Christian IV of Denmark
Christian IV (born the April 12th 1577 with Frederiksborg - died the February 28th 1648 with Copenhagen), king of Denmark and Norway, wire of Frederic II and Sophie de Mecklenburg, succeeded the throne of Denmark and Norway died of his/her father the April 4th 1588, reaching its majority only the August 17th 1596.
A reforming kingThe court of the young king is one of merriest and splendid of Europe. During its reign, fortresses are built by the German engineers. The Danish royal fleet, which in 1596 included/understood twenty-two units, includes/understands in 1610 sixty vessels, some built according to the plans of Christian himself. The reform of the army is more complex, the regiments being composed of troops recruited for the majority among the farming community of the fields of the crown.
War of KalmarIts first experiment with its lately reorganized army is a success. In the war against the Sweden, generally known under the name of “War of Kalmar” (the chief of the operations is captured by the Danes of Kalmar, an Eastern fortress of Sweden), constrained Christian Gustave II Adolphe of Sweden to yield the access of all the strategic points, by the treaty of Knaered of the January 20th 1613. It then pays its attention towards the Germany, with a double objective: to obtain the control of the large German rivers, the Elba and the Weser in order to ensure its domination on the Scandinavian seas, and to acquire old évêchés German of Bremen and Verden like prerogatives for its younger sons. It skilfully benefits of concern from the German Protesting S with the Bataille of the White Mountain in 1620, to ensure the authority on Bremen for his son Frederic (September 1621), followed stage in November by a similar arrangement with Verden. In same time, Hamburg is forced to recognize the Danish authority on the Holstein.
The Thirty Year old war
The Catholic rise of the S in the north of Germany during and after 1623 obliges Christian, for purely political reasons, to intervene directly in the Guerre Thirty Year old. It remains however with the variation a certain time, but the pressing requests of the western powers, and especially its fear to see Gustave II Adolphe of Sweden supplanting it as a leader of the cause lead it to enter the war against the Empire and the Ligue, without any guarantee of assistance of the other powers. The May 9th 1625 Christian leaves Denmark for the face, with at its disposal between 19.000 and 25.000 men, with whom it gains some battles. But the August 27th 1626 it is put in rout by the count de Tilly to Fight-amndts-Barenberge. During the summer 1627, this one and Wallenstein, destroying and burning all on their passage, occupy the duchies and the peninsula of the Jutland. In the urgency, on January 1st 1628, Christian forms an alliance with the Swedes, by whom Gustave II Adolphe must carry help to Denmark. Shortly after an army and a powerful suédo-Danish fleet force Wallenstein to raise the seat of Stralsund. Thus thanks to this counter-attack, Denmark avoids the invasion. Christian can then conclude with the emperor, in May 1629, the Paix of Lübeck without any reduction in territory.
Intrigues of the court and foreign affairsChristian IV is now a broken man. Its action is temporarily slowed down by the accumulation of vexations. Not only in its political hopes, but also in its private life in full shipwreck. During the year 1628 it discovers a scandalous connection between his wife, Christine Munk and one of her German officers. It returns it; it tries to hide its dishonor while claiming a connection between the king and Vibeke Kruse, a servant. In January 1630, the rupture is final, and Christine withdraws herself in her fields of the Jütland. Christian ends up recognizing that Vibeke is indeed its mistress. The children of Vibeke become the natural enemies of the children of Christine Munk, and the hatred of the two families is not without influencing the history of Denmark. Between 1629 and 1643, Christian gains in popularity and influence. During this period, it again obtains the control of the foreign policy of Denmark and the customs of Sund. He even hopes to still increase his capacity with the assistance as of his sons-in-law, Corfitz Ulfeldt and Hannibal Sehested which occupies the front of the scene.
Even with low of his fortune, Christian never loses hope to find it. The situation in Europe between 1629 and 1643 offers infinite possibilities for the politicians in evil of adventure. Christian is not a Head of State, and is unable to follow a coherent policy. He can neither reconcile Sweden, his more dangerous enemy, nor to protect itself some by a set of against-alliances. By offering its mediation in favor of the emperor, after the death of Gustave Adolphe in 1632, it tries to minimize the influence of Sweden in Germany. It gains some minor advantages there. But its Scandinavian policy is so irritating and vexatious that the statesmen Swedish convince themselves that the war with Denmark is only one matter of time and in spring 1643, the moment seems to them come.
The Swedes are now in measurement, thanks to the conquests of the Guerre Thirty Year old, to attack Denmark in the south and the east. Dutch alliance preserves them at sea, and an attack of Denmark prevents from using the imminent peace negotiations with the damage of Sweden. In May, the private Conseil Swedish decides the war. The December 12th the Marshal Lennart Torstenson coming from Bohemia, crosses the southern border of Denmark. At the end of January 1644, all the peninsula of the Jütland is in its possession. This completely unexpected, conducted attack beginning until the end with a great skill and the speed of the flash, has a paralyzing effect on Denmark. Fortunately for its subjects, in the middle of the greatest impotence and confusion Christian IV knows his duty and has courage to achieve it.
New war against SwedenIn its sixty-sixth year, it once more shows a share of the incredible energy of its triumphing youth. Day and night, he works to raise armies and to equip the fleet. Fortunately for him, the Swedish government differs the hostilities in Scania until February 1644, so that the Danes are able to prepare their defenses and to save the paramount fortress of Malmö. Torstensson is unable to join the Jutland to the Fyn for lack of transport and the Dutch auxiliary fleet left to its rescue is beaten between the islands of Sylt and Rømø on the Western coast of the Schleswig by the Danish admirals. Another attempt to transport Torstensson and its army towards the Danish islands is thwarted by Christian IV in person on July 1st 1644. This day, the two fleets clash with broad of Kolberge Heide, in the south-east of the bay of Kiel. Christian shows there a heroism which gains the sympathy of the Danish nation to him and makes its name famous in songs and accounts. When it is on the bridge of the “Trinity”, a Swedish ball explodes a close gun and metal and wood glares wound the king in 13 different places, plugging an eye to him and projecting it on the bridge. It is raised immediately, shouted of a strong voice which it is very well and is made a duty remain at the station on the bridge until the end of the battle.
The night separates the two fleets on a tie even if the Danish fleet shows its superiority by blocking the Swedish boats in bay of Kiel. The escape of the Swedish fleet and the destruction of the Danish fleet by the efforts combined of Swedish ships and Dutch after an obstinate combat between Fehmern and Lolland at the end of September, exhaust the military resources of Denmark and oblige Christian to accept the mediation of the France Plain Provinces. Peace is finally signed with Brömsebro the February 8th 1645.
Last years and heritageThe last years of the king are obscured by the disagreements with his/her sons-in-law and especially with most ambitious of them, Corfitz Ulfeldt. The February 21st 1648, to its request, it is brought out of stretcher of Frederiksborg close to its beloved Copenhagen, where it dies one week later.
Christian IV is a good linguist, he speaks, in addition to his native tongue, German, Latin, French and Italian. Naturally merry and accessible, it délecte of an animated company but it is also impassioned, irritable and sensual. He has courage, a deep direction of the duty, an immoderate love of work, a curious zeal, and it direction of the invention of a reformer born. In spite of the fact that it had all qualities of the large princes, it forever reached the awaited size. It privileges its own pleasure, whether this one takes the form of the love or the ambition. With the apogee of its youth, its spirit and its passion of the adventure enable him to surmount all the obstacles. But at the end of its life, he picking the bitter fruits of his lack of self-control and dies as an old man tired and in the middle broken. Its last words, collected by its doctor, would have been: Döden, Döden , which means: “Death, death”.
Marriages and descentChristian Marie the November 27th 1597 with Anne Catherine de Brandebourg (born the July 26th 1575 in Wolmarstädt - died the March 29th 1612 with Copenhagen), one of the girls of Joachim III Frederic de Brandebourg duke of Prussia, voter of Brandebourg. The queen dies fourteen years later, after having given to Christian six children:
- Friedrich (born the August 15th 1599 - died the September 9th 1599)
- Christian (born the April 10th 1603 - died the June 2nd 1647), in 1634, it married Madeleine of Saxony (1617 - 1668), (girl of the voter Jean-Georges Ier of Saxony)
- Sophie (born the January 4th 1605 - died the September 7th 1605)
- Elisabeth (born the March 13rd 1606 - died the October 24th 1608)
- Frederic III (born the March 18th 1609 - died the February 9th 1670), future king de Danemark
- Ulrich (born the February 2nd 1611 - died the August 12th 1633)
- Ulrich Christian Gyldenlöve (born the February 3rd 1611 - died the October 6th 1640 in Meinertshagen)
- Dorothé Elisabeth Gyldenlöve (born the 1613 - died the 1615)
- Hans Ulrich Gyldenlöve, (born the March 10th 1615 with Kronborg - died the January 31st 1645 with Kronborg), wife Regitze Grubbe the October 10th 1641
Three years after the death of its first wife, the December 31st 1615, Christian Marie with Christine Munk (Kirsten Munk) (born the July 6th 1598, dead the April 19th 1658 with Boller), girl of Ludvig Munk and Ellen Marsvin de Landskrona, with which it has twelve children:
- Anna Christine (born the August 10th 1618 with Frederiksborg - died the August 20th 1633), wife Frands Rantzau
- Sophie Elisabeth (born the September 20th 1619 with Skanderborg - died the April 29th 1657), wife Christian von Pentz, the October 10th 1634
- Eleonore Christine (born the July 8th 1621 with Frederiksborg - died the March 16th 1698 with Maribo Kloster), wife Corfitz Ulfeldt, the October 9th 1634 with Copenhagen
- Waldemar Christian (born the 1622 with Frederiksborg - died the February 26th 1656 with Lublin), count of the Schleswig-Holstein
- Elisabeth Auguste (born the December 28th 1623 with Kronborg - died the August 9th 1677), wife Johann Lindenow, the October 27th 1639 with Copenhagen
- Friedrich Christian (born the April 26th 1625 - died the April 17th 1627)
- Christiane (born the July 15th 1626 with Haderslevhus (Hansborg) - died the May 6th 1670), wife Hannibal von Sehestet, the November 6th 1642 with Copenhagen
- Hedwig (born the July 15th 1626 with Haderslevhus (Hansborg) - died the October 5th 1678 with Kristianstad), wife Olfeld Ebb, the November 6th 1642 with Copenhagen
- Marie Katharina (born the May 29th 1628 - died on September 1st 1628)
- Dorothea Elisabeth (born on September 1st 1629 with Kronborg - died the March 18th 1687 with Augustinerkloster Cologne); this last child is probably not Christian IV.
- Ulrich Christian Gyldenlöve (born the April 7th 1630 Ibstrup oder Jägersborg - died the December 11th 1658 with Copenhagen)
- Elisabeth Sophie Gyldenlöve (born the 1633 in Bramstedt (?) - died the January 20th 1654), wife Claus von Ahlefeldt, the June 18th 1648
Christian IV of Denmark belongs to the first branch of the Maison of Oldenbourg. This line gave kings to the Norway, the Sweden, the Denmark, it died out in 1863 with the death of Frederic VII of Denmark.
- Christian III of Denmark (paternal grandfather)
Ulrich de Mecklembourg-Güstrow (maternal grandfather)
- War Thirty Year old
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