Consuls of Rome
Consul is the title given to both Magistrat S principal elected officials each year by the Romains under the République and more generally during the any Roman period, although this Magistrat RUE loses all his capacities under the Empire.
After the fall of the Roman Monarchy, Magistrat S succeed the kings. According to certain sources, the consulate is not a Latin institution, because the practice with the fall of the royalty was rather to institute a single magistrate having an immense capacity but for one limited time. Today still, the historians do not know from where the idea can come from a capacity shared with identical for one weak duration. The Roman idea would thus seem deeply original, although there were precedents in Greece.
In the first times of the Roman Republic, the first Magistrate S, always two (principle of collegial structure, or duplex imperium ), were called praetores (Préteur). This term is found then in the name which the officers carry to the head of the Roman armies, in the designation of the principal tent of a camp legionary ( praetorium ), in the guard of certain general-in-chiefs at the time republican, the Praetorian Garde, or in the Porta Praetoria . Starting from 305 av. J. - C. approximately, the term consules is introduced. It means probably " those which go ensembles" (whereas praetor means " that which goes from the avant"), and comes étymologiquement from idiot (together) and from salio .
Until 366 av. J. - C. the consulate is strictly reserved for the patriciat. The Lois licinio-sextiennes of Caius Licinius Stolon allows Lucius Sextius Lateranus, another author of the law, to become the first plebeian Consul. Actually, at the beginnings of the Roman Republic, and until the Décemvir S, there were plebeian consuls, of which in particular Spurius Cassius Viscellinus, three times consul in 502, 493 and 486 av. J. - C. (See the article appendix plebeian Consul)
Initially the consuls are holders of all the capacities of the king, except those of Rex sacrorum , function sacerdotal. Their consular Imperium was the supreme capacity in Rome, illustrated by the twelve Licteur S which precedes the consul. Nevertheless, this Imperium is suspended the time of the dictatorship (twenty-four Licteur S). Holder also at the beginning of the judicial powers, they will separate some then when the Préture is organized in distinct magistrature, equipped with the imperium washout , after the Lois licinio-sextiennes, to keep a Magistrat RUE only Patricien. The capacity of the census , i.e. to hold the senatorial album, will also pass with the hands of the consuls to those of the Censeur, in 443 av. J. - C., to limit the capacities of the military Tribuns consular capacity and which replace a time the consulate and which is opened with the Plèbe. The Imperium proconsulaire, i.e. the consular capacity on a definite province, is almost unlimited.
The consuls in Rome are higher than all the others Magistrat S, except with the Tribuns of the plebs. They convene the Sénat, carry out its decisions, convene the assemblies of the people and the president, supervises the elections… They can even sanction a lower Magistrat in row. They are also the supreme commanders of the army.
They give their name to the year of their mandate (one speaks about consul éponyme). Under the empire, the magistrature is emptied of its capacity, and only remain of the consuls known as suffects . Only the emperor exerts the Imperium related to the consulate.
Lastly, when the dictatorship fell in disuse, after the Punic Wars, the full powerss were given to the consuls by a senatus consults ultimum : viderent operam consules, quid respulica detrimenti caperet (take guard consuls so that the Republic does not suffer any damage). By this Senatus consults , the consuls were invested dictatorial capacity, without restriction of the senate, but for a limited time.
The word consul in the Roman context usually shortens in: COS , according to the model of the ancient epigraphs. To nominate a person having been eight times has this load, one writes COSVIII: Consul for the eighth time.
Clovis accepted in its time the consular badges, according to Edward Gibbon.
With the the Middle Ages, the name of consul is given to certain alderman S of the South of France, like with various persons in charge in the Italian cities.
Under the Old Mode, in cities like Paris and Bordeaux, the consuls and the judge-consuls were elected to regulate the litigations between the tradesmen. This consular jurisdiction is currently ensured by the bankruptcy courts.
the Consulat is one period enclosing the French revolution: the direction of the country totaled three consuls, but in the facts the capacities gradually concentrated in the hands of the only First consul Napoleon Bonaparte until his imperial crowning in 1804.
Today, a consulate is a diplomatic station. The Consul is in load of the protection and the administration of its fellow-citizens in the enclosure of his consular district. It delivers also if necessary the visas of access to the national territory for the nationals of the country host. Contrary to a Embassy, a consulate is not inevitably located in the capital of the country host, which can shelter besides several consulates of the same State in different places.
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