The movement altermondialist , often shortened in altermondialism is a Social movement composed very diverse actors who essentially propose a whole of statutory and concerned values of the environment like engine of the Mondialisation and the Human development, in opposition so that they analyze like “economic logics of universalization néolibérale”.
Enough heterogeneous, the movement gathers around the Slogan “Another world is possible” or more recently, “other worlds are possible”, but oscillates between a Réformisme (for example through the claim of a Taxe Tobin by ATTAC) and “imaginary of the rupture”.
Nevertheless, one distinguishes from the standpoint and the claims common to many organizations concerning:
- the economic Justice;
- the autonomy of the people;
- environmental protection;
- fundamental human rights;
- of the claims of Democracy according to the various political orientations;
- a dispute of the internal organization, statute and policies of the world institutions such as the World Trade organization (OMC), the Funds international currency (the IMF), the economic Cooperation organization and of development (OECD), the G8 and the the World Bank;
- a search for alternatives, total and systemic, with the international order of finance and trade.
These topics are found on the one hand in a certain number of works, films or of media, on the other hand in texts of various organizations of the movement altermondialist: platform proposed by ATTAC, proclamations or reports/ratios worked out during the worldwide social forums, of which the Proclamation of Porto Alegre, of the texts of the United Nations of declarations of right and autonomy whose “reforming” altermondialists want the application concretes (see also the part Propositions) .
History and structure
See also: Chronology of the altermondialism
The movement took root gradually throughout the 20th century. It starts to become extensive with the beginning of the year 1980 in the countries of the south with the fight against the Dette of the third world, OMC and the plans of adjustment structural of the IMF; but there remains unperceived then in Occident. It appears in Europe, in the United States and in Korea as from 1994, within the framework of a critic of unemployment, policies involving the precarisation of work and the questioning of social protection.
The demonstrations of Seattle in 1999 are the first mediatized demonstrations altermondialists. They are followed by a first Worldwide social forum, alternate with the World economic forum of Davos, and by the gathering of Genoa in 2001 (with the death of a demonstrator killed by ball by the Italian police force) against the top of G8. The Worldwide social forums take place each year is with Porto Alegre (of 2001 to 2003), with Mumbai in 2004 or polycentric. In November 2002 was also held the first European Social forum with Florence, during which: 450000 to 1 million people ravelled against the war in Iraq and “for another world”. As places of exchanges and media events, the social forums are spaces and the privileged moments of the movement. It developed during the last world, continental and local years several forum social.
The town of Atlanta accommodated the first Social forum of the United States from June 27th to July 1st, 2007, on the initiative of the Forum social.
See also: Organizations asserting altermondialists
The movement altermondialist results from the convergence and the multiplicity of movements. It gathers people of very diverse horizons: farming community, layers popular and lower middle class of the South, the poor and precarious employees of the industrialized countries, working and teaching trade unions, consumers' associations, of researchers, young people, movements ecologists, antimilitarists, feminists, Communists, Marxists, nationalists, keynésiens and anarchists… Sometimes for this reason, this mobility is called “the movement of the movements”.
This diversity is reflected in the great number of Organizations asserting altermondialists. The altermondialist point of view of also knows an echo among certain leaders of the LDC, as some expressed it in the Déclaration of Dhaka or in their membership of the Mouvement of non-aligned the.
Convergence of a multiplicity of movements and associations, mobility altermondialist does not have an organization in itself. It constitutes a network with “horizontal” operation, refusing the vertical hierarchies. The associations joined together within the movement can be organized according to this model besides (thus in the European Public Service Union Solidaires in France), but certain organizations as ATTAC France reproduce in their structure a pyramidal hierarchy by granting an important decisional capacity a minority, like the college of the founders of ATTAC.
The altermondialists seek to develop global area networks (cf the structure of the ATTAC movements, or Indymedia), in particular through world forums, the such Worldwide social forum of Porto Alegre, in order to develop to with it international synergies between the various movements.
The term anti-universalization was the first used by the journalists to indicate the protest movement. In 1999, the term “altermondialism” or “altermondialisation”, of Belgian origin , was introduced into the francophonie to propose the character favorable of part of the movement to a form of universalization which would be different from current universalization. The term itself is the resumption of the slogan “Another world is possible”.
The plurality of the political orientations within the movement is difficult to synthesize. It is possible to describe a certain number of specific orientations within the movement:
communist and Marxist. The Communists dependant on themselves the movement altermondialists on bases anticapitalists and traditionally oppose economic universalization capitalist, which would be that of the middle-class class, and preach the universalization of the action of the people (or the Prolétariat) according to a social model and interdependent. All the Communists however do not feel altermondialists: in France, so to the parties like the PCF or LCR approach mobility, others move away from there…
- the anarchistic , opposed to capitalism and with the authority, are present in the great demonstrations altermondialists. Some are present in the black blocks although those is not exclusively made up of anarchists.
- antilibéraux which criticizing the model of the free trade (Critical cf of the economic liberalism) wants to reform in-depth the principles of economic logic, on the basis of social and moral criterion. Some propose to tax flows with hot money (Taxe Tobin).
- the nationalist souverainists or which, having for goal stated to protect the nation from the neoliberalism of the markets and the social insecurity which would result from this (unemployment, “Social dumping”, delocalizations), preaches protectionist measurements of national interest or regional as regards economy. This last category is clearly Antimondialiste. These souverainists or nationalists are not to confuse with the nationalists of extreme right-hand side who do not take to in no case share with the movement altermondialist.
- the ecologist S which want to preserve the environment (vis-a-vis the dangers of the industrial society).
The majority of the tendencies agree on a compromise which one also finds in the moderated tendency, that of the “moderate reformers” who are in favor of free trade but wish that the market is controlled according to urgent social and environmental requirements, for example the principle of Food sovereignty.
Positions presented as altermondialists
If the diversity of the movement proves to be effective as a face of dispute, its lack of homogeneity prevents the movement producing a clear political program and from channeling its partisans in a single track. However, a common orientation emerges on general topics like the fight for the development and the Basic rights including/understanding the Food sovereignty and the Paix even the Démocratie. With an Idealistic speech often , the altermondialism wants to be an engine of social struggle. It designated as its ideological main adversary the Néo-libéralisme.
The basic idea of the altermondialists consists in considering that the process of economic universalization, if it is framed politically, not led to an increase in the inequalities in the world: on the one hand between the richest world population and poorest, on the other hand between the countries of North, mainly the North America and the Europe, and a majority of the countries of the South of which the sub-Saharan Africa and the LDC. This last point can however be disputed by the analysis of GDP by country over the 50 last years, an indicator which the altermondialists dispute in general.
Certain altermondialists are in addition worried by the ecological insecurity which is generated by industrial pollution, the greenhouse effect, GMO (see Lutte anti-GMO), or the chemical weapons and nuclear.
Others show the large transcontinental companies and the financial and commercial bodies international to support, directly or indirectly, of the private interests rather than the general interest by the search for profits to the detriment of the social and ecological factors (see Externalité negative and difficulties of applying the Protocole of Kyoto or the Bourse of carbon).
The thought altermondialist wants, on the one hand, to make become aware of what she regards as the misdeeds of a form of universalization too centered on the economy, and, on the other hand, to propose reforms or at least alternatives according to the formula " another world is possible".
Critical of the worldwide market
The altermondialists consider that universalization by the market is not a synonym of human progress, this one not profiting, according to them, equitably with all.
The altermondialists particularly denounce the increasing inequality between the proportion of the richer and of poorest of the planet, which increased since 1960, qu ' they allot to universalization rather than with the internal causes with these countries. According to the report/ratio 2001 of UNDP, the 1% of richest world have a cumulated income equal to that of the poorest 57%. Moreover, for 45 of the 77 countries having statistics on the inequality of income, this one believed inside the countries between 1960 and 1990, reinforcing the inequalities intra-main roads.
They also point which enters 1990 and 2000, in spite of the increase in the productive forces, illustrated by the doubling of world GNP, the number of the victims of the hunger did not evolve/move significantly (+ 810 million people each year, is more than two million per day).
Is also criticized the liberalization of financial flows and monetarists world who has, according to them, a destabilizer effect on the local economies and of the harmful human consequences. They allot for example the Argentinian Economic crisis and the Asian Economic crisis of south-east at the end of the Années 1990 with this liberalization. Moreover, the Tax shelters are one of the targets of the altermondialists. Defending the idea according to which these banking institutions are the source of many financial abuses on behalf of certain companies and certain banks.
Position with respect to the States and of the international agencies
The altermondialists consider that the economy is not governed by natural and immutable economic laws but is the fruit of policies conscious of the governments which would concede more and more their capacity at the market (see Consensus of Washington).
From their point of view, the market would reduce the man and nature to his commercial value. They see like counterweight of the external authorities at the markets, like the States, some international organizations or, without too much precision on its representation, the Civil society. Although saying itself favorable to the development of international organizations, they attack those which seek with privatiser or to reduce the access to the public services, as to those which aim at liberalizing the economy.
The ATTAC organization summarizes the wish of the altermondialists to modify the rules of the great international institutions as follows:
“a radical reform of the international financial institutions, founded on a questioning of the current organization of the capacities within the international financial system, constitutes a political condition preliminary to the construction of an alternative mondialism founded on the capacity of the people and a new design of sustainable development. ”
The Altermondialiste S wish a greater democratization of the supranational institutions, not democratically elected by the universal direct suffrage, like OMC, the IMF, the World Bank or G8 (see also: European Central bank). The lack of transparency of these organizations is also often criticized by the movement altermondialist.
Critical of OMC
First of all, the mandate of OMC to reduce the obstacles to the Libre-échange is criticized as being unfavourable with certain countries of the south, particularly concerning agriculture. Thus the report/ratio of the platform of ONG Frenchwomen Southern Coordination entitled “protection of the agricultural markets. Development tools” concluded that “associated with support measures for the production” and “for one period of time given”, “the installation of protection measures (of the agricultural markets) clearly seems a requirement to manage to develop the local production and to reinforce self-sufficiency”.
Nevertheless, the common Agricultural policy, which subsidize agricultural exports of the rich countries and which is denounced by the countries of the south like unfair competition, fact discusses within the movement altermondialist.
Negotiations in door - closed are also pointed finger, as well as the system of negotiation per , managed by technical committees not elected democratically and shown to dissimulate lobbies of interest private. In addition, the domination of the industrialized countries in the world commerce is pointed like reason of impossibility for the poor countries and the minority groups to be opposed to the decisions of OMC. Thus, ONG Oxfam denounces the fact that according to it the interests of the developed countries take the step on the development in the trade negociations.
The altermondialists, joined in that by authors and experts of any edge, call with more democracy, more transparency and a new power struggle more favorable to the developing countries and the local policies.
Moreover, the governorship of OMC, based mainly on the Commercial Ministers of the adherent countries, is criticized for its lack of concern in the social domains and environmental which are however influenced by its decisions.
The agreements concerning the Intellectual property as ADPIC are also denounced when they are relating to the “vital” goods (food, drugs, water) or at the living organisms. GMO and the high price of some are aimed in particular Médicament S like those against the AIDS. Certain groups for example developed the alternative concept of positive Brevet to cure it. The altermondialists are generally favorable to the free software.
Critical of the IMF
For the altermondialists, the policies followed by the the IMF contributed in a dramatic way to economic, social and political failures in a great number of situations: in particular the Asian Economic crisis of 1997, transitions from the Russian and Eastern-European economies to the market economy, reforms South American and the management of the African countries.
These criticisms of the interventions of the IMF in fact very widespread and are developed by economists of all edges, of which defenders of universalization. Are proposed the absence of adaptations of the policies of the IMF at the typical locations, the absence of retreat as for the dogma of the autorégulé market, or the devotion of the institution to the interest of certain actors of the financial market.
The critic of the IMF is not thus at all specific to the movement altermondialist. Thus, paradoxically, if the altermondialists see in the IMF an authority of the “neoliberalism”, many liberals can dispute the existence even of the IMF, whose object is the official regulation of the market, therefore in contradiction with the dogma of self-regulation.
Lastly, the altermondialists criticize the operating process of the IMF, in whom the voices are balanced by the financial participation, and recommends a democratic mode of decision.
Criticisms of the large multinational firms
The altermondialism is opposed to large the Multinationale S like Monsanto (producing of genetically modified seeds, or GMO), which tried to prohibit labelling on the products. The emblematic figure of this fight is Jose Bove. More generally, the altermondialists oppose all the patents on the genetic code (DNA), with the reason which one could not patent the living beings.
They are also opposed to the multinationals of the drug (Roche, Pfizer, etc), which, by their patents and the selling price of their drug, would prevent the poor countries from having access to the care. The drugs Diflucan® or Triflucan® in particular of Pfizer would make it possible to save tens of sick million people of the AIDS in Africa.
They denounce certain multinationals which, thanks to the liberalization of the exchanges and with the advantages related to the industrial free zones, delocalize and sub-contract at a cheap rate by violating the human rights or by causing ecological disasters. For example, Shell is shown to refuse to cleanse the site of the greatest underground hydrocarbon discharge in urban area, with Durban, in South Africa, where more than one million liters of oil would have been widespread.
The policies of Délocalisation S are according to them negative at the same time for the developed countries (because threatening the stability and the volume of employment, the social security or the wage minimum) and for the countries of the South (because supporting the social dumping and the exploitation by North rather than the local development of the countries of the South).
The proposals concerning the human rights and of the environment are also present at much of them. In particular, the question of the duration is raised by most of the movement: for what is used to develop by exploiting more and more intensively resources which are not renewed and whose exhaustion is foreseeable if it is not with “being gone more quickly in the wall”? The concept of Sustainable development often is employed, questioned and put in debate by comparing it with the bearable concept of Décroissance.
The altermondialists also aspire to more democracy but the specific proposals are very scattered, energy of the reform of the international organizations to the introduction of a world parliament by a democratic Mondialisation, a kind of the United Nations elected by the vote for all, according to some.
The altermondialists often support reforming ideas in the economic domain like those of a lightening or cancellation of the debt of the poor countries, of a taxation on the financial affairs (Taxe Tobin).
More precisely, a list of proposals usually advanced by the altermondialists, of which particularly by the ATTAC movement, was synthesized in the Manifeste of Porto Alegre. They are distinguished:
Proposals related to economic reforms:
To cancel the national debt countries of the South. The sales leaflet altermondialist consists in saying that they already refunded it several times via the interests, that they were often contracted by a nondemocratic preceding government in order to maintain his capacity or that they are during ecological Dette or colonial. To promote the Equitable trade with a levelling by the top of the social norms as consigned in conventions of ILO. To recognize the economic rights, social and cultural statements with the Conference of Vienna of 1993. In particular, to recognize the right to the sovereignty and food safety, employment, social protection and the retirement. Note: the trade union Peasant confederation request that the Agriculture is excluded completely from the negotiations of Libéralisation. To draw an assessment exhaustive and independent of the consequences of the decisions of OMC, the IMF and the World Bank. definitively To exclude the fields from the education, the Health, the Social services and the Culture of the cycles of negotiation of OMC and to preserve the Public services threatened of liberalization by the General agreement on the trade of the services (AGCS) of OMC. To found international taxation of the financial affairs, of which the Tax Tobin on the foreign exchange market. Other alternatives exist like those on the overseas investments, on the benefit consolidated of transnational, the sales of weapons or the activities with strong gas emission with greenhouse effect. To dismantle the Tax shelters in order to counter tax avoidance and the financial crime. To prohibit any form of brevetage of living and privatization of community properties of humanity, water in particular.
To cancel the national debt countries of the South. The sales leaflet altermondialist consists in saying that they already refunded it several times via the interests, that they were often contracted by a nondemocratic preceding government in order to maintain his capacity or that they are during ecological Dette or colonial.
To promote the Equitable trade with a levelling by the top of the social norms as consigned in conventions of ILO. To recognize the economic rights, social and cultural statements with the Conference of Vienna of 1993. In particular, to recognize the right to the sovereignty and food safety, employment, social protection and the retirement. Note: the trade union Peasant confederation request that the Agriculture is excluded completely from the negotiations of Libéralisation.
To draw an assessment exhaustive and independent of the consequences of the decisions of OMC, the IMF and the World Bank.
definitively To exclude the fields from the education, the Health, the Social services and the Culture of the cycles of negotiation of OMC and to preserve the Public services threatened of liberalization by the General agreement on the trade of the services (AGCS) of OMC.
To found international taxation of the financial affairs, of which the Tax Tobin on the foreign exchange market. Other alternatives exist like those on the overseas investments, on the benefit consolidated of transnational, the sales of weapons or the activities with strong gas emission with greenhouse effect.
To dismantle the Tax shelters in order to counter tax avoidance and the financial crime.
To prohibit any form of brevetage of living and privatization of community properties of humanity, water in particular.
Related on justice and peace:
To set up a respected international system of prevention and payment of the conflicts (a kind of International penal court having more capacities).
To apply the charter of the Human rights against any form of discrimination, sexism and racism and to condemn in an equal way the various countries which do not respect it.
Related to the development of the democracy:
To guarantee the right to information by legislations putting an end to the concentration media in giant groups of communication, and guaranteeing the autonomy of the journalists compared to the shareholders. To reform and democratize in-depth the international organizations controls by the Consensus of Washington (the IMF, the World Bank, OMC) and there to make prevail human rights, economic, social and cultural, in the prolongation of the Universal declaration of the human rights. To also incorporate these organizations in the system and the mechanisms of decision of the the United Nations.
To guarantee the right to information by legislations putting an end to the concentration media in giant groups of communication, and guaranteeing the autonomy of the journalists compared to the shareholders.
To reform and democratize in-depth the international organizations controls by the Consensus of Washington (the IMF, the World Bank, OMC) and there to make prevail human rights, economic, social and cultural, in the prolongation of the Universal declaration of the human rights. To also incorporate these organizations in the system and the mechanisms of decision of the the United Nations.
They allot the cancellation of part of the debt of the poorest countries to these pressures on the governments and the organizations as the Club of Paris which usually take on their behalf these measurements in the event of insolvency. They give of it for example the additional help granted to Africa at the time of the top of G8 in 2005. Moreover, the altermondialists conducted campaigns of international pressures in the years 1990.
- the historical claim of a tax on certain capital patinates; the largest projection consisted of a legislative initiative of the the European Parliament, pushed back as of before the first reading thanks to the pressures of Tony Blair on the English Labor deputies, but also with the abstentions or votes against deputies of LO/LCR.
- the rejection of the referendum on the European Constitution in France is partly due to the critics altermondialists, but more generally of the parties and political movements non-governmental. This result, supposed “satisfactory” by the altermondialists, is worth on the other hand the hostility of part of the left parties French social-democrats (PS) and Europeans to him (SPD in Germany, Workers party in the United Kingdom in particular), as well as moderate European line, which the altermondialists interpret like a Doctrinaire approach liberal European pro-Union, notwithstanding their current of thought is far from being the only one to be opposed to it (preserving British, souverainists in France and elsewhere, right nun in Spain, Bavaria or Poland, in particular English liberals…).
- Certain boxes with ideas altermondialists (as the Comité for the cancellation of the debt of the third world) agree to think that the decisions to transform drastic plans of the IMF into FPRC (“facilitated for the reduction of poverty and the growth”), or the emergence of the “initiative for the strongly involved in debt countries” were supported by the pressures altermondialists.
- the actions of the international financial institutions qualified by the altermondialists of “néolibérales” would be the subject from now on of more criticisms.
- the altermondialists consider that their actions and their pressure were partly at the origin of some advanced (such as the provision at reduced price of the drugs anti-AIDS).
Critical of the theses altermondialists
See also: Polemical around the altermondialisation
The movement was enormously criticized on several faces by politicians, members of the Think tank S or economists favorable to the free market. They reproach the movement a bad analysis economic indicators. They also denounce the fact that, beyond of a humanistic speech, the real motivation of certain activists lies in the national fold.
Concerning the achievements, the French political economist Zaki Laïdi, in his work the Great Disturbance analyzes the Mondialisation like a new expression of the social change.
Critical of the economic analysisThe detractors of the movement affirm that the altermondialists do not see the obviousness of the correlations between the action of liberalism and the growth of the richnesses or the improvement of the social indicators. The altermondialists in addition denounce the variation growing of the richnesses between poor countries and rich countries. However the poor countries knew an economic growth higher than that of the rich countries throughout the 50 last years marked by this universalization, whereas it had been largely lower up to that point. Thus according to the detractors of the theses altermondialists, the variation of the incomes per head between country of North and the South thus seems ascribable only with one internal cause: the demographic explosion.
An argument often advanced by the opponents with the movement is that the report/ratio of poverty between the industrialized countries and those of the Tiers-monde can be explained in terms of the Dégradation of the terms of trade, of the internal problems of the countries of the Tiers-monde and the lack of free market.
They also support that the various crises in Argentina or in the Asian countries can be explained partly in internal terms of imbalances and by the economic policies followed by these countries.
For the Indian economist Jagdish Bhagwati, the claims altermondialists against free trade are related to the fall of Communism, alone rival ideological of capitalism. This episode would have created a vacuum for the “idealists whose social conscience nourishes conviction that capitalism is source of injustice”. These individuals are likely according to him to actually increase the sources of inequality and their reaction vis-a-vis the change is source according to him of opposition to progress. As example, the majority are focused on the negative aspects of universalization although they underline certain positive aspects and call of them in question of other positive points (in terms of employment for example, the destruction of those of industry is not put in connection with job creation in other sectors).
Effects on the environment of the restrictions on universalization
Certain altermondialists are even in favor of the Décroissance in order to protect the natural resources from planet and to limit the Climate warming. According to certain economists, the economic growth would be harmful for the environment in the first stages of the development, but starting from a certain threshold of income per capita (already reached by the developed countries) it would become increasingly advantageous (see Courbe of Kuznets). This idea rests on the principle which the environment is thus a good says “higher” which is more likely to interest the rich person, that the poor which think before very nourishing themselves. The rise in the GDP in addition makes it possible to have increased resources allowing of the environmental policies. The idea of decrease in order to protect the environment is thus called in question by certain analysts.
The Australian economist Kym Anderson analyzed the effects of the agricultural policy of the European Union whose character is protectionist. He notes that the liberalization of the exchanges would cause according to him a displacement of the production towards the developing countries. There still, the brakes with universalization appear, for certain, like vermin with the environment.
Of course one finds examples where free trade contributed to environmental problems. The development of economic activity is in either causes problem environmental: the economists often denounce the restrictive proposals of some ONG calling into question the establishment of certain activities in the developing countries. On this subject Jagdish Bhagwati takes the example of the polemic on the breeding of shrimps in Southeast Asia, effect of the liberalization of the trade having serious ecological consequences in the areas where it is practiced. He explains why “many governmental organizations asserted of this fact to denounce this trade and to claim its restriction. But that amounts throwing the baby with the water of the bath, because the trade is a powerful lever of prosperity and thus so beneficial for the company”.
Critical of the motivations of the movement
For some of the opponents to the altermondialism, the priority of the movement, far from wanting to advance universalization in positive fields, is especially to promote an economic and social theory near to the Socialisme, even nationalism.
Thus certain generous speeches could be simple Rationalization S, covering with an ethical varnish defense supporter of corporatism of excessively protected and subsidized social categories appearing. For example:
- the farmers of the countries of North, would seek, by using this platform, to preserve tariff barriers preventing at agricultures of the South from exporting, an essential way of their development.
- the members of the movement who denounce the imports of the South “not ethics” (cf Chinese products), would seek to restrict the competition of the workers of the South to very limited “niches” and simply symbolic systems, like the Equitable trade.
Effects on the criticized international business
The diffusion of the ideas altermondialists perhaps in addition contributes to make it possible certain governments to set up policies mercantilists aiming at disadvantaging the developing countries in their effort of correction. One sees for example the US government trying to slow down the product imports foreigners on the basis of claim altermondialists such environmental protection or the fight against poverty (the United States and the European Union denounce the work conditions in certain poor countries so, according to some, to find a pretext with the protection of their national market).
On the question of the world exchanges, the altermondialists denounce the ultra-liberal logic of free trade. However the principles of free trade usually allowed and are approved by the very large majority of the economists, liberals or not who underline the positive aspects of them. According to Paul Krugman, confusions and the questioning of free trade to which the claims altermondialists contribute tend to give to the opinion the illusion of a planetary commercial conflict which would in the long term threaten harmonious development of the world exchanges. In their analysis of OMC, the altermondialists are shown by certain showing an apparent incomprehension of the principles of free trade because they consider free trade as advantageous only when it takes the form of reciprocal concessions.
Political consequences according to the detractorsThe altermondialists in addition wish refonder economic logic on bases morals and social. This logic is that which had described Friedrich August von Hayek in its totalitarian analysis of the modes in the years 1940. To seek to base the economic activity on a moral or social base leads to a certain control of the State on the work of the men and their consumption. This concentration of being able in the hands of some, legitimated by choices moral and social (arbitrary that they are democratic or not) and propagated by propaganda, necessarily leads to totalitarianism according to Hayek.
In the same way the denunciation of the research of the private interests by the large capitalist actors of universalization implies as it could exist a consensus on the general interest, which precisely, would appear in this social movement and thus not represented with the political plan. This idea that the majority of the actors of current universalization support their interests while the altermondialists come to offer proposals going in the direction of the general interest can be perceived like demagogic.
In fact, one notices that the language altermondialist grows rich regularly by concepts moralizers concerning the behaviors, among whom that of the “evil puffs out”. By this type of methods, the current altermondialist, although being said sometimes democratic, appears to call into question the principles of the free choice and the individual responsibility.
Handling of the opinion?Another aspect described as demagogic by the detractors, the insistence, real or supposed, certain altermondialists on marginal phenomena such as the Délocalisation S. Those concern according to the majority of the economists of the completely negligible quantities of employment within sight of unemployment in certain countries (lower generally than 1% of the active population). However these delocalizations are made most of the time in direction rich countries and not of the poor countries.
Finally many economists stress that the poor countries do not suffer to be exploited but suffer from the protectionism of the rich countries. According to the liberals, one would find this spirit in certain protests, against the Directive Bolkenstein in Europe for example, which according to the altermondialists would threaten the work conditions of the countries of Western Europe. The liberals, who defend this directive, denounce the analysis which consists in doing this one a major danger whereas it is not, according to them, likely to concern that rare activities because of proximity necessary to the service of the majority of the services.
Media, citizens lobbies and other structures
The diversified structures constituting mobility altermondialism are organized in network, where the qualified media altermondialists play a great part. Among these media, one can quote diplomatic Le Monde , Indymedia, the Plan B , newspaper of the association of criticism of the media Acrimed, Bellaciao, or Utopia.
See also: Media of the altermondialism
Internet is also an important component in internationalization, the constitution of the networks of associations altermondialists. The movement altermondialist largely uses Internet for the publication of information (more quickly than by the media paper), like for the mobilization, the practical organization.
Internal debates of the movement
The movement altermondialist is confronted today with policy debates in its center.
Some of its actors wonder about the place of the movement in the whole of the social struggles of emancipation. Does the altermondialism have to play an antagonistic part of the neoliberalism like was Communism vis-a-vis capitalism, or must it be a force of opposition and adaptation inside the current system?
In addition, the question of the political representation is put. The majority of the organizations altermondialists refusing to create a Left, the movement were centered like a Contre-pouvoir, a Social movement and called upon the public opinion, creating lobbies and organizing movements citizens.
The question of alliances is constant. Affinities are large with the movements anti-war and antifascists. Certain altermondialists, more radical, are combined with the anti-capitalists, others with the anti-productivistes, others still think that it is necessary to multiply the examples of local Alterdéveloppement. Certain organizations are also close to the thought Néo-keynésien.
The question of the results obtained arises too; in a few years of existence the projections obtained on the great altermondialists proposals (debt of the third world, taxes Tobin, right to the existence of other regulations that the market, etc) appear not very satisfactory. Some think that this movement has a force which will be multiplied by ten if the liberal world of today worsens the things but that this movement will tend to disappear if the liberal world adapts to certain requests of the altermondialists (those of the reformists).
The thought altermondialist constitutes an important intellectual reflection on the world of today. The reform of UNO, the debate open to the World Bank by the néo-keynésiens (whose its former vice-president Joseph E. Stiglitz), the rise of the public opinions of the countries of the South (in particular in Latin America), and the organization of a lobby of the South with OMC (G24) are as many occasions to think the modern society differently.
Some very general questions feed the discussions in depth:
Which directions can have the concepts of fundamental human rights, world responsibility, world general interest in the respect and the non-discrimination of the minorities?
How mondialiser the democracy, abstractedly definite like popular sovereignty?
How to define a common inheritance of humanity? Is it necessary to install legal instruments to protect it?
Which the place of the economy in the company? Is a stronger world regulation needed? Can the existing institutions be used for a regulation or would have it to be reversed?
Which the future of the civil society that some consider represented by its ONG and associations?
How to prevent that the altermondialisation, by diabolisant universalization, does not create national and ethnic identity folds?
is this a viable alternative to the neoliberalism?
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