Chinese New year
The Chinese New year or New year of the Chinese calendar (transl.: 農曆新年; sim.: 农历新年; pine.: nóng lì xīn nián) or “passage of the year” (transl.: 過年; sim. : 过年; pine. : gùo nián) is the first day of the first month of the Chinese Calendrier. It is the beginning of the festival of spring (transl.: 春節; sim. : 春节; pine. : chūn jié) which is held over fifteen days and is completed with the Fête of the lanterns (transl.: 元宵節; sim. : 元宵节; pine. : yúan xiāo jié).
The Chinese calendar being a lunisolar Calendar, the date of the Chinese New year in the Gregorian Calendrier varies one year on the other, but always fall between on January 21st and on February 20th. It is, like all the beginnings of Chinese lunar month, the first day of a the New moon. By convention, the astronomical alignment which announces the the New moon is given with the Observatoire of the Mountain Crimson to Nankin.
The New year is celebrated officially in China (seven days off) and with Taiwan (five days), with HongKong and Macao (three days), as in certain countries of Asia where the influence of the Chinese culture is important, or whose population includes/understands a strong minority of Chinese ethnic: Singapore and Malaysia (two days), Brunei and Indonesia (one day), Vietnam (festival of the Small fireclay cup, three days, with one day of shift with China all 22 or 23 years to compensate for the jet lag between Beijing and Hanoï), South Korea (festival of 새해 Seollal, three days). The vacation of the New year, which can be prolonged by one weekend or a bridge, is one period of intense migration, because many are those which endeavor to join their family, since the foreigner sometimes: congestions on the roads and obstructions in the stations and the airports are the rule.
He is observed individually everywhere in the world by the members of the Chinese Diaspora, and sometimes also by the Japan boards (old first month 旧正月), the Miao, the Mongolian, the Tibetans, the Nepalese and the Bhutan board.
Traditional celebrationsThe celebrations, habits and taboos of the festival of spring vary in the details according to the areas or the times. The general practice wants that one endeavors to set out again on a new foot after being oneself removed from the bad influences of the year spent, accompanied by signs of good omen. There are recourse to objects or food presenting a homophony with a word of auspicieux direction.
The “passage of the year” (過年 gùonían) is carried out in the night of the last day of the twelfth month. The word meaning year is regarded as being in the beginning that of the monster Nian which formerly came to grind around villages one harms per annum, obliging the inhabitants to block up themselves and take care until its departure in the small hour. The principal celebrations comprise a midnight supper (年夜飯 níanyèfàn) including/understanding dishes with the auspicieux names, followed by one night of day before (守歲 shǒusùi) pledge of longevity, that some occupy to play Mahjong, the distribution of New Year's gifts (壓歲錢 yāsùiqián) contained in red Enveloppes, the lighting of Pétard S to drive out the bad influences.
PreparationsThe week preceding the new year, traditionally the 23 or the 24 of the 12th month, take place the “small New year” (xiǎogùonían 小過年), a ceremony of good-bye to the Génie of the Hearth whose effigy is stuck in the kitchen. According to the beliefs, it must make a long voyage to bring back, like each year, the good ones and ill deeds of the family to the Empereur of jade. To obtain his leniency, one deposits food (rather sticking, like candies) in front of his image while hoping to prevent it from saying evil; some directly stick a sugar refinery on the mouth of its portrait. This one is burned, and the Genius flies away with smoke. A new portrait will be posted a few days later, announcing its return.
The great cleaning of the house is made. The last day, one posts a little everywhere wishes written on red paper, symbol of chance. It is about characters auspicieux like fú (福) happiness , or chūn (春) springs , often stuck to back because to reverse is homophonous to arrive . A fu reversed thus means: “Happiness arrived. ”. Traditionally, on each side of the amounts of the main door, one sticks a red paper band on which is written worms; the two worms answer themselves and constitute a parallel inscription (dùilían 對聯); they were formerly always written with the hand, preferably by people with the literary gifts and calligraphic. Of course, decorations and inscriptions of the last year were first of all withdrawn.
Provisions are made, important preparation formerly because all the trade closed during the vacation. They include/understand many things to be nibbled in family: seeds of water melon, fruits dry, candies etc Faire the races for New year says bànníanhùo (辦年貨). One made also the purchase of new clothing, particularly for the children. It was before a welcome occasion to renew its wardrobe, but with the development of the industry of the ready-made clothes, this habit lost its value a little.
Midnight supperThe meal of New year often takes place in the residence of elder of the family. In the areas with the traditional lifestyle, because of habit patrilocale, it is about the paternal family.
Per hour of the midnight supper, the dinner can start only when all the family is present (empty places are reserved to the members not being able to attend the meal). It is generally copious and often comprises dishes symbolic systems to ensure health, the studies, etc Ainsi the fish, homophon of surplus , must be present at each meal of New year to guarantee that there will be surplus every year (年年有餘 niánnián yǒuyú) and that nothing will never be missed; some take even care not to finish it, in order to return its direction symbolic system more completely. In the north of China, one is used in theory a dish as raviolis because their form evokes that of the yuanbao (元寶), old ingots. The traditional dessert is the Niangao (年糕), “cake of the Year”; gao , cake , is homophonous to grow , and to eat some a pledge of growth in all the desired fields constitutes.
red Enveloppes containing money are offered. Traditionally, they were distributed by the elder ones to the children and young people nonmarried, and had especially the value symbolic system to carry chance during all the New Year's Day. At the time of the solemn distributions by the elder ones, the person who will receive the envelope addresses a wish or “auspicieuse word to them” (吉祥話 jíxiánghùa); more the current is “congratulations, and made fortune” (gōngxǐ fācái 恭喜發財). Many red envelopes contain a modest sum, of even number of tickets, but it happens that it is the means by which a professionally active person gives to her old parents or her children a whole year of pocket money. At the time of the visits to the family and the friends in the days which follow, it is habit to offer an envelope to the children of the visitors or visited; many thus has care to be supplied in small cuts before the period of the festival.
The children were authorized this evening to be made burst Pétard S or to make burn Bengal lights, while waiting for the chain of detonators which each hearth was to light on arrival of the first day of the year (midnight to the 21e century, but formerly one changed day with 11:00 of the evening). Nevertheless, because of the increasingly frequent accidents due to the urban concentration, much of country prohibited the private detonators. Luminous and wired for sound electric models are proposed under the name of “electric detonators” (dìanbīanpào 電鞭炮), with a variable success.
An old habit wants that one will lie down the latest possible this evening, because it would be a pledge of longevity; that is invited “to assemble the guard of the year” (shǒusùi 守歲). A television largely helps to fill this objective, but a play (Mahjong for example) is also often selected, the more so as for some it is good to try its chance during the night of the New year. In certain areas, the usually prohibited money plays were exceptionally authorized during the festival of spring.
First day of the yearIf the local payments allow it, a chain of detonators is lit as of eleven hours or midnight. The morning, after a short rest, much go to the local temple, then on the ancestral tombs if they live in the vicinity. It is considered that the earlier the visit with the temple is, the more one will have chance in the year. It thus happens that the faithful ones mass in front of the large temples before the opening of the doors to be the first to plant its incense rod in the burn-perfume. Some take this day at least a meal vegetarian. The families which had the means of them ordered a dance of lion or dragon (which represents Noblesse, Bravoure and Chance). In certain cities out of China like Paris, the Chinese diaspora organizes a parade; the tradition began from it with San Francisco in second half of the 19th century.
The first day was theoretically devoted to the visits, while starting with the most important people (elder parents, hierarchically superiors); this activity is invited “to greet the year” (bàinían 拜年); nowadays the telephone is largely used. The families in mourning are traditionally exempted visits for one variable length of time.
The day of the New year, one must theoretically wear new clothing, and much like that red, auspicieuse color, appear there. One does not do housework, and if one must absolutely sweep fallen refuses with ground, they should not be deposited outside the residence because that would symbolize a loss. Some estimate that it is bad to make a large toilet this day.
Following daysThe second day is traditionally that where the married women return visit to their family with children and husband.
In certain areas, the visits were disadvised during the third day because they were supposed easily to give place to disputes (“stops red” chìkǒu 赤口).
The fifth day is in general that where the trade reopen. In HongKong it is the birthday of the God of the richness. Detonators are lit, and sometimes ordered dances of lions.
The seventh day was for certain that where everyone changed age, the exact birth dates being formerly held secret. Others, nevertheless, estimate that the age changes the first day of the New Year's Day.
The eighth or ninth day - according to the areas - is the birthday of God of the Sky (天公) compared to the Empereur of jade. A ceremony is held at home or with the temple late the evening, at the beginning of the new day.
The fifteen of the first month is the last day of the Festival of spring, marked by the Fête of the lanterns.
Wishes of New yearThe traditional wish, particularly in the north of China, is “Good passage of the year” (transl.: 過年好; sim. : 过年好; pine. : gùoníanhǎo) It is often replaced by “Happy new year”, also usable on January first, official beginning of the year in China and in Taiwan (transl.: 新年快樂; sim. : 新年快乐; Mandarin: Xīnnián kuàilè; Minnan: Sin-nor khòai-lo̍k; Cantonese: Sun nin fai lok). The “congratulations, and made fortune” mentioned above can be also used, but tends to being more particularly related to the distributions of red envelopes.
Chinese year and date of the New year
General informationOne year traditional counts 12 months lunar and lasts 354 or 355 days, that is to say approximately 11 days less than one solar year. So that the calendar remains soli-lunar, it is necessary to compensate for this difference by associating one lunar 13th month at certain years known as embolismic (as 2006 for example where the 7th lunar month is doubled). The addition of the additional month is done according to the rule of the median stakes: the race of the Earth around the Sun is divided into twelve and the delimitations, whose astronomical dates are fixed, are called median stakes. The lunar month which does not comprise a median stake becomes one month intercalated, except if it is with less than 20 months of a preceding additional month. The additional month is the double of the previous month and carries the same sequence number, preceded by the character run (閏). Astrologically, it has the same characteristics as its double. Certain astrologers, nevertheless, attach first half to the previous month and the second in the next month. The Winter solstice always falls in the 11th month. The New year is thus the second new moon after the winter solstice.
The current Chinese calendar is with little thing close that which was founded in -104 by the emperor Wudi of the Dynastie Han. Other calendars existed before, making begin the year on different dates.
Each Chinese year is associated with one of the twelve signs of the Chinese zodiac, associated with the 12 terrestrial branches of the sexagesimal cycle, which follow one another in a cyclic order: rat, buffalo (or ox), tiger, rabbit (or cat or hare), dragon, snake, horse, goat (or sheep), monkey, cock, dog, pig. Each year is also associated with one of the five elements: metal, water, wood, fire, ground.
Date from the Chinese new year
- New year
- Chinese Religion
- Chinese New year (stamp)
- Nian, the Animal of the midnight supper
- the Chinese New year Special folder devoted to the festival of spring with dates and signs of nearest the Chinese new-year.
- File on the Chinese New year Symbolism and course of the festival of the Chinese New year, the festivities, the receipts…
- Chinese New year Dates of the Chinese new-year until in 2099
- photographs of the Chinese New year with Holy-Elisabeth of Hungary (Paris III) February 18th, 2007 - Franco-Chinese pontifical Mass chaired by the representative of the pope in France, Mgr Baldelli, apostolic nuncio
- Files over the Chinese New year, the site of the INA
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