A conspiracy (synonymous: plot, conspiracy) is a secret agreement between several people, in order to reverse an established capacity, an organization or in order to make an attempt on a person.
Cabal, plot, conspiracy, conspiracy
The definitions of Cabal, plot, conspiracy and conspiracy, although synonyms, mark each one of these things of a print so particular that instead of distinguishing them by boundary lines, they cross, slice by features as strong as multiplied, their resemblance.
The existing relationship between these four terms was noticed by Roubaud at the 16th century. They mean, union between private individuals, subjects or citizens, to harm, reverse, strike a blow. But they suppose sights, reasons and effects much more serious: they mark hidden and sinister projects, which usually have a tragic outcome, which does not go unless to demolish itself of an odious person, by immolant it, if it does it; and they announce in those which form these guilty intentions, of the feelings of revenge, major hatred or exalté patriotism. By the cabal a man is badgered or décrié, or at most driven out of his station; but it falls victim from a plot , a conspiracy or a conspiracy . These last words express attacks to be made: also says one to soak in a plot, a conspiracy and a conspiracy, like one says to soak in a crime.
The cabal is the intrigue of a party or of a faction formed to work, by secret practices, has to turn has its liking the events or the course of the things. This word is due to primitive the cab , course , affected with what gathers, contains, contains, envelope. The natural and dominant idea of cabal is that to take, monopolize, gather the spirits to form a party, and to operate secretly with address.
The cabal has as an aim, to carry the favor, the credit, the ascending one, the empire; to lay out of the graces, employment, the loads, the rewards, the reputations, successes, in a word, events; finally to lower the ones, to raise the others. In the governments, it makes and demolishes ministers, generals, officers. In the republic of the letters, it chokes the reputation of the authors, or makes the fortune of the works. In the companies, in the administration, she fights against justice and the merit. In the world, that doesn't make? She is everywhere, she interferes herself all, she disturbs all, states, governments, companies, families, large and small.
Complot is distinguished easily from its synonyms: it has less of general information or extent. The plot has the aim of harming, and always its sights are criminal. However it has place only between two or some people, and it is usually directed against only one man. Criminals make the plot assassinate a passer by to strip it; informers, that to show a man of good, to obtain the graces of a suspicious and credulous government: traitors, that to open the doors of the city to the enemy to obtain the price of treason, the ambitious ones, that to calumniate and of décrier a minister to succeed to him; of Astarbé, that to poison Pygmalion to gird royal stringcourse the head of his/her lover. Everywhere where there are two malicious, there is neither nobody, neither right, neither authority, nor power safe from a plot, i.e., of a dully concerted attack.
Plot comes from cum , with, and of French winds into a ball, group. To plot, to make a ball together thus means to warp or weave of small number. To be the victim of an infamous plot (Clémenceau, Iniquity , 1899, p. 18). Contrary to a conspiracy and a conspiracy indicates vaster projects, implying a greater number, the woven plot with two or in small group, aims at more reduced objects. The plot is elementary, restricted. It is also blacker, and more coward and supposes a lowness and a major spite. A infamous plot. Voltaire about a plot of Truaumont against Louis XIV: It was more one loose badly warped treason which a conspiracy.
Conspiracy and conspiracy are unions or plot of a rather great number against the State, the sovereign or the leaders, to reverse it by the force. The term of conspiracy enriches in all the cases on that by conspiracy.
Conspiracy , of Latin idiot spirare , to breathe with, be animated same spirit, gives the major, intellectual and sentimental assent, of the conspirators. The term of conspiracy does not indicate more the will to harm that to be useful. A conspiracy can be in favor of somebody. conspiracy made in favor of Tarquins (Montesquieu). The republicans blessed the conspiracy of Brutus against César for freedom, company authorized by the old laws. A conspiracy means change of order to the profit of somebody. One usually conspires to change those which reign, those which order, those which control, those which take part in the public thing; and by preventing what time would have done without the conspiracy. Albéroni form a conspiracy against the regent of France, so that the authority changes hand. The courtiers, the princes, the queen, the king himself, form several against Richelieu of them, to withdraw itself has a hard and absolute empire. The Conspiracy of the powders, true or supposed, threatens only the Parliament or the representatives of the nation, without touching with the rights of the people, and the shape even of the government. The Conspiracy is not as bloody as a conspiracy, and can-even sometimes carry out its objectives, without disorder nor violence. Conspiration evokes a project whose realization is remote and for which the conspirators lengthily discussed. A machination whose complexity requires a total secrecy under penalty of being destroyed.
Conspiracy , of Latin conjuratio formed of cum jurare (to swear with), indicates a meeting whose members bound by an oath. The conspiracy has the aim of operating a great change, a revolution of State or in the State, either with regard to the person of the legitimate sovereign, or with regard to the inviolable rights of the authority, or in the forms clean and characteristic of the government, or in the fundamental laws and constitutive. Catilina proposes, in its conspiracy, to destroy the last of the Romans and his fatherland, if he does not manage to control it. The Conjuration of Bédemare prepares the ruin of the republic of Venice. The life of the largest characters, the royalty, the religion of the State, all is threatened in the Conjuration of Amboise. Rienzi wants to restore, by its conspiracy, the court and the old freedom of Rome against the constitution present of the empire.
A conspiracy evokes an extermination, a total ruin. Voltaire speaking about the Conspiracy of the powders, calls first of all it this name like everyone, then wanting to make some feel all the horror he adds: “All the other plots which produced revenge, the policy, the cruelty of the civil wars, fanaticism even, do not approach the atrocity of the Conspiracy of the Powders”. The conspiracy evokes a project the day before its execution. Entreated gather with the urgent sums of money, where the intensity of an event push them to swear oath. A conspiracy requires the secrecy, but to dissipate it, entreated must be beaten with the manner of a league. “All powers of the world, though leagued and entreated, will not prevail against Louis XIV”. The conspiracy, initially contained, like a simple conspiracy, in a certain circle of conjurateurs, is forced to call with its secrecy and its help, a crowd of entreated necessary to the large ones and perilous companies; so that the more frightening it becomes by the number, the more it has itself to fear: this is why the ordinary fate of the conspiracies is to be discovered.
The cabal leads to the plot; the plot with the conspiracy; conspiracy with the conspiracy; conspiracy with the revolt. If you grant something to the cabal, soon nothing will be made that by cabal. If you do not stop the plots early, you will be the promoter, the accomplice, and finally the victim. If the conspiracies make you tremble, to fold, to yield you will become the slave and the toy of the conspiracy. If you forgive the conspiracy by a spirit of prudence and a feeling of kindness, that it is by deploying the full powers to punish; that it is as Louis XII forgives in subjected Génois, contrits, prostrate, in waiting of the sorrow, under the sword avenger.
legal Term : The “conspiracy” is also a possible count of indictment in the legal systems of many countries. Thus Louis XVI was shown of “conspiracy against the public freedom and the general security of the State” by the Convention car-instituted in court. He was recognized guilty.
Conspiracy, assassination, attack and coup d'etatdetailed Articles: Attack, Coup d'etat
The objectives of a conspiracy are varied, thus its means. False-testimony and the rumor, removal, the attack, the assassination, and the coup d'etat are among the methods most visible and most used known conspiracies. Naturally, all the assassinations and all the attacks - which can be individual - do not lie within the scope of a secret union between entreated plotters, conspirators or. Nevertheless, a coup d'etat generally requires the secrecy of the putschists.
The History abounds in sordid plots, conspiracies and other conspiracies. Most famous of the political conspiracies of Jules César at Ides of march on March 15th of the year 44 av. J. - C is certainly the assassination..
Here an not-exhaustive list of famous historical conspiracies:
- the Conspiracy of Catilina in 63 av.- J.C;
- the assassination of Jules César the March 15th 44 av. J. - C.;
- the Conspiracy of Rammer in 65;
- the assassination of David Rizzio in 1566;
- the Surprised of Meaux which starts the Second war of religion in 1567;
- the Plot of Babington in 1586;
- the Conspiracy of the powders in 1605;
- the Cabal of Important the in 1643;
- the Plot of Rye-House in 1683;
- the Vendetta of Akō in 1701;
- the Conspiracy of Equal the, in 1795;
- the Conspiracy of the explosive device in 1800.
Modern conspiraciesThe contemporary time is not less abundant in conspiracies. The terrorist plots in particular multiplied between the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21e century.
Here is an not-exhaustive list:
the Plot of July 20th, 1944 against Adolf Hitler
- the Assassination of John F. Kennedy in 1963
- the attempted murder of Jean-Paul II, the May 13rd 1981
- the attacks of September 11th, 2001
- the project of attacks on the transatlantic air lines of 2006
- the terrorist plot with the Canada in 2006
Conspiracies and controversiesThe temporal proximity of the contemporary events complicates their apprehension. Their analysis thus causes many controversies or polemics. Nevertheless controversies on the subjects of older events can perdurer (Bataille of Little Big Horn) - or to appear with the gleam new elements (Mort of Napoleon).
In the post-war period, the event which caused the most concurrent interpretations is certainly the assassination of president John Fitzgerald Kennedy in 1963. The Commission Warren of 1964 concluded that the assassination was not the fruit of a conspiracy. This conclusion was immediately rejected by its detractors. Many critical works were then published of which Rush to Judgment of the lawyer Mark Lane. In 1976, the investigation of the House Select Committee one Assassinations (HSCA) of the Congress concluded with a conspiracy. The detractors of the Commission Report Warren then saw themselves justified in their step.
The charge of the crime of conspiracy
The conspiracies, constant of the History, were always considered with greatest severity in the legal systems. And generally a sentence of capital punishment was suspended on the charge, was proven or not, of the crime of conspiracy. What made a frightening political weapon of it.
The unfounded charge of the crime of conspiracy can form integral part of a true conspiracy.
The condemned famous ones
- In 1793. At the time of its expeditious lawsuit, Louis XVI, king de France, was shown of “conspiracy against the public freedom and the general security of the State” by national Convention the January 15th 1793. He was condemned to died and carried out the January 21st 1793.
- In 1804. Louis-Antoine-Henri de Bourbon, Duke of Enghien, was suspected by of having taken part in an attack against Napoleon. Removed secretly in the night of the March 15th, shown “plot against the state security”, judged in front of a council of war and condemned to dead the March 20th, it is carried out the March 21st 1804 in the ditches of Vincennes.
- In 1957. During a secret lawsuit, the Hungarian Communist leader Imre Nagy is accused of a “conspiracy, in alliance with the foreign imperialists, aiming at reversing” the Hungarian Communist regime. He is carried out the June 16th 1958 in the prison of Budapest by hanging.
- In 1963. Following the failure of the Operation Charlotte Corday, the lieutenant-colonel Jean Bastien-Thiry is condemned to the capital punishment with the reasons for plot against the state security and attempted murder against the president of the Republic. He is carried out at the height of Ivry, the March 11th 1963, at the 35 years age, leaving a widow and three orphan.
- In 1964. Following the Plot of July 1963, at the end of a four months lawsuit, Ben Barka is condemned to death, by contumacy, with entreated the Mohamed Basri and Omar Bengelloun, for plot and attempted murder against the king, the March 14th 1964.
Fear of the conspiraciesCompetition is born the astonishment, of competition, suspicions, and of the competition, the charges. The conspiracy and the conspiracy, machination destroying the public property and the political order, calling into question the general interest, cause fear and excite imagination. A group or a population dividing of the shared interests can fear that those are the target of a conspiracy, particularly coming from their rivals. The execution of such a conspiracy would be immediately followed panic and retaliatory measures. However, the reality of a conspiracy is not necessary to cause the fury and the reaction of a group. A crowd misled by her natural vigilance, necessary to the defense of the interests of the group, distressed by the warning statements of the most dedicated members, excited by false allegations of conspiracy can start unjustified reprisals. A perfect example is the Popish Plot or Complot papist of 1678 - terrible machination organized in secrecy to show the catholics of a conspiracy against the English monarchy - which started terrible persecutions, the promulgation of repressive laws, and rehandlings diplomatic.
In the popular cultureThe history of the plots inspires by many works, for example: The novel Five-March or a conspiracy under Louis XIII of Alfred de Vigny in 1826, the opera of the same title of Charles Gounod in 1877, the Plot of Rene Gainville about OAS, or the Plot of Agnieszka Holland about the assassination of the priest Jerzy Popieluszko by the communist secret police Służba Bezpieczeństwa in 1984; JFK of Oliver Stone about the assassination of Kennedy. Certain works, without referring itself there openly, takes as a starting point historical plots, for example: the film I like Icare of Henri Verneuil presenting the assassination of a French president, is strongly inspired by the assassination of Kennedy.
The folklore of the conspiracy
In margin of the serious political questions, a true subculture of the conspiracy appeared, mainly with the the United States, where an amalgamating syncretism of the matters as distant as the political conspiracy, the Ufologie, the culture of drugs, the New Age, the esotericism, and well of others still, generated a folklore now taken again by American cinema industry. X-Files , Men in Black , Zone 51 , Da Vinci Code , Extraterrestrial Illuminati and S, such are the key words of this bestiary of modern times.
Notes and sources
- Usenet Forum on the plots
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