A constituent assembled is a collegial institution with for task the drafting, or the adoption, of a Constitution, i.e. the fundamental text of organization of the public authorities of a country.
The way in which the members of the assembly are designated depends on the circumstances and the countries. They can be indicated expressly for this task, or to have other institutional functions, even autoproclamer. Indeed, the assembly can hold the capacity constituting under the terms of the preceding constitution (one speaks then rather about revision), or by the circumstances of facts, following a crisis of mode (Civil war, Coup d'etat, invasion…).
The result of work of the assembly can be only one project which will have to be ratified by the holder of the capacity (for example a Référendum). It can be an entirely new constitution or a simple more or less important modification.
French constituent assemblies
The constituent Assembly of 1789
See also: constituent Assembly of 1789
The first constituent assembly was rested by deputies of the General states when they set up themselves in a “National Assembly” on June 17th 1789.
This assembly becomes the July 9th, 1789 the constituent National Assembly .
Written with the profit of the easiest citizens, and planned for ten years, this Constitution did not survive the insurrection of the August 10th, 1792.
The constituent Assembly of 1848
According to the republican tradition of 1789 and 1792, the provisional government decides to make write the new constitution by a constituent assembly, which is elected by the male universal direct suffrage on April 23rd by 7.800.000 French.
The Parliament wishes a compromise text to maintain an social order liberal. A project is written by a Committee of Constitution of 18 members which is discussed as a Plenary assembly and ends to an agreement on November 4th.
See also: French Constitution of 1848
In waiting of a constitution, an National Assembly was elected on February 8th, 1871.
The Third Republic was definitively founded on January 30th, 1875 by the adoption, with a voice of majority, in first reading 353 against 352, then with a vaster majority in second reading 413 against 248, of the Walloon Amendement which stipulated:
“the president of the Republic is elected in the majority absolute of the votes by the Senate and the House of Commons joined together in National Assembly. He is named for seven years; he is re-eligible. ”
Is then voted the three constitutional laws which fix the mode.
Having fulfilled her role, the Parliament separated on December 31st, 1875.
Constituent Assemblies of the Fourth republic
The French Committee of the national Release (CFLN), political body of Resistance, declares Provisional government of the French Republic (GPRF) on June 2nd, 1944. October 21st, 1945, with the question you Want that the elected assembly this day is constituent , a very vast majority of the voters, and électrices (the right to vote of the women goes back to 1944) answer yes. Thus, the Référendum of October 21st establishes a constituent National Assembly, elected the same day. She is charged to write a news Constitution, that of the Fourth Republic.
A first project of Constitution is rejected by Référendum on May 5th, 1946. A new constituent assembly is elected on June 2nd and the constitution of the Fourth Republic definitively is adopted by Référendum on October 13rd, 1946. It comes into effect on October 27th, 1946.
- National Assembly
- French National Assembly
- national Convention
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