Clichy - also called Clichy-the-Garenne - is a common , chief town of canton located in the department of the Hauts-de-Seine, in the north-western suburbs of Paris, not to confuse with Clichy-sous-Bois (Seine-Saint-Denis).
The inhabitants of Clichy are the Clichois .
In late documents (mérovingiens) Clichy is called Clippiacum. The most probable etymology is that this word derives from the gentilices " Clepius " or " Cleppius ", or " Clippius " with addition of the termination " acus " who very expressly indicated, at the Gallo-Roman ones, a property. The translation of Clippiacum would be then " property (or villa) of Cleppius (or alternative) " The formation of the name is completely in conformity so that we know Gallo-Roman grammar and uses. This etymology is argument moreover for the existence of Gallo-Roman Clichy.
To the 6th century, the territory extended:
- until the current place of Clichy and boulevards of Batignolles and Monceau.
- until the limits of Neuilly-sur-Seine, Saint-Denis and Montmartre.
625: first traces in the chronicles of the Royal palace of Clippacium (Clichy). Clotaire II, father of Dagobert Ier, has there in fact installed its main home and its court since 614. The School of the Palate, which is distributed between the Latin Quarter of Paris and the plain of Clichy-Levallois , form all children of the high-ranking dignitaries of the kingdom (Saint Eloi, Saint Ouen, Saint Didier…). It is in this school, left prefiguration of the ENA, that prince Dagobert makes the meeting of all these saints who will manage with talent a few years later the kingdom of the Francs.
Clichy was a time place of residence of the kings Mérovingiens and field of Dagobert Ier (it marries Gomatrude into 626 there), it was named at the time Clippiacum. Its territory became then drives out royal.
A few years after having skilfully negotiated peace between the Neustrie (Western France) and Austrasie (Eastern France) with Cologne, the diplomat Saint Ouen withdraws himself in his villa of Clichy, where it dies out into 684.
In 717, Chilpéric II makes donation with the abbey of Saint-Denis of the forest of Rouvray (the single vestige of this forest is the Bois de Boulogne) which extends from Neuilly-sur-Seine (today Saint-Cloud} in Saint-Denis (Seine-Saint-Denis).
In a charter signed in 741 in Clichy, in the public palate (expression met for the first time), Charles Martel renews the donation with the abbey of Saint-Denis of all the village of Clichy, with its grounds, its buildings, its houses, its plowmen, its slaves, its vines, its close, its rivers, had by the people of one or the other sex .
In 885, the Norman ones destroy the surrounding Palais Royal and villages.
In 1193, Philippe-Auguste detaches Clichy of the royal field to make a feudal seigniory of it, in exchange of the Château of Pierrefonds, with the profit of Gaucher III of Châtillon (he will be the first lord), combined of the royal family. By successive marriages, the seigniory passes noble families in noble families.
The " part; levalloisienne " seigniory of Clichy specializes in the vine growing (1215). It must supply out of communion wines the abbey of Saint-Denis on which it depends. " Levallois " be identified then with the site of " the vine with the priests ".
Jeanne d' Arc gathers her army on the plain of Clichy for the lifting of the armies to the sound of Mount-Joye-Saint-Denis (Rallying cry of the feudal armies). This episode precedes the unfruitful conquest by Paris by Charles VII in 1429.
At the 12th century, the parish of Clichy includes Monceau, Courcelles, the Ternes, Levallois, Rolls it, the city the Bishop and extends to the doors from the Louvre (carries Saint-Honore).
In 1334, the lord of Ferrières is lord of Clichy. A conflict opposes it to the abbey of Saint-Denis on the right " of épave" , lucrative right since the Seine was great transportation routes of the time (This episode does not make it think of the island Ravageurs about which Eugene Sue speaks in " Mysteries of Paris "
About 1400, the first " appears; maire". It is not an elected magistrate, but a simple intendant charged to manage the territory in the name of the lord.
Then a new lord appears; Pierre de Giac, lord of Soupy, Josserand, Saint-Germain-of-wood-Remy, Châteaugay etc… first Great chamberlain of France, chancellor of the duke of Berry, then Chancellor of France, it died in 1427.
In the Middle Ages, the plain of Clichy, required residential place from its state of handing-over of wild rabbit for royal huntings, takes the name of Clichy-the-wild rabbit.
The Guerre One hundred Year old brings its batch of combat, Jeanne d' Arc, at the time of the head office of Paris in 1429, came to camp in Monceau before attacking the Saint-Honore door.
1690, the district of Rolls is detached from Clichy. It is set up soon in independent parish (1697) and, in 1722, he becomes integral part of Paris. The " end of the seigneurie" of Asnières is close, this one falls, by marriage, in Guillaume Bautru who, with his death leaves two girls, one married with the marquis de Vaubrun, the other with the count de Maulevrier, brother of famous the Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Minister for King Louis XIV. These two personalities jointly manage the inheritance of their wives, but they die prematurely in the service of the king; because they excercent both the military trade. Marguerite Bautru, marchioness of Vaubrun becomes the single owner. She occupies really the castle seigneurial and devotes herself to multiple work of enlarging and embellishment relating in particular to the repair of the park of the castle.
In 1788, Clichy loses a third of its territory. Louis XVI grants to the farmer general, the construction of an enclosure absorbing the grounds clichois located beyond current Place of Clichy. The wall is built in extreme cases of current the boulevard of Clichy, of the Batignolles, Courcelles and Monceau.
Always at that time, the principal clichoise activity is the laundry (it mainly established at the edge of the Seine, street of the Laundrette and the Tank and in the borough, street of the Feeding trough)
At the beginning of the XIXe century, the construction of the railway line Paris-Saint-Germain will isolate the west from Clichy (following the example other communes such as Colombes and the variation of Wood-of-Doves future Wood-Doves)
As of 1822, Jean-Jacques Perret lance on this territory an operation of scale. It launches the construction of allotments, but its operation fails, which results in to involve it in one fulgurating Faillite. Following that, Nicolas Eugene Levallois takes again the allotments, this time the operation is a great success.
In the obligation to leave Boulogne or it had bought the glassmaking of his father-in-law, Louis-Joseph Maës (future mayor of the city) installs, in 1842, its new factory in the commune. Under the impulse of Louis Clémandot, director of crystal manufacture, Louis-Joseph Maës seeks to develop novel methods and to develop original matters for its future creations, as well on the level of perforated as on the level of colorings. These innovations will be worth with the Cristallerie of Clichy an international repute. They will be rewarded with the World Fairs since 1850. Crystal manufacture ceases any activity since 1896.
In 1846, the Municipal council of Clichy authorizes the name of “Levallois village” to this district of the city. The Municipality, represented by Louis Joseph Maës (mayor of 1858 to 1870), contributes by its action to develop the “Levallois village” to this its residents require their independence.
In 1860, Clichy acquires its final territory at the time of the annexation by Paris of the territories of the old communes which were inside the fortifications of Thiers. The part of the old commune of Batignolles-Heap located outside the line of defense was then allotted to Clichy.
The City Jouffroy-Renault, built at the end of the Second Empire in the years 1870 - 1880, is the first important realization in the field of the social housing in Clichy. This city, built in a dead end by the architect Leon Henri Picardy known as Picardy Hervey, is made up of 76 similar houses, made up of a surmounted stage of a roof, and a small small garden in front. It is founded in 1865 by Mrs. Thénard, widow of the younger brother of Louis-Jacques Thénard (1777-1857), erudite chemist promoted baron of the Empire by Napoleon 1st. The houses are then rented with commitments to sell, payable in 15 years by monthly payments. A system which thrived much nowadays, but which, financed by an ordinary person, then represented a means of possibility of home-ownership very " social". This city is representative of the effort carried out at the 19th century by middle-class men and industrial " philanthropists ".
In 1910, it is the beginning of industrialization. The architects Paponot and Simoneta build the warehouses of the Printemps Later (currently occupied by FNAC), those will be classified historic building.
In 1948, the company Bic settles in the commune. She will celebrate her 60 years of presence, on the territory of the commune, in 2008. To date, it employs 8.500 worker in the world including 500 at the head office of Clichy.
AdministrationThe Canton of Clichy contains only part of the commune. The other part belongs to the Canton of Levallois-Perret-North.
Mayors of Clichy
House of Vendôme . Built in at the end of the 17th century, the house is renovated for the actress Francoise Moreau, the mistress of Philippe de Vendôme. Classified historic building in 1983, the building is then acquired by the municipality which undertook to restore it.
Hospital Beaujon . Built of 1930 to 1935 by the architect Jean Walter. “It constitutes a true architectural innovation then: it is the first hospital nonsuburban monobloc, the 13 stages being supposed to combine the economic advantages of a vertical structure and the hygienic virtues of altitude. It referred to the hospitals of on the other side of the Atlantic and in France the nickname " was worth to him; of hospital skyscraper ".
the House of the people (1935 - 1939), classified historic building: built by Marcel Lods, Eugene Beaudouin, Jean Proven and Vladimir Bodiansky, it is also used as market of the market and is regarded as a work precursor of the modern architecture in France.
Dagobert Ier, 7th century, King of the Francs
- Rutebeuf, 12th century, poet.
- Holy Vincent of Paul, cleaned of Clichy of 1612 with 1625.
- the financier Antoine Crozat (1655 - 1738) had a house in Clichy.
- Louis-Joseph de Vendôme (1654 - 1712) spent three months to Clichy to look after its Vérole, in the house of Antoine Crozat.
- Gustave Eiffel, resides at Clichy starting from 1863.
- Léo Delibes, type-setter of music.
- Claude Debussy, type-setter of music.
- Mireille Balin, actress, buried in Clichy
- Georges Bizet, type-setter of music.
- Louise Weber, known as Goulue, dancer with the Moulin-Rouge and prone favorite of Toulouse-Lautrec. born in Clichy the 7/13/1866
- Henri from Toulouse-Lautrec, painter.
- Desired Henri Landru, criminal.
- Henry Miller, American writer, lived in the commune, close to the Door of Clichy (Which occurred Anatole France)
- Céline, resides at Clichy of 1927 with 1929, writer.
- Jacques Mesrine, born (1936) and buried (1979) in Clichy, public enemy number 1 in the Years 1970.
- Marina Vlady, born in Clichy in 1938, actress.
- Alain Chamfort, resides of its birth in 1949 at 1952.
- Pierre Bérégovoy, Prime Minister.
- Frederic Chichin (Rita Mitsouko), born in Clichy in 1954, deceased on November 28th, 2007.
- Patricia Dumay, born in Clichy in 1959, illustrator, painter, sculptor.
- Jacques Delors, in 1983 - 1984, Minister for Finance, former mayor.
- Guilherme Mauricio, footballer, better striker of all the history of League 2
- Serge Betsen, rugby player, third line wing within Olympic Biarritz and of the team of France
- Alena Popchanka, swimmer, member of the team of France, medal-holder to the championships of the World and Europe of swimming
- Nâdiya, singer
The city and the 7th art
Several turnings took place in Clichy, in particular:
- 1980 - François Truffaut turns the Last Subway with Gerard Depardieu, Jean Poiret and Catherine Deneuve.
- 1983 - Claude Sautet turns Garçon! with Yves Montand.
Establishments of higher education
- University center of Clichy (Hauts-de-Seine)
- ESHOTEL: University of Hotel management
- Station of '' Clichy - Levallois ''
- Line 13 of the subway of Paris
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