The Costa Rica , officially the Republic of Costa Rica , is a country of Central America, bordered by the Nicaragua with north, the Panama in south-east, the Pacific Ocean in the west and the south and the Caribbean Mer in the east. Costa Rica is the first country to have constitutionally removed her army. Its capital is San Jose. The official language is the Spanish and the second most spoken language is English. The currency is the colonist.
See also: History of Costa Rica
Christophe Colomb arrives in the area during its last voyage in 1502. Costa Rica is then controlled during nearly three centuries by the general Capitainerie of Guatemala on behalf of the Spain. It is in 1821 that the country obtains its independence. After this one the democratic regime settles immediately.
It is in 1843 that the economy starts with the culture of the coffee. In 1869, teaching becomes obligatory and free. The Minister for the Education of the time fights then for the democratization of the system. According to its ideals each one must know to read, write and count. In 1882, the Capital punishment is abolished.
In 1948, the country is shaken by a civil war, because of the not-recognition of the electoral victory of Otilo Ulate Blanco, which will make nearly 1.000 dead. In 1949, the army is removed, thus the country becomes one of the rare States not to be had of army. It is a single case on the continent, an act symbolic system which has the merit to reduce the budget, but the disadvantage of worsening the dependence of the country with regard to the the United States. Of course, to ensure the safety of the country in the event of war, the United States gave their word and is ready to defend the Costa Rica, who represents an important strategic issue for the control of the Panama Canal.
Costa Rica forever known, in all its history, only one Dictatorship and controlled forever by a totalitarian Mode.
See also: Political of Costa Rica
See also: territorial Administration of Costa Rica
Costa Rica is divided into 7 provinces, divided themselves into 81 cantons, themselves divided into 425 districts:
See also: Geography of Costa Rica
Costa Rica is organized topographically in three great sectors: volcanic assembly lines of Cordilleras culminating to 3819 m in Cerro Chiripo, washed plains of the Caribbean coast and the broken peaceful coast.
In the central Cordillera, there is a multitude of active and extinct volcanos. Rincón of Vieja (1916 m) with many mud ponds on its sides, Tenorio (1916m), Miravalles (2208 m), Turialba (3328 m)… More visited three are Volcán Poás (2704 m), whose principal crater, occupied by a lake of acid, is broadest of the world (1320 m diameter), Irazú (3432 m) with the lake of green acid, and the Arenal (1633 m), credit since 1968, close which many hotels and thermal baths are built.
In the central high plain ( Central Meseta ) of the sector of the cordillera, Costa Rica densément is densément populated with San Jose, Alajuela, Cartago and Heredia, some of the more big cities of the country. Puerto Limón, on the coast of the Caribbean, is the most important port of the country. San Jose, the capital, counts 2 million inhabitants with his outer suburbs.
The peaceful coast is opened with balneal tourism with many stations appraisals so much by the Californian rich person (Tamarindo, Puntarenas, Quepos) that by the surfers in search of sensational waves ( Ollie' S Point and Playa Grande in the north of Tamarindo, Jaco and Playa Hermosa in the area of Puntarenas).
The climate of Costa Rica is marked by the dry season and that of the rains. The period of the rains extends from May to November, the dry season from December to April. Because of her situation between the 8 and 11° of northern latitude, Costa Rica is in the tropics. However, from a place with another, precipitations differ considerably: precipitations with San Jose are of 1867 mm per annum, whereas to Puerto Limón on the Caribbean coast, it falls 3518 mm per annum.
- 270 km of West in Is
- 380 km of North in the South
Natural heritageCosta Rica has a Flore and a exceptional fauna, since nearly 5% of the world Biodiversité is there (for a country of a small surface). More than 25% of the territory is occupied by National parks and reserves. The political context of the country, like its success in the field of tourism, contribute to preserve this biodiversity.
This exceptional diversity is certainly due to the geographical site of Costa Rica, between North America and of the South, which is favourable with the movements of animals. The oceanic influences of the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, having each one a clean climate, also play a part. In a general way, one can distinguish three climatic surfaces: the Caribbean, wet and semi-marshy coast, the coast peaceful, drier, and the central zone, with the raised relief, whose vegetation is dry.
Outline of the animal species and vegetable
- the Invertebrate , as in all the tropical zones, are abundant, in particular the Insectes (one finds more than 1200 Espèce S of butterflies). The Spiders and Crabe S are also well represented.
- the Poisson are them also typically tropical. One finds greater species, and reefs on the peaceful coast.
- the Reptiles are represented by the turtles, which are one of the national symbols when they come to lay on the beaches. But one also finds Lézard S of any kind, gecko S, Iguane S, and caiman S (the American Crocodile Crocodylus acutus is also observable, but rarer). On the 130 species of Snakes, 17 are dangerously poisonous, of which the Iron-of-lance, the coral snakes and a species of sea-snake of the kind Pelamis .
- the Amphibiens are especially represented by 150 species of frogs and clamping plates, from of which poisonous Dendrobate S, and a species, the clamping plate gilded Bufo periglenes , endemic and perhaps disappeared.
- the Mammifères come at the same time from spaces Néarctique and Néotropical (Americas of North and the South). For example, the Coyote, the Sconse S or the stags of Virginia are typical south of the the United States, whereas the Coati S, the Singes (whose capuchin Cebus capucinus and monkey hurlor Alouatta palliata ), Tapir S and Tatou S are found more in the south.
- the Birds, finally, are exceptionally well represented: nearly 900 species, including 7 endemic. The species much will vary according to the medium (coasts, mountains, cities…) and of the geographical area. The national bird of Costa Rica is the Yigüirro Turdus grayi .
See also: Economy of Costa Rica
The economy of Costa Rica is dependant on the ecotourism, agriculture, and the electronic products. It emerges from the recession in 1997, and shows since a strong growth. The geographical location of Costa Rica in the isthmus center-American allows an easy access to the North-American market, since being on the same time zone as Dallas and Chicago in the United States. It has a direct maritime access to Europe and Asia.
See also: Demography of Costa Rica
See also: Culture of Costa Rica
Population: 4.325.838 inhabitants (in 2005). 0-14 years: 31,38%; 15-64 years: 63,37%; + 65 years: 5,25%
Surface: 51.100 km ²
Density: 85 hab./km²
Land borders: 639 km (Panama 330 km; Nicaragua 309 km)
Littoral: 1.290 km
Ends of altitude: 0 m > + 3.810 m
Life expectancy of the men: 74,4 years (is. 2006)
Life expectancy of the women: 79,7 years (is. 2006)
Growth rate of the population: 1,45% (is. 2006)
Birth rate: 18,32 ‰ (is. 2006)
Death rate: 4,36 ‰ (is. 2006)
infantile Death rate: 9,7 ‰ (is. 2006)
Fertility rate: 2,24 children/woman (is. 2006)
Rate of migration: 0,49 ‰ (is. 2006)
Independence: September 15th 1821 (old Spanish colony)
Telephone lines: 1.388.500 (in 2005)
Cellphones: 1.101.000 (in 2005)
Radios: 980.000 (in 1997)
Television stations: 525.000 (in 1997)
Users of Internet: 1.000.000 (in 2005)
Many suppliers of access Internet: 3 (in 2000)
Roads: 35.889 km (including 8.075 tarred km) (in 2003)
Railways: 960 km (is not any more in activity since 1990)
inland Waterways: 730 km
Many airports: 157 (including 32 with tarred tracks) (in 2006)
CodesCosta Rica has as codes:
- CR, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 code alpha-2, (code list country)
- CR, according to the international Code list of the number plates,
- .cr, according to the List of Internet TLD (Signal level domain),
- CRC, according to the Code list country of the CIO,
- CRY, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 (code list country),
- CRY, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, alpha-3,
- CS, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-2,
See also: Tourism in Costa Rica
- Official site of the government of Costa Rica
- Photographs and charts of Costa Rica
- official Web site of the institute of the Costa Rica of tourism
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