Ciotat (in Occitan Of Provence Ciutat according to the traditional standard or Ciéuta according to the Standard mistralienne) is a port city of Provence, in the Rhone delta. The inhabitants name Ciotadens and Ciotadennes.
SituationCiotat is a common French, located in the department of the Rhone delta and the area Provence-Alp-Coast of Azure, with 31 kilometers in the East of Marseilles.
Sat at the bottom of a bay while growing, the city, leant with the Nozzle of the Eagle and the Dirty Cape - culminating point of its territory - fact face with the sea.
Communes borderingAround the city, of west in is, one finds:
- Blackcurrant which one joined by the superb road of the peaks offering from the splendid points of view;
- Ceyreste, which formed only one with the city before this one does not take its independence;
- Saint-Cyr-on-Sea finally, at the end of the bay, which marks the beginning of the Var.
- Cadière-of Azure, in the North-East, in the VAr also, one joined the commune while crossing fields and pine forests.
Localities and variationsOf is in west:
- the marine plains baronesses and plains
- Arena Cross-country race
- Holy Brigitte
- Holy Jean
- Holy Marguerite
- the beaches
- the Bee
- the Treillised vineyard
- the Plain
- the Well of Brunet
- Center Town
- Vallat de Roubaud
- Holy Wolf
- the Guard
Etymology of the nameCiotat and Ceyreste formed only one same agglomeration until the 15th century. The name of Ciotat, which comes from the Provençal Ciutat/Ciéuta , means simply the city , whereas the village of Ceyreste car its name of majestic Bec of the Eagle which dominates the city (the old Greek called it Kitharistès, which means the rock. In their turn the Romains took again the name in its Latin version Citharista, which gave Ceyreste).
final (3000 - 2000 av J.C.).
The lodging of Ellianac, sheltered by cliff of the road of the Peaks, delivered several ceramics, of cut flints, the remainders of food as well as burials. Moreover, the cave of Terrevaine made it possible to put at the day of many collective burials and some objects.
Organized in tribes, the first inhabitants of Ciotat live of gathering, hunting, of fishing, but also of breeding and agriculture.
The limestone cuestas and the cliffs delivered many traces of human frequentations, in particular safe from Marcouline, in Cassis (- 9000 years), with the foot of the Cape Canaille to the Balsam Black and safe from Ellianac. More close of Ciotat, the Cave of Terrevaine is regarded as the most important eneolithic burial of Low Provence.
The shelters of the Circus of Mallombre were certainly used as den with the primitive Man; the Cave of Fardeloup delivered at the beginning of the century arrowheads. The accesses of the stage of the Bee revealed cut flint glares and a fragment of axe. Namely: in 1983, a narrow bowel (Cave of the Nail) delivers to the members of the Spéléo-Club of Ciotat an awl of the Bronze Age: first metal object for prehistory ciotadenne.
At that time, the city acquires a great prosperity thanks to fishing and with the trade. The activity of the port contributes to the economic development of the city.
Ceyreste. The monks then hold a considerable capacity on the territory.
In full economic advancement, thanks to its sea traffic, the borough of Ciotat showed little by little its will of autonomy.
In 1429, serious quarrels concerning the guard of the “common” grounds burst between Ciotat and Ceyreste. The delegates of the two communities found a solution then: the division of the territory of Ceyreste, divided into two distinct and independent communities.
Consequently, Ciotat developed quickly: it built its Strong Béroard, its ramparts, its church and managed its own trade.
plague, which devastates the Provence in 1720, saving however Ciotat thanks to the courage and with the organization of Ciotadens.
In order to protect itself from the plague, the city closes its doors the abroads. When the troops of the garrison of Marseilles want to take refuge downtown, it is Ciotadennes which prevent them.
The port of the city is transformed then into warehouse of trade: the subsistence and especially the corn, bound for Marseilles and of the Provence, forward then by the city, thus preserving the area of the famine.
The Revolution and the EmpireThe revolutionary period starts with Ciotat in 1789 with the meeting of the General advice of the household heads.
In 1800, the rebellion is blown gradually with the nomination of the new mayor of Ciotat, Bernardin Ramel, by the first consul Bonaparte. The return of the priest and the priests to the Presbytery, the suppression of the republican Calendar at January 1st 1806, the re-establishment of the old street names, in 1808, marks the end of the revolutionary era well.
Nevertheless, the proliferation of the British attacks completes to ruin Ciotat. Little by little, the population decreases and is impoverished.
Per hour when the Empire crumbles, Ciotat, is very weakened.
Municipality|} On this table only the last ten appear. See the continuation here
IntercommunalityThe city belongs to the Urban community Marseilles Provence Métropole (MPM) since July 7th 2000.
- . This industrial town of 35.000 inhabitants became famous thanks to his spectacular Carnaval.
- , to see. Neighbor of the capital Ljubljana, this town university counts 45.000 inhabitants.
- , to see. Not far from the Swiss border and of the Lake of Constancy, this town of 45.000 inhabitants developed an economic and cultural pole important.
- , town of 56.000 inhabitants in the Gulf of Naples.
- College Matagots
- College Jean Jaurès
- College Virebelle
- College of the Mediterranean
- College Auguste and Louis Light
- Higher education
- department " Hygiene and safety of the environnement" IUT of Aix-en-Provence (bond towards the site of department HSE)
Places of worship
Antenna of the Chamber of commerce and Marseilles-Provence industry.
The industrial portIn 1429, Ciotat becomes a common to whole share, separating from the village close to Ceyreste of which it acted as port. In XVIe century, the city took a rise due to the emigration of part of the Aristocratie génoise driven out Italy by local revolutions.
True shipyards settle in 1622, which take an industrial dimension starting from 1836. They change several times of hands during the XXe century and will constitute the economic lung of the city until their closing in the middle of the Années 1980.
The city turned then to estival tourism and reopened at the beginning of the Années 2000 the casino.
The city hopes nevertheless to benefit from its harbor installations to set up in pole of the high pleasure . In 2006 thus began construction from what will have to be in the long term the largest elevator with Bateau X of Europe.
Sports and leisures
Clubs and associations
- vestiges of the old fortifications: forts Bérouard and Saint-Anthony;
- carries going back to 1628;
- palate of the brothers Lumière (which made several films there) and large living room (Registered with the Historic building);
- houses XVIIe, Fougasse streets and Abeille;
- old hotel of Grimaldi-Régusse (Registered with the Historic building) - this hotel was built at the 17th century for the account of Armateur S and traders, Grimaldi; the pediment of the door is of type ornementalist (time Louis XIV);
- old hall, staircase and roof (Registered with the Historic building), 6 rue Adolphe-Abeille;
- old hotel-of-city XIXe, of style Rebirth, surmounted of a Bell-tower: on the frontage, inscription commemorative of the stopover of Lamartine with Ciotat (the old town hall lodges from now on the museum of the city);
- octagonal tower, vestige of the old convent of the Ursulines;
- old Eden-Concert, older cinema of the world (Registered with the Historic building);
- district of the Station: site of the turning of the one of first films in the world, " Entry of the train in station of Ciotat" , in 1895 by the brothers Light;
- ruins of the strong Saint-Pierre on the Green Island (Ciotat);
Town of inventions; The Cinema: At the end of the XIXe century, Lyons industrialists, the brothers Light, will play a leading role in the history of the cinema with, in 1895 one of first films ever carried out, the Arrival of a train in station of Ciotat , followed few others which one says realized in their villa ciotadenne, the castle of the Clos beaches : the Sprinkler sprinkled , the Meal of baby . The brothers Lumière carry out also the first photographs color in the gulf of Ciotat.
With Ciotat is also the oldest cinema of the still existing world , the Eden, vis-a-vis the new port of the city. Its rehabilitation via an support group chaired by Bertrand Tavernier is in hand, and the Cinéma should reopen soon, just as a museum Lumière- Michel Simon (the actor having finished its days with Ciotat). Ciotat is one of the essential cities of the Berceau of the cinema .
; The Game of bowls: Ciotat asserts also the invention of the Pétanque: in 1907, with the ground of Play of Provence of the brothers Pitiot, the chairs of the spectators had been removed. But a friend of the owners, Jules Lenoir, which was anchylosed rheumatisms and had evil to remain upright, was authorized to play sitted fixed telephone, the " feet tanqués" in the middle of a circle traced on the ground.
It was once 1720It was once 1720 is a historical Festival which recalls the terrible period of the Plague of Marseilles which struck Provence at the century.
The spectacle, which took place for the first time in 2002, is the work of an Association law of 1901: " Ciotat, it was once " , of voluntary, of the city or besides, which works all the year to prepare this weekend of historical reconstitution.
Pertaining to worship inheritance
- Church Our-Lady-with-the Assumption XVIIe;
- Vault of Penitent White XVIIe;
- Old vault of the Blue Penitent 1598 and its esplanade (Historic building);
- Vault Our-Lady-of-the-Guard XVIIe (ex-votos);
- Vaults Saint-Joseph, Midsummer's Day, of the Bee.
Vacation resortWith XIXe and XXe centuries, the site is known like vacation resort. Lamartine, Stendhal stops there, Georges Braque and Othon Friesz paints there several paintings, of which the creek, gray time on the site of Figuerolles.
Since, the city preserves its attraction for estival tourism and offers many beaches, many possibilities of plunged, as well as a starting point for the visits of the Calanques.
It is as from the 17th century that one finds the oldest traces pictorial of the Blason of the city.
Description of the blazon of origin (1720):
“Of azure, at a town of money in fasce, constant of a sea of same, the summoned city of gold a stick, adestrée of C and senestrée of one T money, and the sea, a boat of sand, veils folded”.
These armorial bearings covered, during the history, ten different forms, but one finds there, as of 1789, the two donjonnées and opened towers, connected by a crenelated comprising a large door, and summoned wall of an abbey stick evoking the allegiance with the abbey of Saint Victor, the whole supported by a sea containing a fish seen of profile, symbolizing the maritime activities of the port. This fish, during the ages, initially had the appearance of a dolphin, a tuna, then of a sardine.
Since the French revolution, the final armorial bearings also comprise a mural crown.
The last modification dates from the November 11th 1948, when the city was seen granting the Military Cross with bronze star for its valiancy at the time of the Libération, and which accompanies since its armorial bearings.
- parochial Registers and of civil statue since:
- genealogical Examinations:
- municipal Deliberations since:
Sources: official site of the city
Personalities related to the commune
- François-Louis Claude Marini, known as Marine, born with Ciotat on June 6th 1721 and deceased with Paris in 1809, man of letters, editor, Journalist and royal critic French.
- the brothers Louis and Auguste Light, inventors, inter alia, of the cinema (cf below).
- Jules Lenoir inventive of the Game of bowls in 1907
- Lame Jean, born in 1933, remained for a long time only Olympic champion French of Swimming (400 m freestyle in 1952). The municipal swimming pool of the city bears its name.
- Jean-Pierre Alaux painter born with Ciotat in 1925
- Official site of the city
- Discussion forum on Ciotat
- Site of the tourist bureau
- Site of the town hall
- the port of Ciotat
- Site of the blue Workshop
- Encyclopedia of the towns of France
- sites of diving with Ciotat
- Association lights of the Historical Eden
- Festival " It was once 1720 and the History of France"
- Nautical trade fair Marseilles Metropolis
- Festival of First French-speaking Film
- Best off International Shorts Films Festival, International festival of Short-Measuring
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