A common language is a Langue, often simplified, being used as means of Communication between Population S of different languages. She is opposed to the vernacular Language, spoken locally by a population. The liturgical languages often play such a part as a linguistic common point of multilingual communities connected by the same religion.
Examples of common languages
- the English in India, in anglophone Africa, in the scientific world , in the world of the businesses and in the world Touristique is often used as common language. In India, such a role could be formerly played by the Sanskrit, liturgical Langue, and maintaining by the Hindi, national language.
- the Arab , as a liturgical Language, plays also such a part in the Arab world, as well as the Dialecte Egyptian Arabic who is most known.
- the Spanish , in many countries of Latin America and in the south of the United States.
- the Esperanto, the Ido and Interlingua were invented to this end.
- the French in very many French-speaking countries of Africa.
- the Latin , in the Antiquity, was useful, in competition with the Greek Koinè , of common language within the populations of the Roman Empire. It continued, especially with the writing but not exclusively, to play this part during centuries in Europe ─ more especially as it was used a long time as liturgical Langue Christian ─ in the field of the ideas, arts, sciences and the letters. It was supplanted by the local vernacular languages, of which the English, but also the French, which currently fulfills a similar role.
- the Lingua franca spoken by the sailors about the Mediterranean about XVe to the XIXe siêcle.
- the Swahili allows the communication between the various populations of the Africa of the east.
- the Malayan is used as common language in the archipelago indonésien, perhaps as of VIIe century after J. - C.
- the Mandarin is the common language and official in China;
- the Pidgin S are used as common language in the multilingual environments
- the Othoman were the language of the Ottoman Empire and were useful as a Lingua franca on its colossal territory.
- the undermined is the common language of Lome (capital of Togo) which is a town of tradesmen where many ethnos groups are found speaking various languages. The need for a common language thus was born.
The French was the Langue of the Diplomatie in Europe at the 17th century until its recent replacement by the English, and consequently, the French is still one of the working languages of the international Institution S, and one finds it in documents going of the Passeport S with the postal mails. During many years, until the accession of the Austria, the Finland and the Sweden in 1995, the French and the German was the only working languages in the European Economic community.
The French was also the language used in the cosmopolitan cities educated in North Africa like Cairo (Egypt) towards the turning of the century until the Second world war. The French is still a Lingua franca in much of country of West Africa (where he often enjoys the Statut Officiel), a reminiscence of the colonial time of the France. These African countries, with several other countries from the world are members of the Francophonie.
MalayanThe Malayan is the language of exchange spoken in the ports about the archipelago Indonesia N and the Malayan Péninsule since at least XVe century, time of the radiation of the sultanate of Malacca on the Malayan Péninsule. It is undoubtedly Antonio Pigafetta (1491 - 1534), sailor and chronicler of Magellan, which wrote the first dictionary of this language. It is possible that Malayan the, originating one in Sumatra, was a language of exchange between this island and that of Java at the time of the power of the city-State of Sriwijaya (today the town of Palembang in the south of Sumatra), because one found in the center of Java of the inscriptions into Malayan going back to VIIe century after J. - C. the Dutch colonizer used the Malayan one for asresser with the buildings. The nationalist youth, assembled in congress in 1928, will baptize the Malayan " solemnly; Indonésien " and national language of the future Republic of Indonesia.
HaoussaThe Haoussa is one of the principal commercial languages of West Africa. He is spoken by approximately 50 million people, mainly with the Nigeria (20 million speakers), with the Niger (5 million) like with the Ghana, with the Cameroun, the Chad and the Sudan. He is also spoken in many big cities about trade.
Swahili or kiswahiliThe Kiswahili is a vernacular Language Bantou E, originating in the south of the Kenya, which was then métissée with other African languages and the Arab . She plays nowadays a big role like Common language in all the sub-Saharan Africa. The prefix ki- means " langue" and Swahili indicates the coast: the kiswahili is thus the " language of the côte".
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