In its modern meaning, a circus is a troop of Artiste S, traditionally itinerant, which generally comprises Acrobate S, numbers of Dressage and Domptage of animals, Clown S, turns of magic. More generally, the circus is now a Spectacle living popular organized around a circular Scène which owes him its name. Its characteristics had many evolutions until our days.
The circus of AstleyOur design of the circus takes as a starting point a way or by another of the Roman ancient plays as well as jugglers and Troubadour S of the Middle Ages. The first representation of a modern circus date of the January 9th 1768 and was presented by Philip Astley to London. Veteran of return of America, it decides to especially represent equestrian spectacles brightened by jugglers. The marriage of the military equestrian world and the open world around the circle is established. This new shape of spectacle, primarily founded on equestrian exercises, was then introduced in France by same Astley, then taken again by Antonio Franconi and its descendants. It is only at the XIXe century at the time of the waves of colonization that were introduced in France and Germany the first wild animals.
Traditional circus with old
At the XIXe century, the equestrian circus developed in the stable circuses built in various towns of France, in Paris then in province.
The Franconi family successively founded, in Paris, three theaters of circus bearing the name of Olympic Circus:
- 1st establishment located Street Saint-Honore (1807-1816),
- 2nd establishment located Street of the Suburb of the Temple (1817-1826),
- 3rd establishment located Boulevard of the Temple (1827-1862).
In their first Olympic Circus, Franconi presented, at the time Napoleonean, of the wild animals in their spectacle of circus to old consisted of equestrian and lifting numbers:
- the cow elephant Baba in 1807, author of erudite turns and époustouflants,
- the stag Coconut in 1813, in a scene evoking the topic of the hunt.
In the third Olympic Circus, creation in 1831 of the Pantomime to large spectacle “the Lions of Mysore” marked the advent of the Domptage to the circus. The trainer Henri Martin was engaged, with his deer, by the Franconi brothers who assembled for him this mime in which the cat-like ones of the Marseilles trainer were presented behind a trellis-work placed on the front of the scene.
In 1856, Theodore Rancy founded its first circus (travelling capital) in Rouen, then built the following into hard: with Geneva (1875), Lyon (1882), Le Havre (1887), Boulogne on Sea (1888), Amiens (1889)…
At the end of the XIXe century, Paris knew four sedentary circuses in activity:
- the Circus of the Fields-Élysées (1841-1898), known under the names of Circus of the Empress or Circus of Summer;
- the Circus Napoleon (1852), current the Circus of Winter acquired by Bouglione seniors in 1934;
- the Circus Fernando (1875-1972) which will become the Circus Médrano in 1897, “the theater of the clowns”;
- the New Circus (1886-1926), circus-swimming pool built Street Saint-Honore (equipped with a transformable track in swimming pool for the nautical mimes).
The last stable circus to open its doors in the French capital was the Circus Metropolis (1906-1930) known under the sign of Circus of Paris which often showed trainers in the high-speed motorboat.
The circus-menagerie succeeded the equestrian circus of the XIXe century.
Founded in 1854 by an English family, Pinder, the Britania Circus crosses the English Channel since 1868 and takes the name of circus-hippodrome of the Pinder brothers. The convoys with horse-drawn traction were drawn by horses.
At the end of the XIXe century and at the beginning of the XXe century, Barnum and its successors, to the the United States, gave a new rise to the circus.
In 1871, Phineas Taylor Barnum, with its associates William Cameron Blow and daN Castello, exploited the first Barnum Circus included in a unit travelling by the train and joining together museum of curiosities, menagerie, convoy and capital.
- Combined with James Anthony Bailey, in 1881, it created the first capital with 3 tracks which took the name of Barnum & Bailey Circus in 1887. The giant circus will carry out a great round in all Europe of 1897 to 1902.
- Ringling Brothers, in 1907, repurchased the Circus Barnum & Bailey to associate it with their, Ringling Bros. Circus, founded in 1884, and to form, in 1919, the big top of the world: “Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus, The Greatest Show one Earth”.
The Circus Carl Hagenbeck, founded to Hamburg in 1887 under the name of “International Circus and Cingalaise Caravan”, travelled in the whole world, with an important menagerie, by supplementing its representations by zoological and ethnological exhibitions, and existed until 1953.
Wild West Show of Buffalo Bill, created in 1884, carried out a round in Europe in 1889 and 1905. The spectacle of the Western American marked a long time the spirits in particular in France where Sampion Bouglione father recovered a stock of posters of the true hero of the Far West, in 1926 a big top of occasion acquired and the name of “Stage of the Captain Buffalo Bill gave him”.
The Sarrasani Circus, created in 1902 with Dresden in Saxony, impressed the Germany and the South America by the prestige of its director the “Maharaja” Hans von Stosch-Sarrasani, Chevalier of the Persan Imperial Order of the Lion and the Sun, by the organization of its installations (caravans, stables, menageries, tents and capitals) and by the ostentation of its spectacles which were held, as from 1918, under one of the most beautiful capitals of round structure and on a track 17,5 meters in diameter.
In 1919, the brothers (Friedrich, Rudolf, Karl and Eugen) Knie transformed the family arena with open sky into a circus under capital under the sign “Circus Swiss National Variety Knie Brothers”.
The circus changed into exotic spectacle thanks to the presence of wild animals and in fact its notoriety (or its publicity) by their exposure at the time of a parade or in a Ménagerie:
- in 1932, the American circus Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey had a rich menagerie of 1000 wild animals;
- in 1934, the German circus Krone, “the largest circus of Europe” created in 1905 per Carl Krone, counted in his menagerie more than 800 animals.
Between the two world wars, the French circuses attached to their establishment a Ménagerie, up to that point open spectacle. The reverse also occurred, the open menageries adding, with their establishment, a spectacle of circus. It is as at that time as the French circuses motorized their road convoys. Thus imposed themselves in France, the Zoo-Circus (1921-1932), of the brothers Court, first large circus French traveller, the Circus of the 4 brothers Amar (1924), that of the 4 brothers Bouglione (1933), Pinder (1928-1972, direction Charles Spiessert ).
The circus-menagerie is characterized by the presence of trainers or adjusters of animals, within the phratries or of the families of circassiens.
- Alfred (brother of Jules) Short formed in 1923 with the Zoo-Circus its first mixed group of deer entitled “Peace in the Jungle”.
- the Amar brothers all were trainers: Amar Aîné presented the tigers and the elephants, Ali the polar bears, Chérif the lions and Mustapha, after an accident with a tiger, ensured the direction of the circus.
- Bouglione seniors specialized: Sampion like horse-breaker, Joseph like adjuster of elephants, Firmin as trainer of deer and Alexandre as administrator of the circus.
- Roger Spessardy (brother of Charles Spiessert) was trainer of deer at Pinder and directed the menagerie.
After the second world war, the French circuses joined the radio and on television, such Radio operator Circus then Grand Circus of France (period 1949-1962) of Grüss and Pinder ORTF (1961-1969) with the label of the Track to the stars. For corser their programs, they interfered the spectacle circus with foreign elements with the track: presenters high-speed motorboats, services of artists of Variety, exhibitions of sporting champions and radio games.
Around the years 1970, the French circuses most important were Amar (1973-1982, direction Firmin Bouglione junior ), Bouglione ( Bouglione juniors: Sampion, Emilien and Joseph ), Pinder (1972-1983, direction Jean Richard ), Rancy (1962, creation Sabine Rancy ), Jean Richard (1968-1983), Zavatta (1978, creation Achilles Zavatta ) as well as the circus with old of the family Grüss (1974, direction Alexis Grüss junior ).
The Italian circus, American Circus, started, with its capital with 3 tracks, a round in France, with the end of the year 1979, which was followed the different one until 1986. In 1981, the Bouglione Circus takes the name of American Parade, then of American Circus to thwart its competitor.
Resounding bankruptcies (Amar in 1973, Jean Richard in 1978 and 1983, Rancy, Achilles Zavatta) and the business American Circus in 1979 will mark the “end” of the traditional circus in France and will allow its revival.
Abroad, as in France, few sedentary circuses (fixed circuses or circuses of winter) remained, but the travellers establishments were very numerous:
- in Germany: Busch-Roland, Hagenbeck, Althoff, Krone, Sarrasani, Barum;
- in Spain: Feijóo-Castilla;
- in Great Britain: Bertram Millets, Chipperfield, Billy Smart;
- in Italy: Togni, Orfei;
- in Switzerland: Knie;
- in the United States: Ringling Bros and Barnum & Bailey which gave up the spectacles under capital in 1956.
New circusIn the Years 1970, the public of the circus is blown and the movement of the Nouveau circus makes its appearance in France. It is carried by the democratization of the circus with the opening of schools of circus approved by the French federation of the Schools of Circus. The circus opens and is called in question. This kind of strongly dramatized spectacle (like Archaos, the Cirque Plucks, Zingaro or the Compagnie Bad Spirits…) in question conventions of the circus soon known as traditional circus called , which remains however quite alive, assimilating some of the innovations of the “new circus” (for example the spectacles of the circus Arlette Gruss adopt costumes and musics close to those of the inhabitants of Quebec of the Cirque of the Sun while continuing to present numbers of the traditional disciplines, and in particular of the exercises of raising). However the presence of animals in the circuses, after having been prohibited in several countries of the world, seems increasingly disputed in France.
List various specialities represented
- Korean Rocker
- Russian Bar
- MIME, ventriloquie
- Sword swallower
- Stick of the devil
- Balls, rings, bludgeons
- Stick of fire, Indian Stick, Bolas, cords, meteor
- Cerceaux (Hulahoop)
- Lancer knives
- air Numéros
- Trapèze fixes
- Trapèze stealing
- Dressage and Domptage of animals: Ostrich, Camel, Dog, Horse, Dromedary, elephant, Giraffe, LAMA, Lion, Otary, Bear, panther, Snake, Monkey, tiger,…
List famous circuses and their owners
- Achilles Zavatta
- Circus Akya
- Circus Alexandro Klising
- Circus Amar
- American circus
- Annie Fratellini (see also: Academy Fratellini of Arts of the circus)
- Archaos tendency hard rock
- Arlette Gruss
- Sprinkled the
- Circus Bush
- Circus Cancy
- Circus Diana Moreno
- Circus of Calder
- Circus of winter of Paris (Bouglione)
- Circus of the Sun
- Circus Éloize
- Circus Fanni
- Circus Francki
- Circus Gones
- Circus Jean Richard
- Circus Joseph Bouglione
- Cirque Kino' S
- Cirque Knie
- Cirque Medrano
- Ménagerie Pezon
- Cirque OZ
- Cirque Pinder
- Cirque Plucks
- Cirque Rancy (hard circuses built at the 19th century) by Theodore Rancy
- Ringling bros. and Barnum & Bailey circus
- Circus Starlight
Festivals and demonstrationsList alphabetically.
skilful Balls in Belleville (France): convention of Juggling and annual festival of Arts of the street, last weekend of May to the Park from Belleville to Paris, since 1997.
- Circa , festival of circus of Auch (France): annual, since 1988.
- Festival of the contemporary circus of Seyne on Sea (France): annual, at the end of January, since 2000.
- International festival of the circus of Massy (France): annual, since 1993.
- International festival of the circus of Monte Carlo (Principality of Monaco): annual, since 1974.
- International festival of the circus of Turns (France): since 2007.
- world Festival of the circus of tomorrow (France): annual, at the beginning of February in Paris, since 1977, rested by Isabelle and Dominique Mauclair.
- the Midday-Pyrenees makes its circus in Avignon (France): annual, in July within the framework of the festival off of Avignon, since 2006, organized by Circuits (officially agreed scene of Auch), Grainerie (manufactures arts of the circus of Balma) and the Lido (center of arts of the circus of Toulouse).
- Parade (S) , festival of arts of the street of Nanterre (France): annual, in May, since 1990.
- the Road of the circus , festival of contemporary circus of Nexon (France): annual, in summer, since 1999.
- Solstice , festival of arts of the circus of Antony (France): annual, in June, since 2001.
- Village of circus (France): annual, in September in Paris, since 2006, organized by the co-operative Of street and circus (2R 2C) .
Art and the circus
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