the 17th century the counties started to be useful for the local government. In 1667, " Commissioners off Supply" were named in each " shire" or " county" to collect the tax on the ground or taxable quota. These commission agents ensured of other functions in the county. In 1794, " Lords-Lieutenants" were named in each county and in 1797, of the regiments to train the militia of the county were raised. In 1858, police force was established in each county according to the Police force (Scotland) Act of 1857. It should be noted that however the burghs were largely apart from the jurisdiction of the authorities of the county.
Kirkcudbrightshire is generally called the “Stewartry off Kirkcudbright”, or right “the Stewartry” (chancellery).
Counties of 1890 to 1975
The Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889 established in Scotland of the county councils . To the difference of England and Wales where the equivalent law created new entities called administrative counties (administrative counties), the law in Scotland gives to the existing counties the attributes local governments, making amalgamate the counties of Ross and Cromarty, and sets up a commission of the borders for future changes so necessary. In general, the enclaves were removed. The remaining worthy one to only be announced is that of part of Dunbartonshire which is located between Stirlingshire and Lanarkshire.
After the law of 1889, Elginshire was famous officially Morayshire or County of Moray. At the beginning of the 20th century, the consil of the county of Dumbarton adopted the name " Dunbartonshire" instead of " Dumbartonshire" and that became the official name of the county.
These local governments did not include the " counties off the cities" (counties of the cities) in Scotland. In the beginning, only the city and the royal burgh of Edinburgh had this statute, but Glasgow, Dundee and Aberdeen respectively acquired it in 1893, 1894 and 1900. Each one of these " counties off cities" were widened on various occasions with depend on the surrounding counties. Those are not indicated on the chart like distinct entities.
- the County of Edinburgh became Midlothian
- the County of Haddington became East Lothian
- the County of Linlithgow became West Lothian
In 1928 Forfarshire was famous Angus.
In 1930, the county councils were reconstituted, including two joined councils, one for Perthshire and Kinross-shire and the other for Morayshire and Nairnshire, by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1929 .
The Local Government (Scotland) Act 1947 created new named administrative surfaces off counties , counties cities , broad burghs and small burghs . Although those were establish by preceding legislations, this law listed the various counties and other divisions for the first time.
In 1963, gouvernment published a white paper (kind of decree) which proposed a reduction of the number of counties of 33 with a number between 10 and 15. A consultation between the county councils and the authorities of the Scottish Office (cabinet of gouvrnaement) then began to carry out the amalgams. following a change of government, it was announced in 1965 that an examination " more understanding and autoritaire" let us subdivide local would be undertaken. Aisni, a commission royal on the local government in Scotland, directed by Lord Wheatley was creates in 1966. The Commission Report in 1969 recommended the replacement of the counties by greater areas. Another change of government in 1970 was followed publication of new a white paper in 1971 applying a modified version of the reform of the commission. The abolition of the counties was effective with the coming into effect of the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973. Since May 16th, 1975, the counties do not play any more any part in the organization of the local government.
Scotland always has the county constituencies (electoral constituencies corresponding to the counties) of the Parlement of the United Kingdom (Westminster), and the same term is used as reference for the electoral constituencies of the Scottish Parlement (Holyrood)) created in 1999.
Historically the county constitencies represented specific counties (without counting the burghs inside the counties). However today the term county in the expression county constituency means " with rural" majority;. In the same way, the burgh constitencies are districts with dominant urban.
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