Cordoue is an old Iberian settlement and is occupied by Claudius Marcellus, a Romain, into 169 It was the capital of the province of Hispania Baetica. Various monuments dating from the Roman epoch are still visible in this city.
With the third or the fourth century, Cordoue becomes an episcopal see. The first bishop of Cordoue was probably Ossius which is present at the first council of Nicée in 325. He was to advise of the emperor Constantin.
During the collapse of the Roman Empire of Occident in Ve century, the city passes under the domination of the Vandales, then Visigoths until 711, except for a short Byzantine interlude, between 544 and 571.
The Moslems conquer the city in 711. It then becomes the principal administrative and political center of Moslem Spain. Starting from 756, it is the capital of the emirate of Cordoue, rested by the prince omeyyade Abd Al-Rahman Ier, then starting from 929 of a independent caliphate, after the emir Abd Al-Rahman III broke any bond with the Abbassides of Baghdad and proclaimed itself Caliph. The reigns of Abd Al-Rahman III (912 - 961), of his/her son Al-Hakam II (961-976) and of the Hadjib (Vizier) Al-Mansur ibn Abi Amir (981 - 1002) constitute the most glorious period of the history of the city, even if the caliphs tended to neglect it with the profit of their new capital, Madinat Al-Zahra, founded in 936.
Throughout the 10th century, Cordoue competes with Baghdad by its size, its population and especially its magnificence. With its apogee towards the Year millet, Cordoue is one of the most populated cities Occident, the estimates varying between 250.000 and 500.000 inhabitants. The city would then have counted more than thousand Mosquée S and six hundred public baths.
The city especially extended towards the east: at the end of the 10th century, Cordoue was indeed in the center of a complex agglomeration. The town of Cordoue to the clean direction, the medina , that the Arabs called Kurtuba , was then surrounded by an enclosure, beyond which developed Faubourg S not strengthened, called djanib or rabad . The medina itself was the only strengthened part of the city. Of 785 with 987, the Moslems undertook there the construction of the Grande Mosque, which remains the principal monument of the city. The geographer Al-Idrisi, who writes two hundred years later, says that the medina was divided into five cities, each one to us closed by an enclosure. The palate califal, which formed a true city in the city, was one of these five cities. One found there also a district Jewish. To the east of the Large Mosque the district extended from the Souks.
To the east of the medina , extended a djanib called in Spanish ajarquía , word meaning “Eastern side”: this suburb was very developed, constituted of many districts, of which the district Mozarabe (the Christians and the Jews were rather numerous in Cordoue, but the city seems one of to be Islamized Andalusia at the time califale). To the west another suburb, less densément occupied extended, the “Western side”. In the south finally, on the other side of the river, had developed the Secunda Ar-Rabad , the “second suburb”.
The Artisanat was very present at Cordoue: one worked leather (Cordovan leather there is famous: the word “shoe-maker” derives besides from “Cordoue”), but also the textile. Another big industry of the city was the manufacture of paper and books: Cordoue is undoubtedly one of the most cultivated cities world at that time. A systematic effort was made by caliph Al-Hakam II to constitute a library at the time containing all the capital, old and recent works known. A network of dépisteurs, collectors, copyists, extended to the whole of the Islamic world, forwarded to Cordoue a fabulous collection of works, equal in importance to that of the caliphs Abbassides. One quotes the figure of: 400000 volumes. Of Cordoue even an army of scribes and bookbinders took care of the maintenance of these treasures.
During the years 1009 to 1031, the caliphate crumbles and is divided into more than one ten small States, the Taifa S . Cordoue is nothing any more but the capital of one of these States, which fall into 1069 to the hands from the emir from Seville. Occupied then by the Almoravides in 1086, then by the Almohades in 1149, the city ceases being capital and begins its long decline.
Christian timeCordoue remains under Moslem control until in 1236, date of the catch of the city by Ferdinand III of Castille. The city continues to decline, not being more from now on but one secondary agglomeration of the Andalusia Castilian, exceeded in particular by Seville. Its relative demographic revival dates only from the 20th century.
The Moslems remain there tolerated during the first decades of the domination Castilian, but the Grande Mosque is converted at once into church. In 1523, the construction of a Cathedral, called today the “Capilla mayor” (literally the “Large vault”), is undertaken in the middle of old the Mosquée. The many openings of the mosque on the city (which ensured a great luminosity inside the building) are then walled.
In 1808, during the Napoleonean wars , the city is put at bag by the French troops .
Large Mosque, in Spanish Mezquita .
- Synagog (14th century), one of the three remaining Spanish synagogs of the Middle Ages.
- Churches fernandines and alphonsines (13th century)
- Monasteries and convents (some unused)
Civil and military inheritance
- Alcázar of the Christian Kings (14th century)
- Palate of Viana with its flowered patios (16th century) seigneuriaux
- Residences and palate
- Tour of Calahorra (14th century)
- Porte of the Bridge (16th century)
- Placed Vieja
- Murailles and turns of times Moslem woman and Christian
Roman archaeological Vestiges (temple, mausoleum)
- Moslem archaeological Vestiges (minarets preserved in the churches, Arab baths,…)
- Archeological site of Madinat Al-Zahra (10th century)
- Roman Bridge
- Munyat Al-Rummaniya
Urban screen inherited the Middle Ages
Districts of Judería
- District of Magdalena
- District of San Lorenzo, with its church
Parks and gardens
Jardins of the Victoire
- Jardins of the Duke of Rivetted
- Jardins of Agricultura
- Jardins del Conde of Vallellano
- Jardins of Juan Carlos I
- Parc Cruz Conde
- Sotos of Albolafia
- the balcony of Guadalquivir
- perish-urban Parc of " Los Villares"
- Park of Miraflores
- Gardens of Alcazar
Famous charactersThree large Philosophe S were born with Cordoue, Sénèque the Roman Stoïcien, the Arab Averroes and the Juif Maïmonide, as well as the Latin poet Lucain and, later, the painter Bartolomé Bermejo.
TwinningCordoue has as a partner city:
- official of the town of Cordoue
- Cordoue, European City of the Culture 2016 English, Spanish Gate
Sources of the article
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