Coran gathers the divine words which would have been transmitted to the Prophète Mahomet (rear RTL محمد, Muhammad ) by the archangel Gabriel during one period of twenty-three years. It is sometimes also called kitâb (delivers) or dhikr (recall). The Moslems regard it as the incréée word of God (Al) addressed for all the Humanité: Islam has a universal vocation. “Coran is the word of God revealed with his prophet and transcribed on the pages of the Book” Ibn Khaldoun writes thus. Thus, according to this tradition, Coran would be extracted from a divine book, incréé, called “mother of the book” (rear RTL أَمّالكِتَاب Al-kitāb).
Coran is divided into a hundred and fourteen chapters called Sourate S , more or less classified by decreasing order according to their length except for the first sourate called Al Fatiha (sometimes translated by “the preliminary one” or “the prolog” or “the opening”). These sourates is themselves made up of named verses âyât (plural of Arabic âyah , “Preuve”, “Signe”, and which one finds in the word ''' Ayat ''' ollah). The verses are with the canonical number of 6 219. There exist alternatives (6 211 or 6 218) in the European, consecutive editions with the numbered edition of Coran by Gustave Flügel of 1834.
Order of the texts of Coran
The tradition reports that, of the time of Mahomet, the ayats were written on several supports of fortune, such as sheets of palm tree, bones flat (scapulas of camel), skins or stones, and were learned by heart by the believers, in entirety or partly. The death of several of these “alive memories” brought by prudence to the compilation of the sourates gathering the revelations received by the prophet after the death of this one.
During the time which followed the death of Mahomet, of the divergences would have appeared within the community on the chronological order of the sourates. According to the order chosen, the interpretation of certain passages could vary and to slice, a broad part of the authorities chose a theoretically neutral order: the decreasing order length. An exception was made for the first sourate, extremely short, which is used as introduction.
This classification has its partisans who see there the assertion of the major unity of Coran of which no part can be considered independently of the whole. It has also its detractors, fewer, who denounce a serious deterioration with the chronology of the Révélation wanted by God himself.
Various more or less concordant attempts were made to reconstitute the chronological order, including by European orientalists, such as Blachère. This fitting would reveal lighting correspondences with the events of the life of the prophet such as they are reported by the Sunna . New interpretations of certain clear passages not very thus could be advanced.
Chronological separationOne traditionally separates Coran in two parts which are dissociated by differences in style and topics approached:
- and sourates of Médine, posterior in Hégire, longer and of orientation more political and jurisdictional.
The sourates of the first period, Mecquoises, affirm mainly the idea of Monothéisme and define what is God for the Moslem. One finds there inter alia, the idea of the resurrection of died at the day of the last judgment, the unit of God, etc
The German orientalists G. Weill and Nöldeke established three divisions in the revealed sourates with Mecque:
in the first of the groups, God invites the men not to doubt and follow its regulations in order not to attract its anger. The Creator speaks about creation;
the sourates of the second group describe the duties of any believer: the profession of faith ( Shahada ), the prayers ( salat ), the fast ( Ramadan ), the pilgrimage ( Hajj ), alms ( Zakat ) which are the five pillars of Islam. These sourates invites the man to improve through devotion to the Creator;
in the third part, is the accounts of the Prophètes of Islam, a description of the punishment which the people underwent which refused to accept the messages of the prophets.
The sourates médinoises are more “prescriptive”. They pose the fundamental bases of a new company, in which the respect is due to the prophet and his family, where the praises go to those which die in the way of God, and where the hypocrites are fustigated. Close to 500 verses gather the religious, civil and penal regulations and will be used as a basis for the Moslem Droit. Others sourates médinoises also define the duties and the beliefs of the Moslem.
Divisions for a recitation| valign=" top" |
- For its recitation, Coran was divided subsequently into seven parts manzil (rear RTL مَنْزِل, rear pl. RTL مَنازِل) what makes it possible to recite it in entirety during one week, it is also divided into thirty parts juz (rear RTL جُزْء, rear pl. RTL أَجزاء) for its recitation in one month. A distinguishing mark marks the beginning of these divisions ۞
- Chaque juz is divided into two sections or hizb (rear RTL حِزْب, rear pl. RTL أَحْزاب)
- Chaque hizb is divided in its turn into four quarters (rear RTL رُبْع, rear pl. RTL أَرْباع).
See also: Sourate
The transcription of CoranAccording to the Moslem tradition, Coran was revealed with the Mahomet prophet via the Archange Gabriel (Arab: rear RTL جبريل). For the Moslems, Coran is a holy book which did not undergo deterioration after its revelation, because God promised that this book would last until the end of times. In fact, the conservation and the forwarding of text such as it today is known were the subject of the attention of the first caliphs.
According to the Moslem tradition, the revelation would have started in the Grotte of Hira where the Prophet had as a habit to withdraw himself, probably with an aim of Méditation. The angel Jibrïl would have appeared, and would have communicated the first verses of Coran to him: “Lily! (or proclaims!) In the name of your Lord” (sourate 96, verse 1). Its answer would have been by three times “I cannot read”, because Mahomet was illiterate.
It seems that with the whole beginning of the revelation, Coran was initially memorized. The tradition speaks even about certain companions of the Prophet coming to question it on the manner of reciting such or such chapter. Thereafter, Mahomet would have dictated the sourates, after each revelation, with several scribes which would have transcribed them on various supports (pieces of leathers, shards of pottery, veins of palms, scapulas.), fragments which would then have dispersed near various companions (paid by Al-Bukhari).
According to Jalâl AD-DIN Have-Suyûtî, Mahomet dictated with its scribes not only the revealed text but also the sourate where it had to be inserted. The classification of the verses the ones compared to the others was not done according to the chronological order of their revelation, but according to an order psalmodic, which would have followed the indications of the Prophet.
Consequently, and lasting 23 years, the revelation would have continued, with the passing of years and of the events, in a diversity of places. This one would have been completed a few years before the death of Mahomet. The tradition reports that, the last year of his life, the prophet would have recited twice Coran in his entirety during the month of Ramadan, a practice followed by the Moslems practitioners until today.
So according to tradition, Prophet had indicated, within unit of text Koranic already revealed, place where had to be inserted each new revelation, if it had encouraged its Companions to memorize text Koranic (some knew it completely) and if he had taken care that each revealed fragment is also lying on a material support, he would however not have made prepare a copy gathering all the Koranic text. According to the tradition, that would be explained by the fact why the revelation would have continued until the end of the lifetime of the Prophet and that until the last moment of new verses could have been revealed. Those would have thus being inserted in the middle of the Koranic text already present. It should be noted however that the last verse in the chronological order announces the end of the revelation (5: 3): the religion of the Islam is then declared “completed”. However, no order of written setting of the entirety of Coran would have emanated from Mahomet.
Compilation of the Koranic text under Abû Bakr, the first caliph
The first compilation of the Koranic text is made in the two years which follow the death of Mahomet, under the first Caliph Abû Bakr (632 - 634). This one, advised by `Umar which death frightens (because of battles) many companions by heart knowing the entirety of the text, charges Zayd ibn Thâbit (which had been scribe of the Prophet) gathering the various written supports and with preparing a copy of the integral Koranic text.
The text is written on layers ( sahifa ), which are entrusted to the guard of Abû Bakr. After the death of this last, the second caliph, Umar (634 - 644) receives them. After its death, they are entrusted to his/her daughter Hafsa, widow of the Prophet. (All these elements are brought back by Al-Bukhârî, n° 4 701. See also Fath ul-bârî tome 9 pp. 19 - 20, and Al-Itqân , pp. 184 - 185.). Died of `Uthman, the governor of Médine, Marwân Ben Al-Hakam, asked Hafsa this original copy of Coran. This one refusing to deprive itself some, it awaited its death to recover it, and made it destroy.
Of another compilations were made, in particular the corpus of ibn Mas' ûd which will perdura three centuries. They differed in certain points from the text, like on the number and the order of the sourates.
Universalization of the copies under `Uthmân, third caliph
Under the caliphate of `Uthman, third caliph (644 - 656), the Moslem territory increased considerably and from new problems emerge: four types of divergences appear in connection with the text of Coran. The caliph Uthman then decides to officialize a single type of writing of the Koranic text and to establish a single classification of the sourates the ones compared to the others. It is for this purpose that it charges a commission with preparing several copies ( mus' haf ) of Coran. And that occurred in an 25 of the hégire, is fifteen years after the death of the Prophet. These prepared copies, `Uthman the fact of sending in various important points of the Moslem territory. All these elements are brought back by Al-Bukhârî, N O 4 702. The copies of Coran written nowadays would always follow word for word and letter for letter this writing of the copies of Uthman, named writing “ rear-rasm Al-uthmanî ”. Some of these copies would exist still today, one would be with Istanbul (Turkey), the other with Tachkent (Ouzbékistan).
After having sent these copies in each area, `Uthman made destroy all the preceding copies, of which that of Ali, son-in-law of Mahomet, that of Ubai B. Ka' B like that of Ibn Farmhouse `ud. Although this last refused to destroy its copy of alive sound, it was burned thereafter.
Coran, a crowned text
According to the Islamic religion, Coran, word of God, are, by dogma, incréé, eternal and inimitable. He is in the middle of the religious practice of each believer.
Coran is incrééThe angel Gabriel (Jibraïl) would have had the role of reducing the contents from celestial Coran and of transmitting it to the prophet.
“This is, on the contrary, glorious Coran written on a kept table! ”
Coran (LXXXV; 21-22)
“Coran is the word of God revealed with His prophet and transcribed on the pages of the Book. ”
Ibn Khaldoun , the book of the examples. Muqaddima VI, X
It is the tradition sunnite expressed by Ibn Khaldoun. It implies that there is an original whose material Coran is the partial transcription, the mother of the book, Oum El Kittab , evoked in Coran.
From the point of view esoteric, material Coran would be only the physical representation, a kind of counterpart, of Coran higher, occulted than the eyes of the layman, Coran recorded on a kept Table (rear RTL اللَوْحالمَحْفوظ Al-maḥfūẓ, “the preserved shelf”) ( Coran LXXXV; 21-22), a hidden book (rear RTL كِتَابمَّكْنُون mmaknūn, “delivers hidden”) ( Coran LVI; 78) and that Coran describes as “the Mother of the Book” (“mother” must be taken in the direction “which contains”, Arabic turning often met) (rear RTL أَمّالكِتَاب Al-kitāb, “mother of the book”) ( Coran III; 7).
“By the clear Book!
“Yes, we made Arab Coran of it!
“- Perhaps include-you -
“There exists near us, sublime and wise, in the Mother of the Book. ”
Coran (XLIII; 1-4)
A theological quarrel burst at the 9th century between the movement motazilite which was a burning defender of the divine unicity and which thus preached the dogma of the creation of Coran (Coran created) to prevent that anything is not associated with so known Al under the name of Ahl Al 'aql (people of the reason) and the movement with the ahl Al naql (people of the transmission), which preached that Coran is the word of God (incréé Coran). The first current was instrumentalisé under the caliphate of Al Ma' mun against the second what led in particular to the imprisonment of Ahmed Ben Hanbal and the second movement took its revenge under the caliphate of its successor Jafar Al-Mutawakkil who persecuted the partisans of the first movement. They disappeared little from time afterwards.
The dogma of the inimitability of Coran
In the Islamic religion, Coran is seen like perfect (because divine work), and thus absolutely inimitable. It is the Dogme of the inimitability of Coran.
It seems that this idea existed already as of the 2nd century of the history of Islam. This dogma relates to the contents as much as the form. And it is the coran itself which states it in several verses, among which the following:
“say: " If the men and the djinns linked themselves to produce something of similar to this Coran, they would not produce anything which resembles to him, even if they helped mutuellement." ”In other verses (for example, II: 23, X: 38, XI: 13), the challenge are also launched, in several times, with most eloquent of the Arabs to forge something of similar to Coran. However, towards 786, under the reign of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Hâdî, some well-read men would have tried to take up this challenge. At the end of one year, they could not have produced the equivalent of a sourate. It is what predicted the following verses:
Coran (XVII; 88)
“If you are in the doubt about what we revealed with our servant, bring to us a sourate similar to this; call your witnesses other than God, if you are véridiques.
“If you it made not - and you will not make it - Fear fire. ”
Coran (II; 23-24)
The inimitable character of Coran will make it possible to fix the Arab language , and to develop a whole science of the speech and rhetoric, especially with some Al-jorjani towards the XI (cf Dala' it Al-i' jaz or the evidence of the inimitability); but it also will contribute to delay the translation of Coran in other languages. Indeed, any translation would not be whereas a pale imitation of the original text. Even the rightest translation of the coran could not be regarded the word of God, but only as one approximate translation of its word.
Coran in practice religious
Cité and recited in many events and circumstances of the life (daily prayers, Ramadan, family festivals…), Coran occupies an important place in the life of any believer. In the mosques, he is not recited but chant. Indeed, quoting Coran, any person quotes a word come from God: he is not any more actor using his voice of the every day but instrument of the divine word. As interpreted by the Oulémas, or “doctors of the faith”, this crowned text is also at the origin of the Moslem Droit. The Interpretation of Coran and the conflicts of interpretations between the various currents of Islam are thus at the base of the several possible types of comprehension of concept-key such as the Charia (law of Islam) or the Djihad (one distinguishes the “major Djihad thus”, effort of conversion turned against oneself, of the “minor Djihad”, effort of conversion turned against the others).
Coran and “Infidels”
Mahomet proscribes in its time any idolatry of Mecque. That is the result of a proven irrefutable fact: the apostle, the policy and the legislator Mohamet thus succeeds, by the force of the things, with the warrior.
In addition to these first translations, one counts complete translations or not in more than one hundred of languages, of which, for example, and to quote the least obvious: the Breton , the Esperanto, the Volapuk, the Hebrew …
- First translation by Pierre Worthy the (1141-1143)
- (Coran?) , 1453, Robertus Retenensis (Roberto Ketenese), Basle
- Machumetis Saracenorum Principis, eiusque successorum vitae, ac doctrina, ipseqve the Koran: quo uelut authentico legum diuinarum codice Agareni & Turcae, alijq Christo aduersantes populi regutur, quae handle year CCCC… D. Petrus Abbas Cluniacensis per uiros eruditos… ex Arabica lingua in Latinam transferri curauit: his adiunctae sunt confutationes multorum, & quidem probatissimorum authorum, Arabum, Graecorum, & Latinorum, unà cum… Philippi Melanchthonis praemonitione…: adiunctae sunt etiam, Turcaru… LMBO gestae maxim memorabiles, with DCCCC year AD will nostra usuq will tempora: haec omnia in unum uolumen redacta sunt , 1543, I. Oporinus, Basileae.
- 1691 - 1698, Louis Marracci (though some say that it was of Spanish, not of Arabic)
- Alcorano di Macometto: nel qual if the dottrina contains, the vita, I costumi, and the leggi sweats/tradotto nuovamente dall' Arabo in lingua Italiana. , 1547, Venice.
- Alcoranus Mahometicus : das STI, der Türcken the Koran, Religion und Aberglauben: auss welchem zu vernemen wann unnd woher ihr falscher Prophet Machomet seinen Ursprung oder Anfang genommen, put was Gelegenheit derselb diss Fabelwerck center, lächerliche und närrische Lehr gedichtet und erfunden…/erstlich auss DER arabischen in die italianische, jetzt river mouth inn die teutsche Sprach gebracht durch , 1616, S. Schweigger, Nuremberg.
- De Arabische the Koran: door of Zarazijnsche in Turcksche Mahometh prophet, in drie onderscheyden deelen begrepen: van der Turcken religie, ghelove, aelmoessen, vasten, ghebeden, bedevaert Na Matched, puts to you samen sijn gods-diensten, ende ceremonien, wetten ende rechten/uyt of naked Arabische spraecke nieuwelijcks in Hooghduytsch ghetranslateert puts to you samen een aenhanghende voorreden, door Solomon Swigger… ende wederom uyt het Hooghduytsch in Nederlantsche spraecke ghestelt. 1641, Anonymity, Hamburg.
- the Koran of relocated Arabic François Mahomet/by Sieur Of Ryer, Sieur of the Malezair Guard. , 1647, 1649, 1672, 1683, 1719, 1734, 1770, 1775, Andre Of Ryer, Paris.
- Coran/translated from Arabic, accompanied by notes and preceded by a summary by the life by Mahomet, drawn from the most estimated Eastern writers , Mr. Savary, 1787, 1821, 1826, Paris.
- the Koran: new translation made on the Arab text/by Mr. Kasimirski interprets French legation in Persia; review and preceded by an introduction per G. Pauthier. , 1840, 1841, 1844 Biberstein- Kasimirski, Paris, 1970 Garnier Flamarion.
- Coran , translation by Governed Blachère, Maisonneuve and Larose, 1950 republication in 2005,
- Coran , translation by Muhammad Hamidullah and Michel Leturmy, 1959, first translation in French by a Moslem starting from the Arab text.
- Coran , translation and notes by Denise Masson, Gallimard, 1967,
- Coran, the call , translation by Andre Chouraqui, Robert Laffont, 1990,
- Coran , test of translation by Jacques Berque, Albin Michel, 1995,
- Coran , translation by Hamza Boubakeur, Maisonneuve and Larose, 1995,2 volumes
- Coran , translation by Malek Chebel, Payot, 2001,2 volumes
- Coran , translation by Abdallah Penot, alif editions, 2005,
- online Translation of French Coran
- The Koran: commonly called the Koran off Mohammed/translated into English immediately from the original Arabic; with explanatory notes, taken from the most approved commentators; to which is prefixed has preliminary discourse , 1734, 1764, 1838, 1844 G. Salts, London.
explanatory Notes and preliminary speeches available on this site, Translation of Dirty accessible on the site from the project Gutemberg
- The Koran , translated with notes by N.J. Dawood, Penguin Books, 1956,1959,1966,1968,1974,1990
- DER the Koran/aus dem Arabischen ins Hebräische übersetzt und erläutert von Herrmann Reckendorf. , 1857 H. Reckendorf, Leipzig.
The Bataille of Catholic students in 751 would have made it possible to the Arabs to discover Chinese inventions, such as paper and silk. However, the authorities reigning out of ground of Islam waited three centuries before introducing the Imprimerie, undoubtedly seeing there a danger to their domination. Thus, the Othoman promulgate an edict against printing works in 1757. For as much, even after the introduction of printing works in Moslem countries, the impression of Coran would have been regarded a long time as irreligious person. Thus, the first printed version of Coran goes back to 1787.
- Al-Coranus, S., Lex islamitica Muhammedis, filii Abdallae pseudoprophetae/AD optimorum codicum fidem published e.g. " 1694, Hamburg, H. Hinckelmann,
- the Koran , 1790, Saint-Pétersbourg, 477 p.
- Corani textus arabicus: AD fidem librorum manuscriptorum and impressorum and indicesque AD praecipuorum interpretum lectiones and auctoritatem/recensuit triginta sectionum and suratarum addidit Gustavus Fluegel. 1834, Leipzig, G.L. Flügel.
- Vocabulaire of Islam
- Moslem Droit
- Liste of the characters of Coran
- For an approach criticizes of Coran, to see Christoph Luxenberg
history of Coran, development of the written texts, Coran and Moslem civilization
- the manuscript of the " Coran d' Othman" , whose current agent is the Moslem Council of Ouzbékistan, is the oldest existing written version of Coran. It is the final version, which is known under the name of Mushaf d' Othman, and which replaces all the other versions.
- Lexilogos Index of the online versions of Coran (French translations, multilingual agreements, audios, etc)
- Of the quotations of Coran.
- the Manuscript of Sanaa, a proto-Coran . More complete, in English What is the Quran?
- summarized courses of islamology of Ralph Stelhy, professor of history of the religions at the University Marc Bloch of Strasbourg, concerning Coran
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