The term is the Apocope of “Cinématographe” (of the Greek κίνημα , kínēma , “movement” and γράφειν gráphein , “to write”), name given by Leon Bouly in 1892 to the apparatus of which it deposits the patent. The term itself is often shortened in the familiar language in “movies” or “movies”.
As in all the artistic steps, a cinematographic work - or film - is generally intended for a public, gathered in fact in a processing site dedicated, itself often called “cinema” by Métonymie.
DefinitionLet us note that because of the diversity of films and freedom of creation, it is difficult to define what is the current cinema.
The principle of a history with images moving does not define the totality of the cinema, it exists indeed films without history strictly speaking. Thus, of experimental works like Koyaanisqatsi , of the Documentary S (some are however scénarisés, the documentary-fiction), or of films of abstract poetry or ( a Andalusian dog , of Buñuel and Dalí).
It was given to see films without apparent movement, composed of filmed photographs, films without turning (the films of files, or experimental films, of films without its (for technical reasons but also a party taken artistic), and even of films without images.
The word “cinema” also indicates the rooms or complexes of rooms in which the films are diffused.
At its beginnings, the cinema was dumb, it thus did not have there a sound in synchronization with the image. Later one integrated melodies into it to accentuate the emotions and finally, the technology of encoding of the sound on the edge of the photo film appeared. Since at the beginning the sound was not present, the realizer was to thus put in scene stories with less possible dialog. The goal was to show the feelings of the characters only by the image. After the arrival of the sound related to the image however, much of realizers such Fritz Lang (which had bathed in the dumb man) or Alfred Hitchcock continued to create by more showing the things by saying them. Besides Hitchcock said to hate the films which were photographs of people who spoke, and to want to make films which are photographs of people who think.
For example the film Suspicions (Hitchcock, 1941) where the near total of film consists in making pass the emotions of Lina Mclaidlaw (Joan Fontaine) thanks to the expressions of its face.
See also: History of the cinema
Although several inventors like Louis the Prince, Eadweard James Muybridge, Auguste and Louis Lumière, Etienne-Jules Marey, or Thomas Edison invented processes of recording of images, the historians date the birth from the cinema to the first public and paying cinematographic projection, that one a long time believed to be that of the December 28th 1895 by the Frères Light. However, it was established that the Frères Skladanowsky organized a similar projection before a few weeks, but this event did not have the historical range of those of the Lumière brothers. A journalist who disputed the paternity of the cinema with Louis Lumière, the historian of the cinema Georges Sadoul answered “If, he invented the cinema… with about fifty others… ”.
The first public cinematographic projection and paying Lumière took place the December 28th 1895 with the Indian Living room in the basements of the Large Coffee, in Paris. The ticket cost a franc and gave right ten films of one minute each one approximately of which the Exit of the Lumière factory in Lyon . What was presented a long time like first film was turned in the month of August 1894, at the ground floor of a building of the street Saint Victor which nowadays bears the street name of First Film. There were several versions of the exit of the Lumière factory in Lyon , the most known, turned during the summer 1895, watch the workmen and mainly the workers to leave the factory in behavior of Sunday. Since, one found a previous version, in which the workers leave in blouse, with the naturalness, and which constituted a test nonpreliminary to the turning of this first film. Consequently, which was presented a long time as a Documentaire was actually a Fiction.
But the film which marked really the spirits was the Arrival of a train in station of Ciotat (turned in 1895 and presented in January 1896), the popular rumor wants that some frightened people had a movement of retreat then, thinking that the train really arrived towards them… It is the beginning of the commercial cinema and the Cinema industry. The " cinématographe" quickly becomes an exploited popular art of face in rooms and in the fun fairs. Very quickly, the Frères Light send operators throughout the world to bring back of them scenes of the life of the every day. They is the beginnings of the cinema of current events. First breach of liberty of the press, the operator of Light, Felix Mesguich, is stopped with New York in 1897 whereas he filmed a battle of snowballs. Within the framework of the war of the patents initiated by Edison, all the Cinema industry falls under the monopoly from the Trust Edison until in 1918. However, the inventor Messin Louis Aimée Augustin the Prince invents, builds and deposits the January 11th 1888 the patent of a cinematographic camera of projection, which in fact theoretically the inventor of the cinema, although the Histoire of the cinema forgot it.
Precursor of the special effects, of the cinema of fiction, a theatrical cinema and a poetic cinema, Georges Méliès, It of formation, carries out the first fictions equipped with special effects in Trompe-l'oeil ( the Voyage in the moon , 1902, is an good example).
In the years 1910, the American scenario writer David Wark Griffith codified the principles of the traditional cinematographic language (alternated assembly, variation from the points of view, insertion of the closes-up in the scenes moved away, field-reverse shot, etc) Until the end of the Years 1920, no soundtrack accompanies the image on the film and it is then often a musician (S) present (S) in the room of projection which accompanies (NT) films: one then speaks about Silent film (for narrative films) or about visual Cinéma (for the films of art, the pure Cinéma), the dialogs of narrative films being retranscribed by “paperboards” called “Intertitre S”, printed text inserted in film. The narrative films of then are often accompanied by a musician even a complete orchestra, and are projected in immense rooms: the current rooms are on average two to four times smaller than at the time. The musician had sometimes a partition specifies to interpret, or was inspired freely with the need on known airs (of opera Italian for example). The Années 1920 with the avant-garde S are the true beginning of the future “experimental Cinéma” which one can date the birth for example with the Manifeste from futuristic cinematography (1916) and the Dadaïsme: Artiste S seize this incipient medium which is the cinema, such Fernand Leger, Man Ray, Germaine Dulac, Walter Ruttmann, Hans Richter, Viking Eggeling, etc as well as scenario writers: Clear Rene, Henri Chomette, Dziga Vertov, Joris Ivens.
Many attempts were made to synchronize the sound and the image, for example by fixing the projector with the Sonographe. The sound determined the formerly random Cadence of projection (16, 18,25 images per seconds according to the arm of the cameraman which turned the Manivelle, which causes an acceleration of the movement when they are projected at the current standard speed of 24 images per seconds).
Starting from the Singer of Jazz in 1927, sounds (of the music, then dialogs and sound effects) can be recorded and reproduced during projection.
With the economic crisis of 1929, the number of spectators falls in the rooms: the majors (large companies of production) of Hollywood decide to create a double ticket. For the price of an entry, the spectators can see two films: large (the series A) and small. It is the beginning of films of Série B, whose main objectives are to be not very expensive to produce, rapids to be made, not too long (between 50 and 70 minutes) and lucrative.
One of many innovative films of the time was a Propaganda film Nazi E, the Gods of the stage , a presentation of the Olympic Games of Berlin in 1936, glorifiant the German people and alleged “the Aryan Race”. The director, Leni Riefenstahl, puts for the first time of the cameras on cranes and creates the style and framings of films or reports sporting ( the Triumph of the will in is a notable example).
The major technical evolutions were thereafter the arrival of the Couleur and the broad Formats in the Années 1950 (in order to give more broadth to the spectacle to compete with the Télévision), narrow Formats, the lightening of the material which allowed the projection of the experimental Cinéma, of the documentary Cinéma, and the blossoming of the New wave in France, the arrival of the Synthèse of image S data processing in the Années 1990 and the arrival of the Its numerical during the same time. The post-war period sees the birth of the modern Cinéma which breaks with the Hollywood classicism in what it privileges the document, the world “such as it is”, in all its ambiguity or its opacity, and refuses to equip reality with a preestablished direction, already dramatic, immediately readable (Italian Néo-réalisme of the years 1945-53, with the scenario writer Roberto Rossellini, Rome, open city , 1945). Roberto Rossellini, with Stromboli (1947), Europe 51 (1951) and especially Voyage in Italy (1953), will open the way of a cinema where the world does not have obviously any more, where the account becomes fragmentary, hesitant and where the spectator becomes the only one parking direction. In the years 1960, the new waves French (François Truffaut, Jean-Luc Godard), Italian (Michelangelo Antonioni, Pier Paolo Pasolini), Eastern-European (Milos Forman, Miklós Jancsó, Andrei Tarkovski), allemande (To groove Werner Fassbinder, Wim Wenders), north and South American (John Cassavetes, Glauber Rocha) amplify this movement which is characterized by a new esthetics (assembly chopped, elliptic, or on the contrary plane very long; mix fiction and of documentary) and new subjects (youth, crises existential, political claims).
In the Années 1960 appears also the cinema '' underground '' American closely related to the social movements of the time. This cinema dissociates professional industry inter alia by the use of the film 16 mm and the creation of co-operatives which gives him a great freedom and enables him to circumvent the censure. (see: Jonas Mekas, Stan Brakhage, Andy Warhol, Carole Schneemann, Jack Smith)
Starting from 1965, the Super 8 becomes accessible to the general public. It is the true birth of the Cinéma amateur. This cinema will include/understand thereafter films “of series Z”, because realized with even less means than films of Série B. Like super the 8, its very light infrastructure, and its video cost less, it, initially very heavy and reserved for a “professional” use, will become in the Années 1980 a privileged medium, in particular for the young creators, making it possible to make for example “filmed diaries” (see for example films of Jonas Mekas, Lionel Soukaz, No Sex Last Night of Sophie Calle or Demain and still tomorrow, newspaper 1995 of Dominique Cabréra). It should be noted that the denominations “series B” and “series Z”, although indicating a lack of means, are not necessarily pejorative and are sometimes asserted like a counter-culture, by scenario writers refusing to enter the mould of the majors . Among the famous realizers of series Z, one can quote for example ED Wood, Roger Corman (which launched Francis Ford Coppola, Martin Scorsese, Joe Dante and Jack Nicholson) and Peter Jackson quite front the Lord of the Rings ). In the same way the experimental Cinema, even more in margin of the Industrie cinematograph has its personal history and parallel.
In the same line as the Super 8, the 16 mm, and the Video, the arrival of the Numérique adds a medium to the pallet of the possible light practices (removed development, pulling in optional laboratory) and makes easier the post-production of effects special (for example the Attack of the clones of George Lucas), or the flexibility in the assembly (see the Potluck Cédric Klapisch) and of course lightness in turning ( Glaneurs and glaneuse the , of Agnès Varda or the Virgin of the killers of Barbet spaniel Schroeder).
FilmsAccording to the countries, various styles of cinema appear clearly. The films produced in Europe and in the United States claim to show probable scenes in general. That is different for the cinema from other cultures, in particular the films produced in India, where the probability of the action is not paramount. One can observe the fact that the French cinema tends to becoming a cinema enough intimist, based on the human reports/ratios, whereas the American cinema calls much more upon the imaginary one.
Classification of filmsThere are several ways of classifying films. That can be done obviously by country, by Réalisateur S, Acteur S, title, duration.
See also: cinematographic Measuring
Initially, the films were classified according to the length of the film of projection. This length being expressed in meters, the term of " métrage" forced itself to qualify films. The arrival of new supports of catch of sights and diffusion (16 mm, magnetic band, hard drive…) with made this definition ambiguous, thus, the term of measuring is always employed to qualify films, but they are classified today according to their duration.
The National center of cinematography (CNC), as the Agency of the short film, classifies films in the following way:
short films: One duration old films lower than 60 minutes (what corresponds to a length lower than 1600 meters in 35 mm than 24 images a second).
- feature-length films: One duration old films higher than 60 minutes (what corresponds to a length higher than 1600 meters in 35 mm than 24 images a second).
The intermediate duration of a feature-length film of exploitation is about 90 minutes.
The concept of medium-length film , frequently used to indicate long short films or feature-length films not exceeding 75 minutes, does not correspond to any official designation.
See also: cinematographic Category
The classification by category is a classification by types of films. There are as many categories as there is practical possible.
The principal existing categories are:
- Fiction (or narrative Cinéma)
- Report (at the time where television worked in film)
- cinematographic Essai
- experimental Cinéma (see also Video art)
- Cinéma amateur
- Cinéma scientific protestor
- Captation (dance, music, theater…)
- Advertizing film (those which pass in rooms)
- institutional Film
- Film of exploitation (or " grindhouse" in English)
- Film X (see also pornographic Film, this last name concerned with the kind)
- Cinema FD the numerical economic alternate cinema by Marc Marcillac
See also: cinematographic Kind
The classification by kind is a classification set of themes. There are as many kinds as there are possible universes. These kinds can be treated by the various cinematographic categories.
Examples: Western, Péplum, Science fiction, Cinema of the fantastic, Comedy, Film of horror, police Film, Action film, Film of war, thriller, Theater filmed, Film of dance, Newspaper filmed, abstract Film, body Cinema, Documentary film…
Concerning the science fiction, one can consult:
- the Chronology of the cinema of science fiction
- the films and televised series of science fiction alphabetically (French title)
See also: Technical cinematographic
The cinema can be classified according to the techniques used.
See also: cinematographic Current
The cinema can also be classified by schools, movements, styles, cinematographic treatments, or more generally by current cinematographic .
- List of films having several ends
Artistic and sociological stakesAlthough it was joined by the Musique and to a lesser extent by the book, the cinema is the first mode of expression to be itself presented at the same time like a work istic Culture it and Art and like a product Industrie L intended for the Consommation of mass. It has indeed, like analyzed it Walter Benjamin, the characteristic to be a reproducible art basically . If that means that the concept of original work cannot have the same direction any more that for example in painting or sculpture, that also implies that it is possible to diffuse it with large scales.
Wanting to move away from this aspect Industry L to attempt to emphasize the aspect Art istic cinema, it is all current a parallel which was set up, since the avant-garde of the years 1920, while passing by the cinema American underground , and until the experimental Cinéma such as one knows it today, in problems close to that of the Video art or Visual art.
The financial stakes around a cinematographic work are generally considerable: the number of speakers in the creative process of a film (as the length to it to the generic testifies) as well as average the necessary techniques are very important. An economic activity was thus organized as of the birth of the medium to ensure upstream the collection of the required funds the production and downstream the profitability of the investments. The results with the Box-office are thus determining the more so as the receipts of the other media (television, video…) are correlated with success in rooms (the selling price with the television channels is function of the number of spectators in the case of France).
Thus the chains of Télévision were implied in an increasing way in the financing of the cinema and the industrialists also brought their contest by using the big screen as vector of valorization for their products (one speaks then about product placement ). The appearance of supports usable in the hearths (initially the Video cassette then DVD) represents as from the years 1980 a new increasingly important source of revenue. In parallel, the marketing of derivative products (toys for children, video games, discs of the original soundtrack of film, etc) and the campaigns joint (a mark joins film in order to profit from its image) supplement the panorama of the receipts.
The remote loading of films on Internet makes fear with the professionals of the cinema a crisis such as that which crosses the Industrie of the disc for the same reasons. Bills are under discussion to try to protect creation without restricting individual freedom too much. The problem is complex, but guarantee that the technological change will not kill the magic of the cinema, and that the industrialists and the artists will be able to adapt to these new conditions. One so often announced the death of the cinema which one can reasonably be optimistic! Nevertheless, certain artists already made the choice voluntarily distribute their films on Internet. One thinks in particular of Elephants Dream or the Ball of Innocent the.
Techniques of the cinema
Glossary of the techniques cinemaSee also: Technical and cinematographic grammar of the narrative cinema
Techniques of turning
See also: Technical of cinematographic turning
The method of reproduction is similar to that used for photography and rests on the impression of a cinematographic film (silver process) per exposure to the light using a Caméra. The impression of movement is obtained by the succession of the catches of sights with very brought closer intervals; initially by 16 images a second (that is to say a foot a second), rate was increased with 24 i/s with the arrival of the sound cinema: indeed, the quality of the sound (Band-width) depends on the tape speed of film.
See also: Turning (audio-visual)
Techniques of laboratory
See also: Technical of cinematographic laboratory
The laboratory carries out the development and the positive pulling of film. It is a very important phase of the creation of a film in film.
Techniques of colorimetry
The Colorimétrie is the science of the measurement of the colors. There exist various ways of measuring the colors according to the medium used. Simplest consists in using a colorimeter. The colorimeter is an equipment which makes it possible to define in a nonarbitrary way the color of the surface of an object.
Techniques of assembly
See also: Technical of cinematographic assembly
The Montage of a cinematographic film can be done in a traditional way, from the first positive one of pulling (or rushes), which becomes the copy of work (" with the Chisel X and the Scotch tape ") or in virtual Assembly on a Data-processing station of assembly (Computer). In the case of a traditional assembly, the negative is then formed (half-compartment and stuck) with the laboratory.
The station of virtual assembly works starting from a copy Numérique of negative scanné. The whole of the Post-production can be carried out on Ordinateur. The transfer on film can be done then directly since the machine of virtual assembly or completion.
Techniques of projection
See also: Technical of cinematographic projection
The Télévision functions with 25 images a second for the systems STAKE and SECAM (because of the Fréquence of the domestic Electric current (50 Hz). The films of cinema, them, are made at a rate of 24 images a second. Thus on television, a film is slightly shorter, and its sounds slightly acuter, than when it was projected with the cinema. In fact, a film of 120 minute old cinema will last only 115 minutes on television.
The phenomenon of the retinal Persistence and the speed of treatment limited of the visual Système (see the article on the Vision) makes it possible to maintain perception the light received by the eye during masking of the change of frame which is projected motionless. The eye thus perceives the succession of images presented like a scene being held in front of him, intersected with the blinkings of eyelids. The illusion of an image moving results from a tendency of the brain to consider that similar images are sights of the same object which changed or moved (one calls this the “Effet phi”).
After development and pulling in specialized laboratories, one makes ravel the positive film in front of a white source of light (projector) which reproduces the image animated (film) on a reflective support (in general a white screen).
Trades of the cinema
See also: Trades of the cinema
The cinema can be a practice amateur, artistic, but it is also a trade association to whole share.
The principal stations of the industrial cinema are:
- Scenario writer
- Actors (trices)
Stages of the manufacture of a film
See also: Stages of the manufacture of a film
The stages include/understand one or more following operations (each operation being more or less optional according to the type of film):
- Tests camera
- Put in scene (realization)
- Laboratory of cinema
- Intervention on film
- traditional Assembly
- virtual Assembly
- Post-production cinema
- Generic Calibration
- special Effects
- In room
- Television, DVD…
- Video with the request (VsD or VoD, video one demand )
See also: Rewards of cinema
See also: Cinema festivals
Internal bonds|the cinema
- Art and test
- cinematographic Databases of the Internet
- Film club
- African Cinema
- documentary Cinema
- Cinema and video amateurs
- experimental Cinema
- Cinema underground
- Cinema audiophonic protestor
- Chronology of the cinema
- Formats of projection
- List of the years of exits of the films
- List of the categories of national cinemas
- List of the marks of the cinema
- List of the reviews and magazines of cinema
- List of most lucrative films
- List of most expensive films
- New wave
- Its numerical
- Technical and cinematographic grammar
- Cinema, etc Gate on the cinema world, comprising a section site/re-examined and a forum
- convivial Ciném-ArtForum of discussion goshawks of the 7th art
History of the cinema
- the Krinein file on the history of the cinema
- history of films of horror: a study of the various sub-genera and an analysis of the operation of the fear. Many information and strange anecdotes, vidéos…
- the invention of the Cinema and the business the Prince
- French-speaking Cadrage.net re-examined of cinema.
- Film club of Caen detailed analyzes of more than 500 films.
- Cinergon.net site of the French-speaking review of esthetics of the cinema and analysis of the image.
- It was once the cinema topicality of the cinema and academic works on the cinema.
- Critikat analyzes of films, files and closes-up.
- FIF of the La Rochelle files of the international festival of film.
- Except Field site of the French-speaking Canadian review on the cinema.
- Objective Cinema site on the topicality of the cinema (analyzes, files).
- Judicious off Cinema Australian online magazine devoted to the study of the cinema.
- Strictly Film School analyzes of a great number of films in English language.
Other sites of reference
- Books of the cinema
- Culturofil, the Cultural Wire in Line Site of criticisms cultural having a weekly heading devoted to the cinema.
Site of the French Files of film of the National center of cinematography
- Site of the French cineclub
the site of the Institute Light and the Museum Light in Lyon
- Films For Us!
- Internet Movie Database: The Internet Movie Database
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