The Chola are a very old dynasty of the south of the India, mentioned in the Mahâbhârata , and which gave its name to the Côte of Coromandel (according to Chola mandalam , country of the Chola ) to the Tamil Nadu. One knows few things of first Chola, whose tradition and literature transmitted some names and approximate dates to us:
- Veliyan Tittan , conqueror of Uraiyur (today close to Tiruchirapalli), the first capital Chola (50 av. J. - C. - 25 av. J. - C.)
- Porvaikko-Perunarkilli (25 av. J. - C. - 1 av. J. - C.)
- Mudittalaiko-Perunarkilli or Ilan-set-Senni (1 av. J. - C. - 25)
- Karikala I (1 - 25) would have made build a stopping on the Kâverî
- Velpahtadakkai-Perunarkilli (25 - 50)
- Uruva-pahter-Ilan-id-Senni (50 - 75)
- Karikala II (75 - 100)
- Sed-Senni-Nalankilli (100 - 125)
- Kulamurrattu-tunciya-Killivalavan (125 - 150)
- Rajasuyam-Vetta-Perunarkilli (150 - 175)
- Cholan KB-Cenkannan (175 - 200)
The continuation is lost in confusion. Then Chola reconsider the front of the scene at the 9th century.
- Vijayalaya Chola (836 - 870) takes Tanjavûr and makes its capital of it.
- Aditya Chola (870 - 907) cuts down the power of the Pallava and extends its domination until Kanchipuram
- Parantaka Chola I (907 - 953) drives out the king Pandya Rajasimha II who finds refuge with Ceylon
- Gandaradityavarman Chola (950 - 957)
- Arinjaya Chola (956 - 957)
- Parantaka II Rajendra Sundara Chola (957 - 970)
- Madurantaka Uttama Chola (970 - 985)
- Rajaraja Chola I (985 - 1014) takes again the policy of conquest after disturbed times of the preceding kings. It destroys the fleet Chera close to Trivandrum, conquers part of the Karnataka and north of Ceylon. It organizes the administration of its kingdom, undertakes the construction of the Temple of Brihadesvara to Tanjavûr and supports the worship of Shiva while being tolerant with the other worships, Bouddhiste in particular. In 1001, it makes carry out a great census of its territories.
- the presence of a league of merchants tamouls in the port of Barus, on the Western coast of the northern of Sumatra in Indonesia, is attested with the XIe century after J.C.
- Rajendra Choladeva (1014 - 1045) completes the conquest of Ceylon, guerroie in Orissa and with the Bengal. It makes build the temple of Gangaikondacholapuram where it will transfer its capital. Rajendra sends in 1025 forwarding against kingdom of Sriwijaya (current the Palembang in the southern of Sumatra), which controls the sea traffic of the Détroit of Malacca, and make the conquest of the islands Andaman and Nicobar. It sends an ambassador to the emperor of China in 1033.
- Rajadiraja Chola I (1018 - 1054)
- Rajendra II (1051 - 1063)
- Virarajendra (1063 - 1070)
- Adhirajendra (1070 - 1073)
- Rajendra Kulottunga Chola I (1070 - 1118) joins together for a time the kingdoms Chola and Chalukya, reconquers the Kalinga revolted, but loses Ceylon and its overseas colonies. In 1086, it also makes carry out a census of its territories.
- Vikrama Chola (1118 - 1133)
- Kulottunga Chola II (1134
- Rajaraja II (1134 - 1162)
- Rajadhiraja II (1162? - 1178)
- Kulottunga III (1178 - 1216)
- Rajaraja III (1216 then 1245 - 1252)
- Rajendra III (Co-regency 1242 - 1252 then 1267 - 1279), the last sovereign Chola .
The dynasty enters in decline and the Chola kingdom again reduced to the original zone of Uraiyur will be absorbed by the Royaume of Vijayanâgara at the 14th century.
Chola know their apogee under Rajaraja Chola I and Rajendra Choladeva. It is as under their reigns as India knows the only period of maritime power of its history.
The art of CholaChola developed an art characteristic in the field of the Architecture and the Bronze with lost wax.
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