A emblematic area
Choa is a mountainous region, made up of high plateaus, which forms the heart of Ethiopia today, but it of it was for a long time its southernmost part. Separated from the septentrional areas (Godjam, Wällo) by a zone of lowlands, Choa forms an area of easily justifiable high plateaus and could escape thus from the periods from disorders, or the attempts at attacks come from the east. It thus developed to with it in the exercise of the political power, a certain taste for autonomy with respect to the provinces of north, traditionally holders of a higher capacity, because seats of the imperial authority.
The towns of Debre Berhan, Antsokia, Ankober, Entoto, then Addis-Abeba were in turn capital province. The major part of the north of Choa, including/understanding the districts of Menz, Tegulet, Yefat, Menjar, Bulga, is populated of Amhara Christians, while the southern parts and east are largely populated of Oromo, often Moslems.
An old province
Choa appears for the first time in the historical sources as a Moslem State, founded, according to G.W.B. Huntingford, in 896, with for Walalah capital. This State was absorbed by Sultatanat de Ifat with the almentours of 1285.
At the 16th century century, Choa was devastated and separated from the remainder of Ethiopia by the armies of Ahmed Gragne. The area was thus exposed to the migrations of populations oromo come from the south, which settled in the surfaces depopulated during the first decades of the 17th century. The destruction and the durable depopulation which followed mainly explains the rarefaction of the sources concerning Choa until the years 1800. However, the emperor Lebna Dengel and some of his sons used the province like a refuge in the event of external threats.
The reigning family of Choa was founded at the end of the 17th century by Negassie, which consolidated its control of the area of Yefat. His/her son, Sebestyanos, took the title of Meridazmach (“General of reserve”), created especially for the sovereign of Choa. Its descendants continued to carry this title until Sahlé-Sellassié was declared Négus (king) in 1813. The grandson of this last, Sahlé Maryam, became, with dead of Yohannès IV, emperor of Ethiopia, under the name of Ménélik II. Thus, the title of King of Choa was assistant of that of King of Kings d' Ethiopie when he became emperor.
The famous monastery of Debré Libanos, rested by Saint Tekla Haymanot, is in the district of Selalé, in the north of Choa.
Old subdivision of the historical “Abyssinie”, Choa was controlled by a Meridazmatch until in 1813, date on which took the title of Négus, thus affirming the importance of its province vis-a-vis the close Tigré. At the end of the 19th century, under Ménélik II, Choa became the seat of the new capital, Addis-Abeba, which contributed to reinforce its weight on a country in expansion.
Indeed, since the conquests of Ménélik II, until the annexation of the Érythrée by Haylä Sellassié Ier in 1962, the empire of Ethiopia did not cease increasing. Connected to Djibouti, therefore with the sea, thanks to a way of railroad established by an free-Ethiopian company between 1898 and 1917, the province was particularly arranged in terms of infrastructures of communication: roads, airports.
List of the sovereigns of Choa.
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