Convention of London
The Convention on the prevention of the marine pollution resulting from the immersion of waste , commonly called Convention of London , is a treated international on the control of the Pollution of the seas by immersion of waste, encouraging the regional agreements in complement of the basic text. It relates to the elimination of the Déchet S and other materials at sea, since the ships, aircraft and platforms. It covers neither the emissions starting from coastal sources, like the sewers, nor waste coming from the exploration and the exploitation of the maritime mineral resources, and does not apply in the event of major force when it is a question of safeguarding human lives or of safety of the ships. It does not cover either the storage of matter with an aim other than elimination.
La Convention of London east coming into effect on August 30th, 1975.
HistoryConvention was planned in Stockholm at the time of the Conférence of the United Nations on the human environment (June 1972), and the text was adopted on November 13rd, 1972 by the intergovernmental Conférence on Relative convention with the immersion of waste at sea , which had met in London. The signature of the treaty began the December 29th 1972. Convention came into effect the August 30th 1975, when 15 countries had ratified it. In May 2006, 81 States were Contracting parties. OMI takes up the duties of secretariat which are attached to Convention.
The text of conventionThe Convention of London is made up of 22 articles and 3 appendices. Appendix I lists waste whose immersion is prohibited (although for some of these materials, the immersion is authorized with the state of traces or in a form quickly becoming inoffensive). Appendix II details waste for which a specific license of immersion is necessary. Appendix III specifies the criteria governing the delivery of a general license of immersion for all other waste, and milked nature of authorized waste, characteristics of the place of immersion and method of evacuation.
The main aim of the Convention of London east to prevent the uncontrolled evacuation of refuse at sea which can endanger the human health, the organizations marine, the maritime Environment, or which can interfere with the other maritime activities. Convention extends its field on all maritime water others that internal water of the States signatories.
Since its coming into effect, in 1975, Convention provided a framework to the prevention and the control of the maritime pollution, in which the Contracting parties made constant progress in the safeguarding of the maritime environment. Among the major stages prohibition appears, in 1993, of the immersion of waste slightly radioactive and the incineration of the industrial waste. The efforts of the members are supported by a permanent secretariat accommodated by the OMI. The advisory Meeting of the Contracting parties is the body of decision making of Convention. It takes council on the subjects asking a multidisciplinary expertise near the joint Group of experts on the scientific aspects of environmental protection sailor (GESAMP), composed of experts named by the OMI, FAO, the UNESCO and its international oceanographical Commission (IOC), OMC, WHO, IAEA, UNO and PNUE. A scientific Group on the immersion, composed of government experts of the Contracting parties, meets all the scientific needs for the advisory Meeting, in particular for the preparation of lists of dangerous substances, the development of policies for the implementation of Convention, and public information on the impact of the various contaminations on maritime environment.
Protocol of 1996The November 17th 1996, a special Meeting of the Contracting parties adopted the Protocole of 1996 with the Convention of 1972 on the prevention of the marine pollution resulting from the immersion of waste (known as Protocole of 1996 ). The Protocol of 1996 moved the perimeter of the Convention of 1972 about the terrestrial middle, creating a bond between the management of terrestrial and maritime waste. Evidence is the coding of the Precaution principle and the institution of requirement such as the audit of prevention of waste, the identification and the control of the sources of contamination, and collaboration with the local agencies and main roads acting for the control of the sources of contamination.
Ratifié by 30 countries in March 2006, it came into effect and replaces the Convention of London now.
En harmony with the Diary 21 of 1992 (Rio), the Protocol of 1996 fact of evolving convention to a stronger taking into account of the Prevention; in particular to pass from an evacuation controlled at sea of a terrestrial variety of waste to terrestrial solutions integrated for the majority of waste, and to a maritime elimination controlled for a restricted category of waste.
Among the principal innovations of the Protocol of 1996 one distinguishes
- a coding from the Precaution principle and Principe pollutant-payer.
- the approach known as of the “list reverses” which is a major revision structural of Convention, aiming at concretizing the precaution principle. From now on, instead of prohibiting the immersion of listed dangerous waste, the Contracting parties must prohibit the immersion of any waste not listed in appendix I (the list reverses) Protocol of 1996. The immersion of waste mentioned in this appendix requires moreover a license.
- the Parts will have to now adopt measures ensuring that the emission of license and the conditions of the immersions thus authorized are in conformity with appendix II (evaluation of waste) of the Protocol.
Les substances of the opposite list includes/understands spoil of Dragage; the Clarification sludge; waste resulting from the industrial treatment of fish; artificial ships and platforms or other works at sea; inert, inorganic geological matters; organic matters of natural origin; and bulky objects made up of iron, steel, concrete and materials also not vermin, whose physical impact causes concerns, provided that they come from places without other alternatives such as isolated small islands.
- Protocol of 1996 interdict also the incineration at sea (except in the event of urgency) and export of waste to states not-members at end of immersion or incineration at sea.
- It has a special clause on the underwater hiding of the CO2 with an aim of fight against climate warming. (In 2007, Japan had already amended its law on the prevention of marine pollutions and that on the prevention of the natural disasters to adopt the protocol, after other countries, but with the intention quickly to hide under the sea 100.000 tons into 2008 of CO2 compared with 10.000 in 2007, with a project of growth of this hiding until 2015. The ecological impact of this type of solution is badly advanced, in particular concerning the risk of relarguage in the event of earthquake or Tsunami).
In January 2003, 78 States had ratified the Convention of London: Afghanistan, South Africa, Antigua-and-Barbuda, Argentinian, Australia, Azerbaïdjan, Barbados, Belgium, Bielorussia, Brazil, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, Democratic republic of Congo, Costa Rica, Ivory Coast, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Denmark, Egypt, United Arab Emirates, the United States, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, HongKong (associated member), Hungary, Iceland, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Libya, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Nauru, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, New Guinea-News-Guinea, Filipino Netherlands, , Poland, Portugal, Dominican Republic, Popular republic of China, the United Kingdom, Russia, St Lucia, Serbia-and-Montenegro, Seychelles, Slovenia, the Solomon Islands, Spain, Surinam, Sweden, Swiss, Tonga, Tunisia, Ukraine, Vanuatu
- International convention
- Nuclear waste
- immersed Ammunition
- Convention of Rotterdam
- Convention of Basle
- Convention of Stockholm
- Office of the Convention of London 1972 of the international maritime Organization
- joint Group of experts on the scientific aspects of environmental protection sailor (GESAMP)
- international oceanographical Commission (IOC) of UNESCO
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