The chronology is science to locate historical events in the Temps. It belongs to the discipline of the Histoire . The chronology is a manner of apprehending the history by the events. For that, it selects and emphasizes the events according to the way of thinking, generally Religieux, of its géo-cultural zone, in particular with regard to the establishment of its item zero.
A chronology referring to a special subject organizes events according to their temporal order of occurrence but also according to the aim in view by the author charged to draw up it. One will not emphasize the same events according to whether one draws up a chronology of the evolution, a series of the geological Temps or the succession Généalogique of a royal Dynastie.
In the cultures Judeo-Christian S, the Date S histories in an absolute chronology referent with the Christian era, before the year 1582 in relation to the Calendar Julien and after the year 1582 in relation to the Gregorian Calendar. The usual terms `Calendar' and `era' (in the significance of a coherent system of numbered calendar years) correspond to two notions complementary to the chronology.
With his era Anno Domini the monk Denys Small the was the founder of the Christian era, which is nowadays the most widespread system of dating in the world. In fact, it is only about year 900 that this mode of dating is proven.
In Roman antiquity, time was deducted since the mythical year of foundation of the town of Rome. Nevertheless, actually the era Anno Urbis Conditae, like the era Anno Domini, did not exist yet in antiquity, because it was employed systematically for the first time not front about year 400, namely by the historian ibérien Orosius. Though probably Denys the Small one (about year 500) was with the current of (but forever employed) the era Anno Urbis Conditae, the pope Boniface IV (about year 600) appears to have been the first which recognized connection between these two important eras (i.e. AD 1 = AUC 754).
The era Anno Domini of Denys the Small one, which contains only calendar years AD, was extended by Bède Worthy the to the complete Christian era, which contains in more every years of the calendar before Jesus-Christ but not year zero. Bède thus founded the discipline of the comput. The English monk Birtferth, towards the Year 1000, resumed the studies on the comput, while being based on two disciplines of the Quadrivium (arithmetic and astronomy) and two disciplines of the Trivium (grammar, dialectical).
During eight centuries, the calendar adopted at the 8th century by Bède the Worthy one, the Calendar Julien, was the reference in Occident. After the year 1582, the need for taking account of astronomical corrections over the leap years involved the progressive adoption of the Gregorian Calendrier.
Ten centuries after Bède, the French astronomers Philippe of Hire (in the year 1702) and Jacques Cassini (in the year 1740), in order to simplify certain calculations, used for the first time the system of the days juliens (not to be confused with the Julien calendar), proposed in the year 1583 by Joseph Scaliger, and introduced the one astronomical era use which contains one leap year zero, that the year 1 follows but which does not coincide exactly with the year 1 av. J.C. The astronomers never proposed to replace the era of employment running by the astronomical era, which coincides exactly with the Christian era when it describes the calendar years after year 4.
A few years later, in 1750, the monks Benedictines of the congregation of Saint-Maur wrote art to check the dates of the historical facts, the charters and chronicles and other old monuments, since the birth of our Lord . The congregation of Saint-Maur was removed in 1790 by the constituent Assembly, like the other religious congregations. The French revolution gave up in 1793 the Gregorian Calendrier for a revolutionary Calendrier, but this change posed so much problems which it was abandoned in 1806.
The method of the monks of the congregation of Saint-Maur was taken again at the 19th century by the historians of the methodical school (Charles Seignobos and Charles-Victor Langlois), but their work were limited to the known written sources at that time.
The chronology is also the result of the historical investigation in its precise development of the sequence of the Cause S and the consequences. In that, it is a critical force of the ideology .
In physics, the fact of defining time is a speech over time, therefore with the clean direction a chronology (cf Chronologie in physics)
- Prehistory (time of before the writing) until eighth century BC ( date in the course of checking )
- ancient Antiquity
- the Middle Ages
- Modern times of which
- contemporary Time
- Chronology of Legendary China
- Antiquity (the writing appears towards -1700 and the industry of foundry, towards -2500
- Dynastie Shang - Dynastie Han
- Moyen-âge (towards -206)
- Chronologies of the world Indien
- Chronologie of India
- Chronologie of Nepal
Lines of time
The line of time or chronological Frise which is generally used is that which represents the Christian era. In this line of time we find one moment zero instead of one year zero, contrary to the line of the time of the astronomical era, of which year zero is one leap year, which however is not exactly equal to year 1 before Christ.
- generic: History
- specific: Calendar, Other chronologies available:
- History of the techniques: data-processing Chronology.
Chronology of country
- Chronology of India
- Chronology of Japan
- Chronology of Mexico
- Chronology of Nepal
- Chronology of Tunisia
See also the category chronology by country
Chronology of cities
See also : : Category: chronology by city
Scientific chronology of discipline
Chronologies sets of themes
- Chronology of aeronautics
- Chronology of the sport
- Chronology of feminism
- Chronology of the altermondialism
- Chronology of data processing
List of writers of French language by chronological order
- List of scientists by chronological order
- List of artists by chronological order
- List of French political personalities per time
- Chronology of the spationauts by nationality
- Chronology of the Rock'n'roll
- Chronology of the world of Harry Potter
- List of the chronologies per periods
- List of the chronologies sets of themes
- List of the chronologies by geographical area
|Random links:||Canton of the Chartre-on-the-Dormouse | Dash Pau-Orthez Inhabitant of Béarn | Walt Disney Theatrical Productions | Reuter government | Factory Protocol Instrumentation|