See also: Cologne (homonymy)
Cologne ( German Köln in , Colonia Claudia Macaw Latin Agrippinensium in ) is a Ville of the Germany and largest of Rhineland-of-North-Westphalia. The agglomeration counts 1.024.346 inhabitants (end 2006). It is the fourth plus big city of Germany after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich.
See also: History of Cologne
Foundation and ancient periodThe city owes its name of Cologne with the Roman empress Agrippine, which raised its birthplace to the row of colony in the year 50, under the name of Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium . The Romains held to with it a garrison and road axes converged towards a bridge of boats on which an important trade with all the areas of the Germanie passed.
Because of its strategic importance on the Files of the Rhine and the presence of the army, gross consuming and the Germanic customers, the place attracted many merchants and became a hearth of craft industry and trade. Center military, the city was the residence of the Gallic emperor Postume of 260 with 268, and the place of the transitory usurpation of Silvanus in 355.
The Romans introduced the Christianisme in Cologne, which became episcopal see as of the 4th century.
The city keeps some vestiges of its Roman past; the mosaic of Dionysos in the Roman-Germanic museum, of the remainders of the Roman ramparts and the Aqueduct of Eiffel who brought back the Eau of a distant source of a hundred kilometers to the city.
The Middle Ages
Become episcopal see after its conquest by the Frank , the city receives the relics of the three Magi. To accommodate them, one builds the cathedral which currently crowns the city; the Cathedral of Cologne. This one was started in 1248 and was consécée in September 1322. The last stone is brought to the southern tower, in the presence of the emperor Guillaume Ier the October 15th 1880. The university of Cologne was founded in 1388 and remains today one of most important of Germany. The archbishop's palace of Cologne was one of the seven members voters of the emperor at the time of the saint worsens Roman Germanic since the gold bubble of 1356 of Charles IV. Member of the league of the Hanse, it acquires the free statute of city of Empire (Roman-Germanic) in 1475. Of 1802 with 1815, the city is invaded by the France and undergoes a long French presence.
20th centuryThe Second world war: The May 30th 1942, the allies carry out their first 1 000 Bombers' Raid on the city. Cologne was entitled then to a first series of destroying raid which will leave the city in a state of total ruin. According to the general Arthur Harris, it was necessary to break the moral one and the industrial potential of the enemy by massive strategic bombardments. It is the beginning of a three years offensive on the German big cities. Only the cathedral remained completely upright, in a state of stability, like a divine sign.
The rebuilding of the old districts at the edge of the the Rhine after the war was not inevitably a success.
Chronology historyCologne is oldest of the German big cities.
- 38 av. J. - C.: installation of a Roman camp
- medium of the 1st century: beginning of the rise of Cologne
- 260 - 271: capital of the Empire of Gaules
- 313: first mention of one évêché
- 785: transformation into archbishop's palace
- 1164 : the reliquaries of the three Magi are brought to Cologne since Milan
- 1248: beginning of the construction of the Cathedral of Cologne
- 1288: after the battle of Worringen, Cologne proclaims free city
- 1357: the bishop of Cologne becomes voter
- 1388: foundation of the university
- 1475: Cologne becomes officially free
- 1560: stop of the construction of the Cathedral of Cologne
- 1582 - 1584: war (religious) of Cologne
- 1794: the city is taken by the French
- 1801 - 1814: the city is a sub-prefecture of the French department of Roer
- 1815: after the French domination, the city passes under Prussian control
- 1842: resumption of the construction of the Cathedral of Cologne
- 1880: end of the construction of the Cathedral of Cologne
- 1918 - 1926: after the German defeat, the city is occupied by the British
- 1925: Ford starts to produce in Cologne, it is today the largest employer of Cologne
- May 31st 1942: Massive air raids (486 dead)
- June 28th 1943: massive Air raids (4377 dead, and several additional hundreds following days). The downtown area is completely destroyed.
- April 21st 1944: Bombardment S (664 dead)
- October 28th 1944: Bombardment (630 dead)
- March 2nd 1945: Bombardment (500 dead)
- March 5th 1945: the city is taken by the American .
- 1959 : the population is become again as many as pre-war period
- 1968: the first underground line is ready
- 1978 - 1979: Lawsuit of Cologne: three high ranking officials of the Jewish deportation of France, Kurt Lischka, Ernst Heinrichsohn and Herbert Hagen are judged for crimes against humanity and are condemned
- 1985: year of the Romance churches
- 1999: Cologne accommodates the top of the G8
- 2005: host of the XXe world Days of youth 2005
- 2006: Cologne accommodates several matches Football world cup
- the Gothic cathedral ( Dom ) and many the other churches (often Romance),
- the museum Wallraf-Richartz ( Wallraf-Richartz-Museum )
- the museum of the perfume ( Duftmuseum )
- the Museum Ludwig ( Museum Ludwig ),
- the Roman-Germanic museum ( Römisch-Germanisches Museum ),
- the museum of the chocolate ( Schokoladenmuseum ) and other museums,
- the oldest house of the Eau de Cologne Farina gegenüber,
- the house of the Eau de Cologne 4711,
- the old city ( Altstadt ) and its lanes between the town hall and the Rhine.
- the Zoo of Cologne (www.zoo-koeln.de bond)
The carnival of Cologne
See also: Carnival of Cologne
The Carnaval of Cologne is almost as old as the city. It is qualified 8th wonder of the world or the 5th season, so much it is extraordinary. In Antiquity, the Greeks and the Romans celebrated in the honor of Dionysos and Saturn of merry festivals of spring, where the wine, the women and the songs abounded. The German , as for them, celebrated the Solstice winter. Later, the Christians took again these pagan habits. The beginning of the Lent preceding Easter was celebrated by the carnival - edge vale meaning “goodbye with the meat! ”
With the the Middle Ages, the carnavalesques rejoicings, always accompanied by strange disguises, often cover exacerbated forms, to the great displeasure of the Council and Church of the city. Prohibitions and decrees were of a poor help; the festival proceeded in a tumult and an intoxication without terminals. In addition to the traditional carnival that organizes the festival Committee since 1823, there are some another which developed in the years 1980 and which, meanwhile, became traditional.
General informationThe University of Cologne, founded at the 14th century, remains one of most important of Germany (approximately 48 000 students). The Cathédrale of Cologne belongs to the world heritage of UNESCO.
The city is rather cosmopolitan, indeed, 17,4% of its population is not German nationality. Approximately: 120000 Musulman S live in Cologne. In 2007, the construction of a Mosque of: 2000 places in the district of Ehrenfeld causes many polemics.
One of the specialities of Cologne is the “Kölsch”, a kind of Lager rather light been useful in narrow glasses of 20 Cl, sometimes 30 Cl. The word indicates also the dialect of the city.
Another speciality is " the Eau de Cologne " ( Kölnisch Wasser ).
There are many companies in Cologne. One finds there the division European of Ford (manufacturer of cars), Deutz (driving and machines), much of chains of German television (RTL Television, WDR, VOX) and the seat of the Lufthansa.
Cologne is known like the capital of the gays and lesbians in Germany.
TwinningsCologne is twinned with:
Classical musicCologne has several orchestras of reputation:
- Symphony orchestra of the WDR of Cologne: an orchestra specialist in the contemporary repertory.
- Orchestra of Gürzenich of Cologne: formerly directed by Günter Wand. The current chief is Markus Stenz.
- Concerto Köln: an orchestra specialist in the traditional repertory of the XVIIIe century, often directed by Rene Jacobs.
- Musica Antiqua Köln : an orchestra directed by Reinhard Goebel and now dissolved. Its discography devoted to the repertory baroque is remarkable.
Personalities of Cologne
- Holy Ursule (Heilige Ursula)
- Konrad Adenauer, mayor of Cologne of 1917 until 1933, then Chancellor of the FR of Germany in 1949
- Heinrich Böll, writer, Nobel Prize of literature in 1972
- Jean Marie Farina (1685-1766), the creator of the Eau de Cologne
- Stefan Lochner (* about 1400-1451), painter
- Albertus Magnus (* about 1200-1280)
- Georg Simon Ohm, professor of physics, in 1827 publication of the law on the electrical resistance which now bear its name
- Jacques Offenbach, type-setter (* 1819-1880)
- Kurt Alder, chemistry teacher, Nobel Prize of chemistry in 1950
- Ludwig Suthaus (1906-1971), Wagnerian tenor .
- Michel Leeb, humorist (* 1947-)
- Henry van Lyck, German actor (* 1941-)
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