See also: DS
Drawn by the Italian designer Flaminio Bertoni, in collaboration with Andre Lefebvre, an engineer resulting from aeronautics, this car was revolutionist by many aspects. In the beginning, its long cap is designed to accommodate a six-cylinder motor, but as well the 6 cylinders on line of the 15 as that flat could not be adopted, for lack of surponderation. Its code name was " VGD" Convey in Grande Diffusion and was the " bombe" motor-show in 1955. An extremely daring pure line and an unforgettable interior comfort thanks to its hydropneumatic suspension specific to the mark, but especially of many technological innovations, which make of it a genuine UFO in the world of the car of its time: power-assisted steering, semi-automatic Gear box, disc brakes, and year 1968-1969 swivelling headlights and massive introduction of electronics.
The DS is quickly adopted by the senior officers and the notable ones, then by the stars and the elected officials of the Republic, until the Général de Gaulle which makes the official car of the presidency of it.
The muzzle is frayed, carries a fine chrome grill, the indicators postpones give itself airs of conduits of engine, the exhaust is in tail of carp the first two years, careenage total under the car, of the equipment (wheel with only one branch, futuristic instrument panel, the “mushroom”, pedal-button, as brake pedals, brakes disc of series, an etc).
Even the secondary details are astonishing: fixing of wheels by a simple central nut (until 1966), spare wheel placed at the extreme before car in front of the radiator, lighting without distributer (following the example 2CV for example), way postpones narrower, tires before and back of different size, disassembling necessary of the back wing (maintained by a screw) to reach the wheel, lever gear shift being used as starter…
Succeeding the Traction Before, it is the first car to generalize the centralized hydraulic systems, in particular the Hydropneumatic suspension (which makes it possible to vary the Ground clearance thus facilitating the change of the wheel, the Cric being replaced by an adjustable crutch) and the direction. Convey engineers, his construction required the invention of new machines of precision being used for measurement (pneumatic) of the parts.
In spite of its engine with side camshaft, its cambering with braking, its resistance to impacts and the fact that the children could be prone to the Sea sickness , it was the reference of the luxury cars throughout the the Sixties, giving a big length in advance to Citroen. The active system of suspension being the only alternative to the suspension with spring, Rolls Royce and Mercedes adopted it for their heaviest models and thus of top-of-the-range. Its comfort and its exceptional handling for the time, as well as big space for the passengers with the back, immediately made of it the presidential car of the general de Gaulle.
On the Forage ladder of the DS station-wagon which is with double opening, one finds two number plates: one vertical and in withdrawal, and the other flat horizontally.
Mechanical evolutionsThe four cylinders on line will pass from 1,9 to 2,0 then 2,1 and finally 2,3 liters from where designations of various versions (DS 19,20,21,23). Regarded as the greatest weakness of the car because of their lack of sophistication (side camshaft, crankshaft with three stages only until 1966), the engines will evolve/move all the same.
In March 1961, the power of the DS 19 passes from 75 to 83 horses by the increase in the compression ratio (8,5 instead of 7,5), the design of new pistons with convex head and a new carburettor twin spool. In 1966, the engine is deeply re-examined, comprising inter alia a crankshaft with 5 stages. The DS 19 becomes DS 20 by increase in cubic capacity to 1985 Cm3 and provides from now on 89 horses, the very new DS 21 (2175 Cm3) by providing 106. Starting from 1969, electronic injection Bosch (standard D-Jetronic ) made its appearance on the 21 (power 125 horses). The cubic capacity of this one passes to 2,3 L starting from 1973, providing 115 horses with carburettor or 130 with injection.
In 1968 before is redrawn, integrating four ducted headlights. Large outsides including the codes are adjusted with the plate while the interiors with long range with iodine can be directed according to the trajectory of the car, at least on the models equipped with the power-assisted steering. In series on all the versions of DS, this device is on the other hand in option on the other models of range D.
The red liquid, LHS used in the hydraulic system generates an epidemic of breakdowns shortly after the launching of the car because of a large lapse of memory of the chemists of Citroen: the liquid becomes Oxydant above 40 °C and corrodes all the joints… A light change of formula solves the problem in 1957. Starting from 1966, a very new green oil of mineral origin, the LHM (Hydraulic fluid Mineral), so used in the majority of the industrial machines, offers the advantage of a higher stability with a point of boiling close to 300 °C. The hydraulic parts for LHS (synthetic hydraulic fluid) and LHM (mineral hydraulic fluid) are incompatible.
The DS in the United StatesOf a sophisticated technical design requiring an important maintenance, it interested only those which were ready to make efforts to roll " différemment".
True success in Europe, the DS will pain to take a lead in the US market. Convey top-of-the-range, the services which the customers concerned awaited from such a vehicle made him défaut : entirely automatic transmission, air-conditioning, panes electric and more powerful engine. The price of the DS was comparable with a competitor vehicle on the same level of the range, like the Cadillac. Moreover, one obsolete American legislation prohibited certain innovating devices, such as the hydraulic mineral fluid of LHM and the aerodynamic headlights, two equipment now common in the vehicles sold in the USA. Nevertheless, 38 000 units were past in the USA, which is a performance finally rather honourable on a market considered difficult of access to the French manufacturers. The DS is today a car worship in the USA, bichonnées by many collectors.
Impact of the DS on the evolution of Citroen
Delay on the segment of the average carsIn 1955, the DS imposed the image of a innovative mark, it created sensation so much so that Citroen feared that its future models are not enough innovating. The 2CV knew minor evolutions, and Ami6 (followed by Ami8) was the only innovation presented to the exit of GS in 1970. Citroen could not invest in the segment of the average cars, most profitable in Europe. Vehicles were studied to compete with the Peugeot 403 and the Renault 16, but they never were produced, because regarded as too ordinary. Citroen presented GS to occupy this segment of the market, but not before 1970.
The replacement of the DSThe DS remained popular and competing during all its career, more the high level of production being reached in 1970. At the end of its life, certain aspects like the rather narrow cockpit or the gear shift lever to the instrument panel started nevertheless to appear old-fashioned.
Citroen decided to launch an entirely new vehicle in 1970, the Citroen SM. SM was not a practical truck of 4 doors, a simple family car, it was to make it possible Citroen to occupy a new segment of the market, that of large-tourism. The bet was ambitious being given the reduced size of the market of the WP. Its sporting and exclusive character, thanks to its engine Maserati, as well as the high price which resulted from this, prevented SM from taking again the torch of the DS.
Finally, after twenty years of production, during which more than one million and half of DS left the line productions, of the station-wagon to convertible, it was replaced by the Citroen CX in the middle of the Années 1970.
The myth of the DS
The DS a long time remained the symbol of France of the Années 1960 and 1970, that of a carefree, free and optimistic country, and knowing the full employment in industry and the building.
The attack of the Petit-ClamartQualities of the DS were for much in the survival of De Gaulle at the time of the attack of the Petit-Clamart of which it was victim in 1962. With two flat tires on a bad road wet while taking speed, any other car of the time, in the same circumstances, would have probably left in slew-round. It is in particular by the very large pivot of direction placed in the axis of each of the two nose gear wheels which obliges to push back the disc brakes at exit of the gear box, that this exploit could be carried out. It is advisable to add the great coolness of the driver, the gendarme Francis Marroux who, as of the opening of the hostilities, had the presence of mind to retrogress of fourth in third to give more strength to the car, and to be released as fast as possible from the ambush.
- Roland Barthes devotes to him a passage in its test Mythologies (1957) where it analyzes the contemporary myths.
“the “Goddess” is initially new Nautilus. This is why one is interested less in it in the substance than in his joints. It is known that the stringer is always an attribute of the perfection because its opposite betrays a very human operation of adjustment. ”
Olivier Rolin speaks about it in Tigre out of paper , published with the Éditions of the Threshold in 2002.
DS Aujourd'huiThe highest value recorded up to now for a DS was of 176.250 € for a DS 23 IE “Convertible” (silver plated painting, red leather, only 100.000 km) of Henri Chapron, sold with Retromobile at Christie in February 2006.
October 9th, 2005, at the time of the fiftieth birthday of its launching, a convoy of 1.600 DS with circulated in Paris.
CinemaCitroen DS appears in many films and on television. One can draw up a selective catalog of films of the cases all the same where its presence is remarkable :
- Rabbi Jacob with Louis de Funès
- Mrs Irma led by Ludo, the friend of Francis.
- Beuze , a black DS hearse
- Fantômas breaks out , where a flying DS is seen.
- minor Roads
- the Waltzers
- Chacal (1973) comprises the reconstitution of one of the moments of the French history of the 20th century, the failed attempt at assassination of De Gaulle in DS in the attack of the Petit-Clamart.
- Cold Fever is a voyage through Iceland in a DS.
- the goddess of 1967 is a voyage through the Australia in a DS.
- Wonder Boys with Michael Douglas
- the police officers in the series CHiPs find a DS on three wheels on the highway.
- Peter Graves leads Pallas DS21H 1966 gray give luster to in a continuation in the car in Mission impossible .
- Munich : the DS had by the Louis adviser is clearly described.
- the DS plays a big role in Scarface (1983), where the character played by Al Pacino refuses to put fire at a car DS crossing New York City, and causes a series of events which for consequence its characteristic died.
- the DS frequently appears in films American or British like future conveys. One can see it in Retour towards future II where it is employed like taxi of the future, in Brazil or in Bienvenue in Gattaca .
- the DS can also be seen in a film multitude: Crooklyn, Simone, Sliding Doors, Green Berets , Ali, America Team: The police force of the world, Gangsters, Buffy…
CompetitionThe crew Paul Coltelloni (pilot) - Desroziers - Alexandre gained the rally of Monte Carlo at the wheel of a ID 19 in 1959, then in 1966 it was with the turn of Pauli Toivonen, already second in 1963, to register its name with the prize list of the test.
During all its sporting career, the ID and DS gained many other rallys or road races, like the Tour of Corsica in 1961 (Trautmann-Ogier crew), Liege-Sofia-Liege in 1961 (Bianchi-Harris crew), the Rally of Morocco in 1969 (Neyret-Terramorsi on a proto DS21)…
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