The République of Chile ( be República de Chile in Spanish) is a country of South America dividing its borders with the Peru in north, the Bolivia in north east and the Argentine in the east. The capital of this country to the lengthened form bears the name of Santiago of Chile. arn '' Chile '' is a meaning word mapudungun “where the ground finishes” and any relationship with the Spanish word does not have are '' chile '' which indicates the Piment.
One speaks the Spanish there, in his alternative specific to Chile, but also to the Amerindian Langues like the Runa Simi, the Mapudungun or the Aymara, and a Polynesian language, the vânaga rapanui (on the Easter Island), of which none has the official statute.
The national currency is the peso (PLC).
One does not know really the origin of the name of the country. However, of many assumptions were emitted. According to one of them, the conquistadors installed with the Peru called the southern area are valle of Chile . To note that many hispanized proper names come from local names of rivers and rivers (Peru for río Virú, Lima for río Rimac). It may be that the name of the country is related to that of the river which crosses the town of Aréquipa to the south of Peru, the río Chile.
According to the Abate Molina, the name would come from trih O chi , expression used to indicate a bird having yellow spots on its wings. According to the historian Ricardo Latcham, the name would come from a group of Amerindians (Mitimaes) captured by Incas, which came from an area of Peru where there was a bearing river this name.
Another anonymous theory supports that the origin east will aymara because the INCA Tupac Yupanqui had given this name to the grounds conquered in the south of the INCA empire, to the valley of the Aconcagua (meaning “cold” or “where the ground finishes” will aymara some).
See also: History of Chile
See also: History of Chile précolombien
Various research shows that the first populations having lived the country would have arrived towards: 35000 years front J-C, period of the Pleistocene for the prehistoric site of " Assembles Verde I" and towards: 15000 years front J-C for the site of " Assembles Verde II" (end of the Pleistocene and beginning of the Holocene (towards the end of the Paleolithic superior). Chile prehispanic was populated by various Amerindian people which had settled at the same time in the Andes cordillera and coast. In the northern zone of the country, Aymaras and Atacaméniens started about the 11th century of our era to cultivate the ground the made-to-order of Incas (terrace cultivation with mountainside with various drains). At the 15th century, Incas took possession of the territory of current Chile until the river Maule. In the south of Aconcagua, seminomad communities as the Mapuches were installed. In the southern zone of the country, various Amerindian people lived like Chomos, Tamanas, Alacafuches and Onas. In the Easter Island developed a culture extinct Polynésie nowadays.
Peaceful side, various cultures and people coexisted: Aymara S, Changos, Chinchorros, Atacameños, Diaguita S in north; Picunches, Mapuches, Huilliches, Chonos in the central and southern area; and the Onas, Yagan be and Alacalufes in the Patagonie and the Ground of Fire. Mapuches formed the most community.
See also: Discovered of Chile
In 1520, Fernand of Magellan is the first European explorer to put foot on the territory of current Chile after having discovered the strait which currently bears its name. In 1535, the Conquistador be Spanish try to conquer the territory of the valle of Chile as a combatant Incas. The forwarding of Diego de Almagro is a failure. That of Pedro de Valdivia carried out in 1536 is more convincing. Valdivia founds a series of villages like Santiago of the New Extreme the February 12th 1541 or Valdivia in 1545.
Valdivia begins a hard military campaign against the indigenous populations of Mapuches. It is the war of Arauco which Alonso de Ercilla reports with passion in its work Araucana (in 1576). Pedro de Valdivia dies in 1553 following an insurrection of the Amerindians mapuches. The principal invasions of the Amerindians of the south of Chile intervene of 1598 to 1655.
In 1683, the Esclavage is abolished and that makes it possible to establish more serene relations between the colonists and the mapuches. Thereafter, various confrontations take place until worms the middle of the 19th century for the most southern ground possession. During one long period, the Biobio river marks the border between the colonial government and the Amerindian tribes.
The general harbor office of Chile (also known under the name of Reino de Chile ) is at the time one of the most southern colonies of the Spanish empire. Because of its geographical position, it is a strategic colony, protecting the Magellan Strait and an economic colony whose natural resources were extracted on behalf of the viceroyalty from Peru.
Territorial independence and profits
The September 18th 1810, a group of Créole S benefits from the invasions Napoleon iennes in Spain to initiate a process of self-determination and to constitute a junta. Thus begin a period known under the name of old Patrie, which will last until the Désastre of Rancagua in 1814, when the royalist troops take again the control of the territory. The independence troops cash 6.514 soldiers take refuge then with Mendoza, linking their forces with the troops of the province of Argentine which counted 2.600 soldiers, thus forming the army of the Andes. The latter releases Chile after the Bataille of Chacabuco, the February 12th 1817. The following year, the independence of Chile is declared and the country is placed under the authority of Bernardo O' Higgins.
This one starts reforms which cause a dissatisfaction with the Aristocratie, which obliges it to abdicate in 1823. During ten years, Chile is subjected to a series of reforms which try to give an organization to the country. After a series of victories of the conservatives, with the revolution of 1829, one period of stability starts. It is called preserving République. The Minister Diego Portales is then the main character of the organization of the country thanks to the Constitution of 1833.
Little by little, the country starts to extend its influence on the continent and extends as well to North as in the South. The economy starts to take off with the ore discovery of Chañarcillo and the growth of the commercial exchanges through the port of Valparaiso. That brings to a conflict for the maritime control of the Pacific with the Peru. The formation of the Peruvian and Bolivian Confédération is regarded as a threat for the stability of Chile. Thus, Portales declares the war which finishes with the victory of the battle of Yungay in 1839 and the dissolution of the Confederation. At the same time, the country tries to take the control of the southern areas. It extends its territory in Araucanie and colonizes the, Osorno, Valdivia while making come from the colonist S German S. the area of Magellan is built-in 1843 and the zone of Antofagasta starts to be inhabited.
After thirty years of conservative government (1831 - 1861) one period starts when the liberal party (left, with the anglophone direction of the term) takes possession of the capacity. At this time, the economic growth is exponential, thanks to the exploitation of the Salpêtre in the zone of Antofagasta. This richness causes the anger of the Bolivia which claims the possession of the territory. Even with the signature of several treaties in 1866 and 1871, the two countries do not find a solution. Thus, the February 14th 1879, Chile takes possession of the port of Antofagasta, declaring the war in Bolivia. The Peru, as for him, beforehand signed a secret pact with the Bolivia in the event of conflict with Chile. The war of the Pacific starts. It finishes with the Bataille of Huamachuco the July 10th 1883 and the victory of Chile. After this conflict, Chile takes possession of the zones of Antofagasta and the provinces of Tarapacá, Arica and Tacna (the latter is restored in Peru in 1929). The country solves occasion consequently the problem of border with the Argentine by yielding most of the Patagonie and Puna de Atacama. Lastly, in the south of the territory the Guerre of Arauco with the “pacification” of the Araucanie in 1881 finishes and the integration of the Easter Island in 1888.
In 1891, the conflict between the president Jose Manuel Balmaceda and the congress involves the civil war. The congressmen gain the battle and set up the parliamentary Republic.
These years are characterized by one period of economic prosperity, an political instability and the beginning of the proletarian movement called Cuestión Social . This last is set up because of the “bad distribution of the richness”. After ten years of being able of the Oligarchie, Arturo Alessandri Palma is elected. It represents the missing but provisional bond between an elite and the “dear poor” ( queridas chusmas in Spanish). In spite of that, the crisis continues and Alessandri gives up the capacity after having promulgated the Constitution of 1925 which gives rise to Republic of a presidential type.
See also: naval Action of Iquique
The 20th century: political instability and coups d'etatThe decrease in the demand of Nitrate and the first workers' struggles caused by bad work conditions create climate of a social and political instability during the Années 1920. The president Arturo Alessandri undertakes social reforms and promulgates the Constitution of 1925. But the world-wide crisis of 1929 plunges Chile in the recession and social agitation. The governments follow one another as well as the coups d'etat. Carlos Ibáñez del Campo becomes president de facto in 1927 by the will of the people, but the consequences of the First World War (where the country declared itself neutral), the bad economic policy and the means used to reduce the effects of the Grande Depression had consequences on the Salpêtre, thus producing an economic crisis where Chile underwent a strong economic recession.
Ibáñez leaves its position of president in 1932 and political instability is accentuated by a coup d'etat which gives rise to the Socialist République of Chile which lasts only twelve days before Alessandri takes again the capacity and rectifies the economy. The arrival of Alessandri causes to reduce the tensions between the political parties. There is also a social crisis; new actors require transformations in the way of controlling the country. Pedro Aguirre Cerda is elected president in 1938 thanks to an alliance (the Popular front of Chile) which is opposed to the elite with the capacity. Social and political reforms do of Chile one of the most advanced countries from the point of view of the legislation and social protection. The Cuivre replaces little by little nitrate in the nation's economy (because of the world demand and especially because of discovered mine of Chuquicamata). Progressive industrialization of the country, increase in the number of workmen.
The government of Aguirre Cerda involves one period of radicalism and makes a success of various changes, mainly economic by posing the bases of Chilean industrialization through the creation of CORFO. On the level Géopolitique the country claims the Chilean Territoire of the Antarctic. The reforms stop brutally with the death of the president. Juan Antonio Ríos, his successor, must face the opposition and the pressures of the the United States to declare the war with the Axe during the Second world war, which is made on January 20th 1943. With the support of the Communist party, the radical Gabriel González Videla is elected President in 1946. However, the beginning of the Cold war obliges to prohibit the Communist party through the Law of Defense of the Democracy (Ley Maldita) . In 1952, Ibáñez takes again the capacity and is elected this time Ci, but it loses its importance with the eyes of the population through liberal reforms. In 1958, the independent one of right-hand side Jorge Alessandri is elected. It must face the consequences of the Earthquake of Valdivia of 1960, most extremely ever recorded, as well as the organization of the Football world cup, in 1962. Is established then the system of the los very tercios (three thirds) composed by the Right-hand side, the Christian Democrat and the Left of the Unidad Popular. Being afraid of the victory of the Left (Unidad Popular), the Line supports the Christian democrat Eduardo Frei Montalva which is elected in 1964. The president tries to carry out the Revolución in Libertad (the Revolution in Freedom) through many reforms like the Land reform and the chilenisation of the Cuivre (appropriation deprived by the Chilean ones of mines belonging to the United States before). At the end of its mandate, the political tension produces a series of confrontations. The obstruction of the right-hand side to the Congress increases.
Government of Allende
The the United States did not find useful to help a candidate anti-Marxist, mainly because they think that Alessandri will gain the elections of September. However, from financial means indirectly will help Alessandri, by the company ITT (International Telephone & Telegraph) (approximately: 350000 American dollars). There is no possible comparison with what the companies gave during the program of Frei, when there was an electoral assistance.
With Washington, Richard Nixon orders to prevent that Allende becomes president. the CIA sets up two plans to prevent that Allende take its functions thanks to the vote of the congress (this last will vote the October 24th), which will be known like the Track One and the Track Two :
the Track One (also known under the name of “gambito Frei”) consists of what the congress chooses Alessandri. This last would give up and of new elections would take place where the line would support Eduardo Frei then. However, this plan did not function. Cd. and the UP arrived at an agreement on Allende and one reveals the existence of a secret pact between the two left-wing candidates (Tomic and Allende). In this pact each one gives up the victory of the other if the differences in votes are higher than 5000, and that of Alessandri only if it exceeds: 100000 votes. Finally, the Christian Democrat requires the assistance of the Congress in order to guarantee the constitutional laws, which would ensure the defeat of Allende.
The Track One could not function, it remains the Track Two :
the Track Two consists in creating a mode of political instability, so that the Fuerzas Armadas intervene and cancel the elections. Sedition within the Chilean army is supported, of the contacts are taken and a financial support (: 38000 dollars) is granted to the movement of Patrie extreme-right-hand side and Freedom. The CIA also comes into contact with the general Roberto Viaux who claims to be able to organize a coup d'etat. The plan of this last is considered to be not very realistic and the prospect for a missed coup d'etat (which would reinforce Allende), force the CIA to give up the project. Viaux decides nevertheless to pass to the action and on October 22nd, 1970, its attempt at removal of the chief of staff Schneider, likely to be opposed to a coup d'etat, turns badly. Schneider manages to escape but will die the October 25th in a military hospital following its wounds.
September 4th, 1970, at its fourth attempt, the candidate of the popular Unit, Salvador Allende, arrives at the head of the presidential election with 36,6 % of the votes and precedes the conservative Jorge Alessandri (34,9 %) and the Christian democrat Radomiro Tomic (27,8 %). In the absence of new ballot, that which arrives at the head must be confirmed by the Congress, dominated by the Christian democrats and the conservatives. The score of Allende is however in withdrawal of three points compared to its preceding candidature in 1964. October 24th, 1970, the Socialists (then in favor of the introduction of a revolutionary State since the congress of Chillàn in 1967) obtain Christian democrats the nomination of Allende in exchange of the promise to respect freedoms and legality. The alessandrists are afraid of the Socialist government, whereas the allendists and the Christian-Democrats express their joys in the street. Become thus the first president elected democratically on a program socialist and having a parliamentary majority thanks to the supports of the Christian-Democrats, Allende intensifies the reforms of her predecessor. The copper mines (which represent the three quarters of exports) had been nationalized with 51 % by Eduardo Frei Montalva, Allende exproprie the remaining part without compensating the American companies. It appreciably accentuates the policy of redistribution of the grounds in favor of the poor peasants. Many of other companies are requisitioned or nationalized (including nine banks out of ten). If the economic results of the first year to the capacity of Allende are good, the two following years will be catastrophic. Inflation explodes (508 % between December 1972 and December 1973), the GDP contracts (- 5,6 % per annum) and the Chilean currency loses its value. The too expansionist monetary policy and the fall of the price of the Cuivre of approximately 1/3 of 1970 to 1972 on the worldwide markets explain these disastrous results mainly. The government tries to stop the crisis by fixing the prices of the food products what results in a development of the black-market and shortages. In 1972 the steps of the empty pans start by which the housewives express that they do not have anything any more to cook. In spite of this crisis of the Chilean company, the popularity of the government increases since the legislative elections of 1973 bring 43  to him; % of the voices. Nevertheless it loses the support of the Christian-Democrats who are combined with the conservatives and the new opposition (Confederación Democrática) thus obtains the majority at the Parliament with 57 % (in lower part of the 60 % which would have enabled them to relieve president Allende legally). Allende then decides to control by decree, which avoids to him passing by the Parliament. Allende also tries to obtain the active support of the population, of the working militia constitute themselves in the cities and the campaigns to maintain revolutionary legitimacy the government. The conservative opposition and the democrats Christian, unable to stop the reforms of Allende because of marginalisation of the Parliament, mobilize in their turn the street. They organize or contribute their share to a series of revolts and demonstrations. Most famous being the strike of the truck-drivers, who paralyze the country whereas its economy already is very weakened by the reforms of Allende. In same time one attends the rise to power of paramilitary groups of extreme-right-hand side and the country saw a larval civil war where the militia of extreme left (MIR) oppose these last.
If the operations Track I and Track II are quite abandoned after the takeover of Allende, HAVE continue to seek to weaken Allende. The appropriations granted by American to Chile passes from 300 to 30 million dollars and so in same time the assistance of the socialist and European countries overcompensated this loss (600 million dollars of new appropriations), Chile remains very depend on HAVE (in particular for spare parts) and let us reflect them harmful this policy are numerous. The CIA is also active, it will have over these 3 years of a budget of seven million dollars to support the democratic opposition in Allende. It will employ it mainly to help the political parties (Christian-Democrats and conservatives, which will receive half of the assistance), the anti-Allende newspapers (El Mercurio, more the famous daily newspaper of the country will only be given with him from a fifth the aid) and to a lesser extent of the private organizations. The paramilitary groups of extreme-right-hand side are on the other hand forsaken, Patrie and Freedom will only receive: 1000 dollars between 1970 and 1971 then more nothing. The American authorities balk to help the anti-Allende strikers. The proposal for a support was approached several times within the Committee 40 (charged to define and control the activities of the CIA) but it was always pushed back. Part of the funds provided by the CIA to the opposition parties and the private organizations would have nevertheless was diverted by the latter to support the truck-drivers. , Reacting to the nationalizations carried out by the government of Allende, several American firms whose ITT assist their in this strategy.
Even if serious doubts are allowed, there does not exist however any element making it possible to affirm that the United States directly took part in the coup d'etat itself of September 11th, 1973. If the Nixon administration were magic blow of 1973, the report/ratio of the Commission Church, in 1976, concluded that the United States had not had a direct role in the event. Kissinger affirms in addition that army maneuvers American, one should not lose sight of the fact that he was the principal coordinator, were finished at the time of the blow.
In March 1973, the Christian democrats and the conservatives obtain 59  together; % of the voices to the legislative elections whereas the popular Unit of Allende obtains her best score, putting it safe from a dismissal if the opposition had obtained two thirds of the voices and the seats.
During the summer 1973, multiple strikes and insurrections threaten the stability of the country whereas Allende does not hesitate to declare: “If the revolution cannot pass in flexibility, it will pass in force. ” The August 23rd 1973, the president Salvador Allende, names Pinochet general-in-chief of the armies following the resignation of Prats.
See also: Military regime of Pinochet (1973-1990)
The opponents are stopped, tortured, off-set or carried out whereas the Christian democrats and the conservatives, relieved by the coup d'etat, hope to recover the capacity. But the military junta, directed by the Pinochet general, preserves it until in 1990, imposing a Dictature. The Cinéaste Chris Marker filmed the reception of the refugees (some having been struck) to the embassy of France right after the coup d'etat. A member of a left party is killed without summation with the door of the embassy. The film made in Super 8 is entitled the embassy (1973, 20 minutes). This junta is made up of the commander-in-chiefs of the three armies and the chief of the police force. She dissolves the national congress, the municipal councils, the trade unions and the political parties. Freedom of the press is abolished, the founded Couvre-feu. All that is literature of left is prohibited.
Admittedly less bloody than in its neighbors, the dictatorship of the Pinochet general responsible of died or the disappearance of 2279 people published in 1990 (by comparison, the last Argentinian dictatorship responsible for thirty thousand died in seven years) as well as imprisonment of more than: 100000 people. The report/ratio counted that, on a million exiled during this period, there was: 160000 exiled political.
In 1977, Pinochet entrusts the economy of the country to the theorists of the school of Chicago, the Chicago servant boys (followers of Milton Friedman). During five years, growth reached 8 % per annum whereas the rate of analphabetisation regresses and that the life expectancy passes from 63,6 years in 1975 to 74,4 years in 1990 (period called the Chilean Miracle).
In the geopolitical field in 1978, Chile and the Argentine clash in the Conflit of the Beagle to take possession of some southern small islands. This conflict failed to cause a war between the two countries, but the Pape Jean-Paul II contributed to the appeasing of the tensions.
At the beginning of the military government, the Leigh general poses the problem which it is necessary to establish a new Constitution replacing the Constitution of 1925 which according to (according to Leigh) brought the institutional crisis. The Commission Ortúzar is charged to set up a new constitution, chaired by the lawyer Enrique Ortúzar and Jaime Guzmán. In 1978, Pinochet orders that this constitution project is given to the Council of State of Chile, which will write the constitution. To make approve by the people the constitution, Pinochet organizes a plebiscite which takes place the September 11th 1980. It did not have any opposition in this pseudo-democracy. Eduardo Frei Montalva recommends to vote Non, with this plebiscite because its confidence towards Pinochet was quickly degraded by seeing that it remained in place with the capacity. There no were electoral registers nor even of electoral courts. The plebiscite gives 67 % for Yes, a result higher than in reality according to some dires. However there were many irregularities which were not heard, as for example the blank votes were taken into account like Oui. The soldiers remain with the capacity for eight years more in accordance with the Constitution.
The constitution of 1980 set up various rules and institutions which will be in place at the time of the return to the democracy. First of all, it there with the reduction in the capacity of the Congress and establishment of a Constitutional Court which will control all new private bill. There is also the National foundation of the Safety advice, chaired by the president of the Republic.
In this constitution, one can note a share relatively keynésienne because it is considered that the State must act in the economy, the social one and the culture.
As regards the purely political field, there is the replacement of the system of proportional by the system binominal at the time of the elections and the establishment of a second turn in the presidential elections when nobody reached the absolute majority. The duration of the presidential mandate is eight years (it will change thereafter at six then four years). Pinochet keeps the capacity for eight years more. After this period a candidate (who would be Pinochet) calls with new a eight years mandate, if the people refuse it still controls a year then one sets up democratic elections the following year.
The economic crisis which occurs in 1982 (the Inflation was of 9,9 % in 1982) generates a series of protests of the population against the neoliberalism and the political regime. In 1985, the economy of the country returns to the green This period is called like the Second Miracle. It is named thus because of the Privatization S of the majority of the state enterprises and the fall of the public expenditure. This results in to see an increase in the poverty and the digging of the difference between richest and poorest.
In 1988, it asks for the prolongation of its mandate by Référendum but obtains only 44,01 % of approval against 55,99 % which require its departure and the end of the dictatorship. It organizes a transition then carefully guaranteeing a constitutional immunity to him.
Return to the democracy
See also: Political of Chile
After the defeat of Augusto Pinochet at the time of the plebiscite 1988, the constitution was amended to cause elections, to elect new senators, to decrease the role of the Safety advice Main road and to put as many civil members than soldiers (either four members each one). Many Chilean politicians regard this Safety advice as remainders of the authoritarian regime. All is made to reform the constitution.
In December 1989 takes place the first turn of the presidential elections which is the starting point of the democratic regime. The Christian democrat Patricio Aylwin, candidate of Concertación (gathering the Christian Democratic party, the socialist party, the Party for the Democracy, and the democratic social radical party), faces Hernán Büchi, candidate of the coalition Alianza por Chile (gathering the Independent democratic union and the national Restoration). In February 1991, the commission Truth and Reconciliation, established one year before by Aylwin, formless on the violations of the Human rights carried out during the military regime.
March 11th, 1990, following democratic elections, it yields its position of president of the republic to the Christian democrat Patricio Aylwin, elected with the head of a coalition - Concertación - including the heirs to the socialism of Allende. Pinochet remains still seven years chief of the armies.
Alywin must position back the democracy, to establish a new national policy, to maintain the good health economic of the country (without blaming the neoliberalism founded under Pinochet), to reduce in an important way poverty. Lastly, even more important for the Chilean ones, the army must recognize the violations of the Human rights made during the dictatorship.
March 11th, 1994, Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle becomes president of the Republic. He is elected thanks to the coalition of the Concertación . Its government which lasts six years, is characterized by the economic good health of Chile thanks to the opening of the Chilean market abroad (years 1990-1997 knew an annual growth of GDP about 7 %). However at the end of its mandate, a new economic crisis effecte country. In 1999, the GDP of Chile regresses even of 0,3 % because of the consequences of the Asian crisis.
In October 1998, reprocessed and senator with life, Pinochet is stopped with London following the deposit of a warrant for arrest of the Spanish judge Baltasar Garzón, and put under house arrest. This problem with for consequence to revive the tensions between the differences political parties of the country.
After rather difficult elections, Ricardo Lagos becomes president in March 2000 (while being the third president of the Concertación and the first socialist president since Salvador Allende) in a relatively bad economic climate. Lagos becomes popular because it gives the economy to the green, sets up many reforms like the school free and obligatory up to 18 years, legalizes the divorce and the abortion in 2004. Moreover Lagos signs many treaties of free trade with the EU, the the United States inter alia.
Of return to Chile almost two years later (in March 2000), the Pinochet general is accommodated by a hundred thousands of his partisans whereas legal procedures are committed against him.
In 2004, the Court of Appeal of Santiago raises the constitutional immunity of Augusto Pinochet for her responsibilities in the Opération Condor, a plan of the South American dictatorships of the Années 1970 to eliminate their opponents. In June 2005, it is finally released by the Court of Appeal. The filed appeals by the victims' families are considered to be “inadmissible”. This release is definitively confirmed on September 15th, 2005 by the Supreme court.
The January 15th 2006, Michelle Bachelet is elected with the second turn with 53,5 % of the votes. She takes the post of president of the Republic on March 11th, 2006. She becomes thus the first woman in the history of Chile to becoming president. Its government is characterized by a parity man/woman.
It is in a business of tax evasion that the immunity of Pinochet is still raised by this same Court of Appeal of Santiago (this decision is on standby of validation by the Supreme court) as within the framework of the investigation into the Opération Colombo for which it would have covered the execution of 119 members of the Movement of the revolutionary left (MIR) Chilean in 1975. These liftings of immunity do not mean the inculpation of the general Pinochet bus of the medical examinations must still take place before its possible interrogation, with an aim of determining if its physical condition enables him to face a lawsuit. If necessary, it will remain to record its declaration and to examine the existence of evidence connecting it to the crimes or the offenses in order to consider its possible inculpation. December 10th 2006 with 14:15 (local time), the general Pinochet dies of the continuations of one heart attack to the military hospital of Santiago of Chile, escaping thus definitively any lawsuit.
Constitution of 1980
Like specifies it the political Constitution of 1980, Chile is a unit State, with a territory divided into 13 areas. The nation has the sovereignty of the capacity, which is exerted through the election of the representatives by Vote for all or referendum. The political system of Chile is the republican Démocratie. The 3 capacities are separate according to the Constitution of 1980, with for example the constitutional Tribunal, the Central bank, the Safety advice main road… The president of the republic has important capacities, like appointing senators, naming the ministers or to state the state of war. Under the terms of the political Constitution of 1980, the Chilean State is divided between the three traditional capacities:
- the executive power is held by the President of the Republic, elected official democratically every four years by the universal direct suffrage, and which cannot exceed two successive mandates. Once elected, the president designates a cabinet of ministers, of which the Minister of Interior Department;
- the legislative power is represented by the National congress, whose seat is in Valparaíso since the return of the democracy in 1990. It is about a bicameral congress, composed of a senate and a room of deputies. Today, it counts forty-eight senators elected for eight years (of which nine are indicated by various institutions - is not more in force according to the modifications of the constitution in 2005 - and is senator with life after having been president of the country); and a hundred and twenty deputies elected for four years. The members of Parliament, except those of the bracket, all are democratically elected with the majority poll plurinominal with a turn;
- the judicial power knows civil cases and criminal. It is composed of a Supreme court, courses of call and county courts.
Life and political partiesSince 1990, the country knows a democratic life after a seventeen years interruption of military dictatorship. Currently, the president is Michelle Bachelet, Socialist, chief of a coalition of parties of center and left called Concertación, which gathers the Christian Democrat (DC), the Socialist party (PS), the democratic social Radical party (PRSD) and the Party for the democracy (PD).
There exists an right-wing opposition consisted two parties: Renovación Nacional (RN), more liberal; and Unión Demócrata Independiente (UDI), more preserving. These two parties form Alliance for Chile. There is also an left opposition which associates the Communist party (PC) and of the humanistic parties and ecologists, who do not have a representation with the Congress.
The principal political blocks were constituted in the middle of the Années 1980, to defend or fight against the military regime of Augusto Pinochet, and became official by the Référendum of 1988 which put an end to the dictatorship. The following year, each block preserved its unit in order to approach the presidential election and each coalition introduced a candidate. Since then, in spite of the problems which emerge from time to time inside the blocks, the political panorama did not change much.
The president Bachelet is the fourth consecutive government of the Concertación , after the victory of the coalition at the time of the elections of 1989.
December 11th, 2005, the Socialist and candidate of the Concertación Michelle Bachelet arrived at the head of the first tower of presidential with close to 45,87 % of the voices in front of the candidate of the party of the national Restoration, Sebastián Piñera (25,48 %), that of the Independent democratic union and former mayor of Santiago, Joaquín Lavín (23,25 %) of the voices and that of the extreme-left, Tomas Hirsch (5,37 %).
Bachelet faced the January 15th Sebastian Piñera whereas the left-right-hand side ratio remains as tight as in 1999 (51 % for the totality of the left against 49 % for the totality of the right-hand side).
The voters also elected a hundred and twenty deputies and twenty senators on thirty-eight seats, removing with the passage the posts of senators with life created by the Pinochet general. The Dialog gained more 51 % of the seats of deputies and 57 % of the seats of senators, securing the majority in the two rooms.
It should be added that the major reforms with the Constitution of 1980 were recently promulgated (in September 2005), which is regarded by certain as the end of the transition towards the democracy. These reforms improve the Constitution by removing known as “the authoritative lockings”, left by Pinochet. Some reforms are installation:
- the reduction of the presidential mandate from six to four years;
- the president is entitled to call with the retirement the commander-in-chiefs of the armed forces;
- the elimination of the appointed senators with life, which causes a reduction of the Senate with thirty-eight members since March 2006. The system of election binominal used for the legislative ones and which, now, supports the two large political blocks, was not modified.
Another modification also relates to the possibility with the children the Chilean ones (of those who were born in Chile and thus Chiliens by the passport) of obtaining nationality (to have either a document travel but a true Chilean passport), but not the citizenship (thus the possibility of voting in the event of elections). It also should be held account owing to the fact that, to date, several tens of thousands of children the Chilean ones were hitherto regarded only as nonnationals (recognized in certain countries like stateless people). In the projects still in progress, the right to vote for the Chilean ones residing abroad in fact part.
See also: Defense of Chile
The defense of the country is divided into three armed wings which constitute the Fuerzas Armadas: the Ejército (the Army, founded in 1810 which has: 47700 soldiers in 2005), the Armada (marine, founded in 1818: 19398 soldiers in 2005), and the Fuerza Aérea de Chile (the air force, founded in 1930: 11000 soldiers in 2005). The latter has various military airports with Iquique, Antofagasta, Santiago, Puerto Montt, and Punta Arenas. It has also an airport base on the island island of King-George, in the Antarctic and on the Easter Island. It has: 10 planes F-16 in 2006, to which are added: 28 F-16 of second hand coming from the Royal Air force Dutchwoman.
The function of the institutions quoted above consists in protecting the country and the interests from the country abroad. To these regular military units are added the Fuerzas de Orden there Seguridad Pública composed by the bodies of the Carabineros (militarized Police force equivalent with the French gendarmes) (founded in 1927) and the Policía de Investigaciones (civil Police force) (created in 1933), which constitute the civil force and are charged to make respect the Loi, to guarantee the order and public safety inside the country. Moreover, there exists a body of Gendarmería (created in 1929), charged with keeping the Prison S and other centers penitentiaries.
The Fuerzas Armadas Carabineros depend there administratively on the Ministry for the National defense of Chile and the Fuerzas de Orden there Seguridad of the Ministry in charge of public safety, currently the Ministry for the Interior of Chile, whereas the body of Gendarmerie depends administratively on the Ministry for the Justice of Chile. The President of the Republic exerts the function of Supreme leader of the Fuerzas Armada only in the event of war.
Even if the country did not know an important military confrontation since the Guerre of the Pacific (1879-1884), Chile is one of the countries of the world using much sound GDP (3,8 %) to equip the army. It is estimated that more 3240 million American dollars is used per annum. These high costs are financed with height of 10 % of the benefit of the company Codelco (undertaken extraction and of export of the copper of the country). This important rate is explained by the fact why the military quota must be spread over the entire length of the country (more than 4200 kilometers), and to envisage the retirement of the former soldiers. It as should be noted as the Carabineros are a body pertaining to the army of the country. The latter use 54 % of the incomes of the army. For several years, one has spoken about the suspension of the military service with the 18 year old men and more. Since 2006, this question is mainly regulated because the inscription with the military service is automatic. If manpower are not reached, of the people will be indicated with the drawing lot.
During the mode of Pinochet, the Fuerzas Armadas had a big role in the civil life. In the last years, the commander-in-chief of Ejercito (the Army), Juan Emilio Cheyre, sets up the professionalisation of the army, the political presidency of the army, his quality of neutral body (not déligérant), and the acceptance of the democratically built civil capacity. One of the big steps were the recognition of the institutional responsibilities for the army in the violation of the Human right during the dictatorship. This gesture is well accommodated in the government and the population. March 9th, 2006, is placed as Commander-in-chief of the army, the General Óscar Izurieta Ferrer.
See also: Geography of Chile
Relief and geologyLocated on the peaceful coast of the South America, Chile stretches itself on its 4300 kilometers of the Peru to the Cape Horn, with an average width of 180 kilometers (of 440 kilometers to the maximum with the latitude 52°21 S and 90 kilometers at least with the latitude 31°37 S in North of Santiago). Natural borders isolate Chile from its neighbors: it is separated from the Argentine by the Andes cordillera, the Bolivia and the Peru by the deserted of Atacama. The total surface area of the country is of: 756900 km, by including/understanding the archipelago of Juan Fernández and the Easter Island. Chile asserts in addition: 1250000 km of the the Antarctic. The country is located in a strongly seismic and volcanic zone: this activity rises from thorough from the Tectonic plate from Nazca under the South American plate supporting the continent. The country belongs to the Ceinture of fire of the Pacific.
At the end of the Paleozoic (primary era), 230 million years ago, Chile was only one marine depression in which the sediments had accumulated. During the Mesozoic (secondary era), under the push of the plate of Nazca, the layer of sediments was folded, giving rise to the Andes cordillera. The current relief is the result of million years of active volcanicity.
The country is made up mainly of an intermediate depression framed by two assembly lines:
- the Andes cordillera in the East, which marks the natural border with the Bolivia and the Argentine and which culminates with the Ojos del Salado (6893 meters), the active volcano highest in the world;
- the cordillera of the Coast in the West is a solid mass much less low which culminates with approximately 2000 meters.
Between the cordillera of the Coast and the Pacifique a series of littoral plains is, of variable extent, which allows the installation of the populations and the large ports. Certain parts of the country have plates, like the Altiplano where the Puna de Atacama and the pampas of Patagonie.
The “far North” is the zone ranging between the Northern limit of the country and the latitude 26° S which includes/understands the first two administrative areas of the country. It is characterized by its intense aridity: the deserted of Atacama is the most arid desert of the world (to certain places, no precipitation has fallen for eighty years). This desert includes/understands less arid zones like the pampa del Tamarugal. In this area, the cordillera of the East coast massive and abrupt and often arrives until in seaside (the littoral plains are quasi absent). The Andes cordillera is subdivided in two chains: one goes towards the Bolivia and is very high and volcanic, which allowed the formation of Andean Altiplano and has many called salted lakes salar like the Salar d' Atacama due to the accumulation of the sediments lasting of the million years. In the South “Small North is”, who extends from the latitude 26° S until the Aconcagua (32° S). The Andes start to be less low towards the south and to approach the coast, newcomer to 95 kilometers with the height of It, the narrowest zone of the country. The two chains are practically touched, eliminating the intermediate depression. The presence of rivers creates valleys perpendicular to the chains in which agriculture is well developed; the littoral plains start to widen.
The central Valley is the most populated zone of Chile. The littoral plains are extended and allow the establishment of cities and ports. The altitude of the cordillera of the Coast decreases gradually. The Andes cordillera as for it exceeds the 6000 meters of altitude then slowly starts to go down around the 4000 meters as of the Région from Libertador General Bernardo O' Higgins. The intermediate depression becomes a fertile valley which allows the agricultural development. Towards the south, the cordillera of the Coast reappears under the name of the cordillera of Nahuelbuta, whereas the sediments left by the glaciers are at the origin at the zone of the border characterized by a series of lakes. The Patagonie extends from the latitude 41° S until the Southern end of Chile. During the last glaciation, this place was covered by the glaciers which strongly eroded the reliefs. The intermediate depression disappears under the sea and the cordillera of the Coast gives rise to a series of archipelagoes like Chiloé and the Chonos then disappears on the level from the Péninsule from Taitao, towards the parallel 47e. the Andes cordillera decreases height. In the East of the cordillera plains appear, as in the zone of the Magellan Strait to broad of the Ground of fire.
Then the Andes cordillera plunges in the ocean, gives rise to a series of islands on the level of the Cape Horn, disappears on the level from the Passage from Drake then is prolonged by the arc of the Antilles of the South, the peninsula the Antarctic as well as Antartandes, located in the Chilean territory of the Antarctic, which extends between the meridian lines 53° W and 90° W which constitutes a surface of: 1250000 square kilometers.
In the Pacific Ocean, Chile has a sovereignty on the archipelago Juan Fernandez located at approximately 700 kilometers of Valparaiso and the Easter Island located at more than 4500 kilometers of the Chilean coasts. These islands have a volcanic origin because they are located in the zone of friction between the Plaque of Nazca and the peaceful plate, itself at the origin of the dorsal of the Eastern Pacific.
The very particular Géographie of the country is reflected on its Climat. Thus, north is hot, arid and desert. The central zone as for it profits from a Mediterranean climate, and has fertile valleys. The Courant of Humboldt moderates the temperatures all along the country, which supports human development. When the temperatures of the Pacific increase because of El Niño, precipitations increase abruptly thus causing serious floods in the country.
The South, knows a climate of the oceanic type cold and wet. The Easter Island profits from a maritime climate with characteristics subtropical. In Chile, the seasons are reversed compared to the Europe. In the central area, the summer begins at the end of December and is completed at the end of March. The winter, not very rigorous, lasts of June to August.
Seismic risksChile belongs to the Ceinture of fire of the Pacific, a chain of volcanos which surrounds this ocean. Only in Chile, there is more than two thousand volcanos, of which forty seven are always active. Moreover, the territory is located on the joint of two tectonic plates, the tectonic plates Nazca and South American, causing a strong seismic risk.
The Chilean territory is crossed by various river which generally is born on the Andes cordillera and their outlets move towards the Pacific Ocean (either of is in west). However, because of geography of the country, the rivers are of development rather weak (generally less than 300 kilometers).
The presence of the deserted of Atacama, in the Far North of the country, explains why it does not exist there practically any river except notable for the river leasing, which with length a 443 kilometers and its many Méandre S is the longest river of the country. In the sector of the Altiplano is Bofedal which give rise to the Lac Chungará, located at an altitude of 4500 meters, and the rivers Lauca and Lluta, divided between the Bolivia and Chile which do not exceed the 100 kilometers length.
In the northern center of the country, many rivers form valleys where important an intensive agriculture is practiced. Rivers like the river Elqui with 170 kilometers length, the river Aconcagua with 142 kilometers, the river Maipo with 250 kilometers and its affluent, the river Mapocho with 120 kilometers, and the Maule, with 240 kilometers are present in this zone. They are fed by the snow melt of the Cordillera in summer and the Pluie S in winter. The zone does not present lakes of importance, except for the artificial lake Raquel, and of the artificial Lac of Colbún, of the lagoon of Maule and the lagoon of Laja.
Towards the South, the number of rivers increases. The River Biobío, length 380 kilometers, located in the Area of Biobío share of the Cordillera in the area of Araucanie, crosses tens of villages and has many affluents. In this zone, the country installed hydroelectric stations. Other rivers of importances like the Imperial river and the Toltén river, whose source is the lake Villarrica, cross the area. The lake Villarrica is the first of the various lakes of the Andes cordillera which exists between the area of Araucanie and the Région of los Lagos. Certain lakes of importance belong to the system of the Siete Lagos like the Lac Ranco, the Lac Puyehue, the Lac Rupango and the lake the, which is the second lake of the country in term of extent. In the zone of the Patagonie, the rivers are smaller, like the river Futaleufú, the Palena river and the Baker river, whereas the lakes, except for the Lac of the President Ríos located on the peninsula of Taitao and the Lagune of San Rafael, are at the border with the Argentine, being divided between these two countries. The lake General Will square which, with its 970 km ² in the Chilean territory, is largest of the country. Other lakes like the Lake Cochrane, the lake O' Higgins and the lago Fagnano are located in Ground of Fire.
Fauna and flora
The climate and the relief of the country strongly influence the characteristics of the ecosystem. The northern zone of the country is characterized by a rare vegetation because of the extreme aridity of the deserted of Atacama. Trees like the tamarugo, the pimiento, the algarrobo and the chañar and various species of cactus are the only plant species which can adapt to these climatic conditions. In the zone of the Altiplano, the vegetation is more present, with species like the yareta and the queñoa. The family of the spangled, i.e., the Guanaco S, Vigogne, LAMA S and the Alpaga S, are the principal animals of this place, beside smaller species like the viscachas and the Chinchilla. On certain lagoons of Altiplano flamingo S. In the zone of the Small North live, when occur of precipitations about September, occurs the phenomenon called the Désert flowered, the arid grounds are then covered with various species of Fleur S, like the añañuca. Throughout the Andes cordillera, the most known animal specie is the condor of the Andes, represented on the national ecu.
Between the south of the area of Atacama and the Area of Coquimbo, one assists a slow process of diversification of fauna and flora, being characterized by the rise of precipitations, on the coastal areas of Talinay and of the National park Bosque Fray Jorge exist of the forests of the patagonic type. In small North, species of Mediterranean Climat appear like the pine, the Acacia and the quillay.
In the zone center-north of the country appear timbered formations very degraded by the fires, the demolition intended for the manufacture of coal and the Défrichement for the Agriculture. Among the species characteristic of the vegetation of the central valley, one can quote inter alia the thorn-bushes, the boldo, the Liter, the quillay, the arrayán, the maitén, the Vanneau téro (venellus chilensis), the Chêne and the treillised vineyard. The Puma, the Thrush, the Fox, the treillised vineyard, the Bandurria and the parrot are live animals in the central area.
In the south of the Biobío river, the vegetation diversifies and becomes a forest of the valdivienne type. Certain plant species like the arrayàn, the Copihue, national flower, various helechos and trees like laurel, treillised vineyard, loro tricahue (species of parrot), the lenga, avellano, various species of mañíos, alerce, characterize this type of forest. The Puma is the principal carnivorous animal of the zone and lives on almost all the country, except in certain territories where it was éradiqué by the man. Other characteristic animal species are the Cygne S, the Chat of the pampas, the Pudu and the Singe of the mount. One of the environmental main issues of the zone is the wood natives substitution by plantations of pines and eucalyptus.
In the two most southern areas of the country, there exist many forests sprinkled always well, trees like the Cyprès, characterize the flora of the area. Towards the interior of the country, develop wood, where prevail the lenga and, towards the Argentinian border, is Steppe S, where the Guanaco S live, nandous, foxes, pumas, etc On this zone, develops the breeding sheep and bovines in various the hacienda S. the Huemul, present on the ecu of Chile formerly lived in the country, nowadays, it lives on certain difficult zones of access.
The Chilean territory of the Antarctic, is in major part cold in a permanent way and only of foams and lichens can push there. However, fauna coming from the east coast of an exceptional richness. The coast of the country counts many species of birds like the Mouette, the Pélican, the Cormoran and the albatross. One also meets several species of penguins like the penguin of Humboldt and the penguin of Magallanes. At sea, one meets a large variety of Cetacea: Dolphin towards Coquimbo and Whale S in the area of Magallanes. The bar is characteristic of all the Chilean coast and one also finds species typical: the Fitzroya, the hake, the anchovy, the Congridae particularly common species of the Chilean coasts. The shells and molluscs, like the Clam, the Lobster, the mould and the Oyster S, are abundant. The Salmon and the Trout, introduced into the country, are nowadays the principal fish species present in the Chilean rivers.
In the insular territories, fauna and flora are single in the world. Whereas in the Easter Island the characteristic tree the toromiro practically disappeared, the archipelago of Juan Fernández counts more than 200 single plant species like the palm tree chonta and certain animal species like the picaflor of Juan Fernández and the marine wolf.
Areas and provinces of ChileSince 1976, Chile is divided administratively into thirteen areas, which are subdivided in Province S which themselves is divided into communes. In 2007 Chile, has creates 2 areas new areas administrative and has 15 then of them.
With the head of each area an intendant is while the provinces are directed by a provincial governor. Each province is divided into comunas (common) managed by a Maire. The Intendant S and provincial Gouverneur S are named by the president, the mayors are elected by the citizens.
The areas are indicated by a Roman numeral and a name. The numbers are allotted north to the south. The Chilean ones use the number generally more the complete name. The area of Santiago makes exception and does not have a number corresponding, it is indicated by the initial RM ( Región Metropolitana ).
- I: Area of Tarapacá (Iquique).
- II: Area of Antofagasta (Antofagasta) .
- III: Area of Atacama (Copiapó).
- IV: Area of Coquimbo (Serena).
- V: Area of Valparaíso (Valparaíso) including/understanding the Easter Island and the archipelago Juan Fernández.
- RM: Metropolitan region of Santiago (Santiago of Chile).
- VI: Area of General Libertador Bernardo O' Higgins (Rancagua).
- VII: Area of Maule (Talca.)
- VIII: Area of Biobío (Concepción).
- IX: Area of Araucanie (Temuco).
- XIV: Area of the Rivers (Valdivia)
- X: Area of los Lagos (Puerto Montt)
- XI: Area of General Aisén LED Carlos Ibáñez del Campo (Coyhaique).
- XII: Area of Magallanes and the Chilean Antarctic (Punta Arenas).
In October 2005, the government of Chile studied the bill for the creation of two new areas: the XV Area of Arica and Parinacota, with Arica like capital, division of the current Area of Tarapacá. The XIV Area of the Rivers, with Valdivia like capital, division of the current area of Los Lagos. The same bill proposes the creation of two new provinces: “ El Tamarugal ”, in (new) the Area of Arica and Parinacota and “Ranco”, in the news “Area of the Rivers”. Another project wants to eliminate numeration from the areas, which will govern since the January 1st 2008. December 19th 2006, the Chilean Congress accepted this law. The October 2nd 2007, the Area of los Ríos was created. The Area of Arica Parinacota was effective there the October 9th 2007.
Land bordersThe country has borders with:
See also: Economy of Chile
Chile is regarded today as the most stable country economically in Latin America. With a disastrous economic past having known many dictatorships, the country has nowadays become the “model” of the area, the only one which succeeded, for example, to reduce the poverty by half for the fifteen last years, (it is besides for that it is called the " jaguar" from South America). During twenty-four last years, the average annual growth of Chilean GDP was of 5,2 %, and even of 8,3 % between 1990 and 1997. The Chilean economic model is that of the neoliberalism, system set up by the general Pinochet (during the dictatorship) with the assistance of the Chicago Boys. With this new model, the country knew many reforms like the privatization of the government enterprises (Cuivre, Aviation, education…).
Nowadays, Chile has a market open to the whole world. Its economy is characterized by the export and the importation of raw materials. During the year 2005, the full number of exports exceeded them: 39536 million American dollars. Exports increased half this year. These main customers are by order of importance the European Union, the the United States, the South Korea, the P4 agreement and the China. Chile is member of the APEC (treated countries of the Pacific) and associated member of the Mercosur (treated free trade between the countries of the southern continent American).
The imports reached the figure of: 30300 million American dollars in 2005. Its GDP increased the same year of 6,3 % arriving at: 115300 million American dollars is: 11900 dollars per capita in 2004. Chile thus has the GDP per capita the higher second of the countries of Latin America just behind the Argentine. .
Agriculture and the breeding are the main activities of the areas of the center and south of the country. The export of fruit and vegetables reaches historical levels because the market open at the European markets and Asian since the years 1990. Chile knows also an exponential growth in the field of fishing. Thus, the country became the first exporter of Saumon by exceeding the levels of the Norway in 2006. It should be noticed that there are many salmon breedings established in the bed of the rivers in the south of Chile. Waste coming from this industry had a harmful effect on the ecosystem.
Chilean industry is especially local, with a notable exception of the production of the fish meal. The latter concentrates in the metropolitan region, Valparaiso and Concepción. For these twenty last years, the government has tried to instigate agribusiness industry. Thus about the year 2010, Chile will be one of countries challenger in this field. In addition, the country, became a kind of platform for the foreign companies in Latin America. Thus of many companies set up their head office at Santiago or in its areas. The country has an important presence of companies coming from the field of the service.
It continues to exist in Chile an social inequality in spite of its economic dynamism. The country continues to have more the low level of active women of Latin America (only 40 % of the women have a work). Moreover, one notes a great difference in wages between the man and the woman (about a third for same employment and the same qualification).
Initially, unemployment rates did not decrease at the speed which one hoped for before the return to the democracy (8,7 % in September 2005), which became one of the big challenges of the government. Then, in spite of projections in the matter, Chile always has a deplorable distribution of income and it is placed at the 16th rank of the bad distribution of the richness in the world. These two subjects belong to the discussions between the presidential candidates for the next elections of December 2005.
The economic good health of Chile once again is recognized in a study of the Cooperation organization and development economic (OECD) published on November 4th, 2005. It appears thus that the economic dynamism allowed a fast rise in the standard of living with a GDP per capita last of 2340 dollars in 1990 more than 5000 dollars (4230 euros) in 2004 same if the income per capita corrected of the purchasing power parity represents currently less 40 % of the average in zone OECD and less 30 % of that of the United States.
The budget policy is guided by the rule of the structural surplus which requires a surplus of 1 % of the GDP. Thus, public finances of Chile presented a positive balance of 2,2 % of the GDP in 2004, and about 3 % in 2005. However, in spite of these good performances, an important part of the Chilean population continues to live under the poverty line. On the subject of the economy néolibérale, Chile is famous for its economic power, which made pass the incidence of poverty of 50 % in 1987 with 18,8 % in 2003 (the country was the first Latin-American country to achieve and exceed the forecasts of 2000 on the reduction of poverty). However, semi-officially, even if the economic growth is good and evolves/moves atrather high rates, it is noted especially that are the easiest classes which benefit from the benefits of the economy néolibérale.
Raw materialsThe principal export of the country is the Cuivre with 36 % of the worldwide market. Chile is the world leader in this field. But, it exports also Argent and Or in less quantity. These raw materials are extracted in the desert from Atacama in north from the country. The Extraction of copper continues to represent a big part in exports. Indeed, 30 % of the exported products are copper (against 60 % in 1970). The company Codelco Chile has one of the largest mines in the world (for copper) like Chuquicamata and El Teniente. The extraction of copper is the main resource of the areas of Taracapá, Antofagasta, and Atacama (three areas of the desert of Atacama).
In the area of Magellan (surroundings of Punta Arenas), the exploitation of the oil reservoirs constitutes a big part for transport domesticates (30 % of oil in Chile is national). However, in its exports, one should not forget stone exports Lapis-lazuli (2nd exporter) used for the manufacture of artisanal jewels as well as the export of Guano (first) used him like Engrais.
See also: Oil industry
Since the Years 1990, the Tourisme in Chile became one of the economic main resources, especially in the extreme zones of the country (deserted of Atacama to north, Patagonie, Ground of Fire in the south). During the year 2005, it increased 13,6 %, generating thus more: 1360 million American dollars (either 1,33 % of the national GDP). According to the SERNATUR, two million people go to Chile per annum. This figure is still good if one compares it with those of Brazil or the Mexico. The majority of these visitors come from the continent, mainly of the Argentine. However, these last years, the number of visitors coming from Spain, of France, of Germany east in constant increase (these countries offer even sometimes direct flights towards Chile without stopover as Air France which can only make Paris CDG-Santiago Pudahuel of 14 hours 30) . Europeans represent: 400000 visitors in 2005.
The principal tourist places correspond to the places of natural beauty of the extreme zones. San Pedro de Atacama, in the north of the country is very visited by the foreigners to contemplate the architecture of INCA origin, the lagoons of Altiplano, the Valle of Luna voted by plebiscite for its strangeness and the geysers of Tatio. Close to Putre, in extreme north, to admire the Lake Chungará and the Parinacota volcano located in the National park Lauca at more than 4500 meters of altitudes is appreciated. In the southern zone, the principal tourist places are the archipelago of Chiloé, the Patagonie, the lagoon of San Rafael and its glaciers as well as the national park of Torres del Paine. To finish, mysterious the Easter Island located in the middle of the Pacific Ocean is probably the tourist place more appreciated by the Westerners, because it is very exotic compared to the continent. In the national field, tourism concentrates during the summer period, mainly in the seaside resorts like Arica, Iquique, Antofagasta, Serena and Coquimbo for the northern zone. The area of Valparaiso receives the greatest number of tourists like Viña del Mar thanks to its proximity with Santiago. The latter is known to be the “tourist capital of Chile” thanks to the beauty of its beaches and its proximity of the capital. Each year, in February proceeds the festival of the song of Viña del Mar, musical event important in Latin America.
Chile is depending vigorously speaking. Indeed, it does not have great energy reserves. For example, on: 228000 barrels of petrol consumed per day, only: 4000 comes from the layers of the country. The oil price thus depends on the international business and the economic situation. In the same way, it quasi totality of natural gas is imported of Argentine.
The consumption of electricity exceeded them: 51573 GWh during the year 2005 of which 54 % is produced by hydroelectric stations. In the country, there exist four electric systems: the inter-connected system of Norte Large, the central inter-connected system and systems of Aisén Magallanes. The hydroelectric potential is used still little. The country uses 20 % of the capacities used (will of protection of the fauna and the flora of the area of Aisén). There does not exist for the moment of nuclear plant, however, in 2006 the debate opens on the technical feasibility of the use of this type of energy. The wind installation of S and the geothermic energy utilization are also considered by the country.
Transport and telecommunications
The geography characteristic of the country makes that the grid systems and telecommunications are of considerable importance.
The country adds up 364 landing strips like the airports of Chacalluta d' Arica, Diego Aracena d' Iquique, Cerro Moreno d' Antofagasta, Carriel On Concepción, El Tepual of Puerto Montt, President Ibañez de Punta Arenas, Mataveri in the Easter Island, and the international airport Comodoro Arturo Merino Benitez of Santiago (one of more modern of the continent where seat the national company LAN Airlines). Chile has: 6585 kilometers of railways. These last formerly were important for the development of the country, but, nowadays, the railroads are used especially for the transport of freight towards the ports since the crisis of the Années 1970. Currently, the government wishes redévelopper the train by restoring the service with the passengers of EFE between Santiago and Puerto Montt. On the contrary, the subway develops considerably in Valparaiso with Merval, in Concepción with Biotrén and Santiago will have more than 100 kilometers of line of subway from here 2009 (it has in December 2006 87 kilometers of line). For the roads, the country enjoys a network of more than: 79000 kilometers of roads of which: 10000 are tarred. Since the Years 1990, more: 2500 kilometers of highways were built (Pan-American Highway between Arica and the island of Chiloé). The will carretera southern connects the area of Aisén to the remainder of the country and is almost complete. The customs stations most important are those of Chacalluta and Tambo Quemado which are used as borders with the Peru and the Bolivia. There exist forty customs stations with the Argentine, most important are those of Cristo Redentor between Los the Andes and Mendoza.
There exist more: 3500000 million fixed telephone and more: 12000000 million people having a cellphone (either 76 % of the Chilean population) in January 2006. Chile, is thus the country of Latin America which has the most telephones mobile expressed as a percentage of population (it was introduced with the country in 1997) 1997.
Economic relations with the the United States
Since the return to the democratic regime the commercial relations with the United States seem to be excellent. Indeed, the treated free trade the United States Chile was signed on June 6th, 2003, was ratified by the Chambre of the representatives on July 24th, 2003 following a vote of 270 for, and 156 and was against ratified by the Sénat on July 31st, 2003 following an other vote giving 65 for and 32 against. The president George W. Bush signed it to it United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act on September 3rd, 2003. This treaty is set up by the two countries since January 1st, 2004.
Relations with the European Union and the France
Chile made an agreement of association with the Union in November 2002, which made it possible to increase the flow of exchanges; it remains however still modest, because of two falls of activity in 2002 (world economic deceleration) and in 2003 (loss of competitiveness-price of the French products, partly because of one euro too strong).
The European suppliers are initially Germany then France (10th world supplier of Chile, for a rather weak market share of 2,5 % in 2005); its european consumers are initially the Netherlands, then Italy and France (9th customer).
Some economic statistics
Annual growth rate in 2004: +6,1 %, in 2005: +6,3 %
- Annual inflation rate in 2004: +2,4 %, in 2005: +3,7 %
- Unemployment rate in 2005: 8 %
- Indicating of human development (2005): 0,854 (37e row in the world)
- Population under the poverty line: 16 % (and less 2 % which lives with less than one dollar per day).
See also: Population of Chile
Chile has a population estimated at: 16134219 inhabitants in 2006. According to the last complete Census carried out in 2002, the figures are of: 15116435 inhabitants, of which: 7447695 are Homme S and: 7668740, of the Woman S.
The demographic growth rate of the Chilean population clearly decreased these last years. Towards the end of the 19th century, one counted: 2695625 inhabitants, then: 5023539 in 1940 and: 13348341 in 1992. Even if the population of Chile has quintuplet during the 20th century, the growth rate of the period 1992 - 2002 at summer of only 1,24 % per annum . Thus, its annual growth rate should continue to lower these next years.
Because of improvement of the living conditions, the Life expectancy of Chilean with the birth (which is highest of the Latin America) is 76,77 years on average, whereas the rate of Infant mortality is gone down to 7,8 ‰. The Birth rate in 2003 arrived at its historical minimum while going at 15,23 ‰ and that of the Death rate at 5,1 ‰, with a growth rate natural of 10 ‰. These figures make it possible to note an ageing of the population. In 20 years population the 40 year old and more will exceed that of less than 40 years. Thus, the population pyramid will be about the year 2025, with a campaniform profile which represents the demographic Transition that the country saw.
EthnographyThe Chilean population is strongly Métis sée, because of the mixture between the Spanish colonizers and the Amerindian people. However, it is important to note that the features of the population of the country are closer to Europeans than buildings because of their weak demographic representation (less 5 % of the country, see table). Certain European colonists arrived at Chile (mainly in extreme the north and south of the country) during 19th and 20th centuries, including the Britanniques, the Irish, the Italy NS, Yougoslaves and the French.
The latter have many famous descendants in the country like the Pinochet, commercial family of Saint-Malo having emigrated with Concepción in 1718 and the Bachelet. In addition, the French culture strongly influenced the Chilean culture, in particular by seeing the buildings of style haussmannien in the center of Santiago and the bread named Marraqueta which was invented by the Marraquet brothers, of the French who at the beginning of the E century invented this bread based on the rod.
In 1848 begins the German colonization established by the Chilean government with an aim of populating the southern territory of the country. With at the beginning: 7000 people, this German immigration influenced the culture of most of the south of the country, mainly in the provinces of Valdivia, of the and Osorno. Nowadays there would be: 150000 Chilean German descendants. The other immigrants come especially from the adjoining countries like the Argentine, the Bolivia and the Peru. At the time of the last decade, it reaches: 184464 people in 2002. There exists also a Korean and Palestinian immigration which is most important in the nonArab world.
The ethnic composition of Chile is relatively homogeneous, even if the degree of interbreeding is accentuated more in the poorest populations.
About the emigration, the latter decreased, but it is estimated that: 857781 Chilean and their descendants live abroad of which 50,1 % would be in Argentine, 13,3 % with the the United States, 8,8 % with the Brazil, 4,9 % in Sweden, and a little more 2 % in Australia. In the country, the migration is massive on behalf of the peasants towards the big cities of the country. The areas of the center-south of the country see more 80 % of the inhabitants born out of the area: 86,11 % for the Area of Biobío, 71 % for the Metropolis of Santiago and 55 % for the Area of Magallanes and the Chilean Antarctic.
This table shows the evolution of the rate of immigration in Chile compared to the total population. One can notice that the percentage of immigrants forever exceeded the 5 % of the total population. European immigration was majority until in the years 1970. There is a notable exception at the time of the census of 1885. The Latin-American immigrants are more numerous than those coming from Europe. That can be explained by the fact why Chile acquired a good part of the deserted of Atacama (having belonged to the Bolivia and the Peru) after the war of the Pacific.
It should be noted that there exists a big part of Chilean having a Croatian ascent. The latter especially live in the territories more australs of the country like Punta Arenas and Puerto Williams. These important cities of southernmost Chile are in the area of Magellan and the Chilean Antarctic. Moreover of the Chilean personalities having a Croatian ascent like Antonio Skármeta and Andrónico Luksic do not disavow their origins.
It is important to notice that since the census of 1982, more 60 % of the immigrants are the Latin-American ones coming especially from the Argentine and the Peru. This can show and prove that Chile is a stable country economically speaking compared to its neighbors. It is also notable to see a considerable share of the immigrants (about 10 %) coming from the the Middle East. The years of census ranging between 1907 and 1952 show a notable increase in the immigrants originating in the Middle East. These populations doubtless left the area because of the conflicts present (old territory of the Ottoman Empire and certainly of the fights between buildings and colonial to obtain Independence).
According to the last census: 13090113 the Chilean ones live in urban area, representative 86,59 % of the national population. Only 13,41 % of the population lives in rural area. They live mainly of the Agriculture and of the breeding, which concentrate in the zones centers southern country, in the areas Région of Maule (33,59 %), the Area of Araucanie (32,33 %) and the Area of los Lagos (31,56 %). The Tarapacá sees 94,06 % of its population food downtown, in the Tarapacá, 97,68 % in the Area of Antofagasta, 92,6 % in the Area of Magallanes and the Chilean Antarctic) and the Región Metropolitana like Valparaíso, with respectively 96,93 % and 91,56 %.
Since the years 1920, the rural migration is intensive, because of will to flee the misery of the campaigns and to find better living conditions downtown. Thus, as of this moment there, the Agglomeration S and Conurbation S see their populations increasing clearly. The Capital of the country, Santiago of Chile or Grand Santiago has: 5428590 inhabitants in 2002, and represents 35,9 % of the national population. In 1907, there was only: 383587 inhabitants: 549292 in 1920 which represented 16 % of the country. However, during the following decades, the demographic explosion makes absorb the old country localities, like Puente Alto and Maipú, which is the two most populated Chilean communes of Chile. Santiago is a modern city, being the sixth more populated city of Latin America and the forty fifth of the world. Valparaíso and Viña del Mar became large a Conurbation. It is also necessary to add the towns of Concón, Quilpué and Villa Alemana which form the Grand Valparaíso , and exceed them: 800000 inhabitants. Concepción, Talcahuano, Hualqui, Chiguayante and San Pedro of Paz forms the third agglomeration of the country with more: 600000 inhabitants according to the last census (2002). In a few years, the Grand Concepción will integrate the communes of Coronel, Lota and Tomé. The other communes ( comunas ) by importance of inhabitants are Antofagasta (with: 285255 inhabitants), Rancagua (with: 236363), Iquique (with: 214559), Arica (with: 203804), Talca (with: 202961), Chillán (with: 184832), Puerto Montt (with: 175938), Los Ángeles (with: 166556), Coquimbo (with: 163036), Serena (with: 160148), Osorno (with: 152559) and Valdivia (with: 141967 inhabitants). The majority of the cities of the country are either on the coast or in the central Vallée of the country between Santiago and Puerto Montt.
According to the last Census of 2002, Chile counts currently more than 15 million inhabitants. However, the central zone, located between the cities of Serena and Concepción, concentrates 78 % of the total population of the country, and Santiago and its periphery gather 40 % of Chilean, is six million inhabitants. The average density (20 hab/km) is thus not representative of the real occupation of the territory. According to the same census, between 1992 and 2002, the average annual growth rate of the population was of 1,24 %, one of low in Latin America. Over the same period, fertility rate is established with 2,2 children per woman.
In spite of a fall of the Birthrate, Chile remains a relatively young country: 34 % of Chilean have less than 20 years, and 15 % have more than 55. However, just like the developed countries, the population of Chile tend to age quickly: the youngest layer of the population decreased, while oldest is increasing, partly thanks to an life expectancy with the longer birth: 77 years (80 for the women and 74 for the men). On average, the Chilean family is made up of 3,6 people.
In 2002,4,6 % of the population states to belong to an ethnicity, of which the majority (87 %) with the ethnos group mapuche. Majority of Chilean, more 60 %, are métissés, which does of the local population one of most homogeneous in Latin America.
Finally, the immigrants, very mainly originating in the adjoining countries, constitute less 2 % of the national population. Most currently are the Argentinian ones and the Peruvians.
Principal metropolitan surfaces of Chile
80 % of the Chilean population lives on the central zone of the country. This space extends on more than 1000 kilometers and goes from Serena to Concepción. The climates of this zone go from the arid semi climate (with Serena) to the Mediterranean climate to oceanic influence (Concepción). Roughly speaking this place corresponds to the Mediterranean Climat of the southern hemisphere.
Social classesSince the foundation of the country, the population of Chile is divided into Social class various degrees. Since the medium of the E century, the country is made up mainly by the Middle-class. However, the standard of living of this middle-class does not correspond to the average workmen of the Latin America, inter alia by rather high GDP national and the easy access to the system of credit. In spite of good economic indicators and the noticeable decrease of poverty, while passing from 38,6 % of the population in 1990 with 18,8 % in 2003, the country has a serious defect: the inequality of distribution of the richnesses. This causes to create a large clear social breach between rich person and the poor.
According to information on the human development of UNO in 2005, Chile has a Coefficient of Gini of 0,57, locating it at the hundred thirteenth place on 128º of the Liste of the countries by equality of incomes. This inequality is not easily retrievable. This problem is allotted to the economy coming from the various companies preaching the neoliberalism (in opposition to the economy with socialist tendency developed between the Années 1950 and the 1970). Nowadays, 20 % of richest of the country gain 14,3 times than receive the 20 % of poorest.
ReligionOn the religious level, the last census of 2002 shows that 70 % of Chilean declare catholic is: 7853428 people of more than fourteen years (of which less than half is practicing). Compared to the preceding census in 1992, that constitutes a reduction in 10 % in 10 years. 30 % remaining are Protestant evangelic (15,14 %), 1,06 % are Témoins of Jéhovah, 0,92 % are Mormon and 0,13 % of Jewish confession. The atheistic S, agnostic or without religion represent 10 % of the total. According to the civil statue, 46 % of Chilean of more than 18 years are married, that is to say 5 % less than in 1992. On the other hand, the couples in Concubinage passed from 5 % in 1992 with 9 % in 2002. 34 % of Chilean are unmarried, 5 % divorced. The evolution of these figures is to be followed, taking into account the new law on the divorce in force since the end of 2004.
The Catholic church is separated from the State since 1925, year when President Arturo Alessandri Palma and the archbishop Crescente Errázuriz arrived at an agreement on this question leading in the constitution of 1925 to the beginning of the end of the statute of religion of State of Catholicism. This last existed since the Independence of the country in 1818. Since 1925, the freedom of worship is also recognized. However, even if Catholicism loses importance these last years, one allots to him a notable influence on the current society on subjects like the Divorce and the Avortement in 2004-2005. November 21st, 2006, close to 75 % of the deputies decided against a bill of de-penalization of the abortion, because of its nonconformity with the constitution which guarantees the right to the life.
The Chilean education system is composed of four levels. First of all, there is the educación parvularia which is not obligatory and which deals with the children between three months and six years. The French equivalent is the crib and the maternal . It structure on three levels. There is initially the Sala cuna (crib) for the three month old children to two years. Then the Nivel medio (small section) for the children comes from two to four years, then finally the Nivel Transición (great section) for the children from four to six years. On this last levels, the children start to learn calculation and the reading.
There is then obligatory education for the children from six to ten eight years which corresponds to the elementary school ( Educación General Básica ) and the secondary ( Educación Media ).
The Educación General Básica exists for the children like for the adults not having gone to school (increasingly rare). All the children who celebrate their sixth year before March the thirty and one must integrate the first level (the school year starting at the beginning of March and finishing at the beginning of December. Two weeks ago of holidays in July at the time of the southern winter).
This level is divided into two cycles. The first cycle goes from primero básico to cuarto básico (either six years to ten years). The second cycle goes from quinto básico to octavo básico (either ten years to fourteen years).
Concerning the adults, three years of studies are necessary. Each year corresponds to a level. The first level relates to the first cycle of the Educación básica . The second level corresponds to the quinto (fifth either French CM2) and sexto (sixth or the sixth Frenchwoman) básico . Lastly, the last level includes/understands the séptimo (seventh either the fifth Frenchwoman) and octavo (eighth or the fourth Frenchwoman) básico .
Then, it with the Educación media is the equivalent of the French college there. It comprises four levels and is divided into two types of dies; general and technical education ( EMHC ) and professional education ( EMTP equivalent of the French vocational school). In EMHC , education is general. It includes/understands Spanish, the history geography, mathematics, sciences, the EPS, a foreign language… It is composed of two levels. The first includes/understands the to precede and segundo medio . The second cycle includes/understands the to plow for the third time and cuarto medio .
In EMTP , the teenagers follow professional dies in the industrialist fields, agricultural, maritime or of services. At the end of these studies, the young people can directly go to work in the selected fields. Formerly, compulsory education related to only the basic cycle 8 years. But, since May 7th, 2003, a constitutional reform, carried out under the government of the president Ricardo Lagos, made education secondary free and obligatory for all the Chilean ones until the eighteen years age. The State thus guarantees compulsory education during twelve years. Chile is the first country of Latin America to have reached this obligation of duration for the schooling.
Higher education is characterized by three types of establishments, create by the reform of higher education in 1981:
- the Centros de Formación Técnica ( CFT ), one two years duration to the end of which the pupils obtain the title of technician of higher level;
- the Institutos Profesionales ( IP ), where one obtains the title of high-level technicien and the professional titles in the fields which do not require the laid off title of .
- the Université S which give access to all the professional fields and academic ranks of laid off, master and of doctorand.
- the Instituciones of educación superior of mow Fuerza Armadas there of Orden the latter, lately created, gives accesses to titles and ranks academic.
See also: Culture of Chile
Chile is the country of the poets , according to the popular tradition. That rises from the held place, in its history, by writers producing of lyric works. Chilean artists like Nicanor Parra (known for its anti poetry), Vicente Huidobro, Jorge Teillier, Enrique Lihn, Gonzalo Rojas, Gabriela Mistral (the nostalgic one), and Pablo Neruda (the volunteer) show the place held by poetry. Two Chilean was seen decreeing the Nobel Prize of literature: Gabriela Mistral in 1945 and Pablo Neruda in 1970.
In the field of prose, they are authors like Francisco Coloane, Manuel Rojas, Luis Sepúlveda, Alberto Blest Gana, Isabel Allende, Jorge Edwards, Jose Donoso, Roberto Bolaño who are remarkable. One should not forget Marcela Paz, known by its characteristic character Papelucho . But it is Pepo, draftsman of comic strips, who through Condorito , created the imaginary character most known of the country.
The folk music is inspired at the same time by the Amerindian melodies and those come from Spain. The Cueca, Chilean traditional dance, is an good example; each area has its own version of it. During the years 1970, the folk music knows a new passion thanks to the movement of the Nueva Canción Chilena of which the artists compose on topics inspired at the same time of the traditional airs of the country and their own research. Víctor Jara, Violeta Parra, Los Jaivas, Quilapayún are artists representative of this movement. The singer, and tireless enquiring in the field of the Chilean musical folklore, Margot Loyola is another important artist of the folk music and popular of contemporary Chile.
Since the years 1970, artists pop-rock'n'roll appeared, inspired by the American northern culture, like Los Prisioneros, Lucybell, Los Mox… Généralement the Chilean pop-rock'n'roll differs from that of the other Latin-American countries by the tone melancholic person of its songs and of the sad and pessimistic texts.
Identity and tradition
In spite of the ethnic homogeneity of the country, the cultural expressions notably vary from one area to another. North is characterized by the influence of the cultures of the Andean Amerindian people and the Conquistadors as well as catholic religion (of the festivals like the Fiesta of Tirana …). The central zone is characterized by its rural traditions. It is considered that these areas of the country, which gathers the major part of the population, is the source of the cultural identity of the Chilean ones. Festivals of importance as that of Independence which take place on September 18th show the strong patriotism of the Chilean ones.
The culture mapuche prevails in the Région of Araucanie. Temuco concentrates nearly the quarter of Mapuches of the country is approximately: 150000 people. In cities like Valdivia, Osorno, Puerto Varas and the, of the German influences are felt (colonists settled there towards second half of the 19th century to populate the area following the call of the government). The island of Chiloé (located at the south of Puerto Montt) has a rich culture which has its own mythology. The areas of the extreme south are influenced by Slavic cultures, in particular Croatian (40 % of the inhabitants of Punta Arenas kill Yugoslav colonists).
The Easter Island has a specific culture of Polynesian origin.
However, for the fifty last years, these cultures have disappeared gradually and the Occidental culture or American prevails downtown.
National symbols of ChileThe flower emblem main road is the Copihue ( Lapageria rosea ), which one finds in the forests of the south of the country. The weapons of the country represent the two national animals: the condor (a very large live bird in the mountains of the family of the Vulture S) and the Huemul (a deer with the white fleece, species in the process of disappearance). It carries in legend the currency of the country: Por the razón O the fuerza.
The Chilean flag is born during the process of Indépendance of Chile, it was shown for the first time at the public on February 12th, 1818, during the proclamation of Independence.
The Chilean flag was worked out by the minister Jose Ignacio Zenteno during the government of Bernardo O' Higgins and was drawn by the Spanish soldier Antonio Arcos.
The colors red, blue and white respectively represent the blood poured by the patriots during the war of Independence, blue generally clearly symbolizes the Chilean sky (nowadays in Santiago it is not so blue especially in winter) and the snow-covered tops of the visible Andes cordillera on all the country. The star with five points represents the capacities of the State which take care of the maintenance of the Fatherland and the blue bottom located at the background of star measures exactly a third of the size of the red part of the flag.
The national anthem as for him was written in 1819 per Manuel Robles on words of the poet Bernardo de Vera there Pintado, but it was modified thereafter because it is judged too much anti-Spanish in 1847. Its text is the following:
estribillo (refrain): Dulce Patria, recibe los votos Con that Chile in keep silent macaws juró That O the tumba será of los free O el asilo countered the opresión
Verse 1: ha cesado lustred it sangrienta; Ya be hermano el that ayer invasor; Of very siglos lavamos the afrenta Combatiendo in el campo of honor. El that ayer doblegábase fine esclavo Free Al there triunfante ve; Libertad be herencia LED cheer, Victoria humilla knew itself black and white.
Verse 2: Alza, Chile, sin mancha the frente; Conquistaste you number in the lid; Noble Siempre, constant there valiente Te encontraron los hijos del Cid. That keep silent free tranquilos coronen has tired artes, the industria there La Paz, Y of triunfos cantares entonen That amedrenten Al déspota audaz.
Verse 3: Vuestros numbers, valientes soldados, That habéis sido of Chile el sostén, Nuestros pechos los the grabados; Los sabrán nuestros hijos también. Sean ellos el grito of muerte That lancemos marchando has lidiar, Y sonando in boca LED fuerte Hagan siempre Al tirano temblar.
Verse 4: If claims el cañón extranjero Nuestros pueblos osado to invadir; Desnudemos Al punto el acero Y sepamos vencer O to morir. Idiot known sangre el altivo araucano Our legó por herencia el valor; Y No tiembla the espada in the mano Defendiendo de Chile el honor.
Verse 5: Puro, Chile, are you cielo azulado, Puras broke to you cruzan también, Y you campo of flora bordado Es copied it feliz del Edén. Majestuosa be the blanca montaña That you dio por baluarte el Señor, Y ese mar that tranquilo you baña Te promete futuro esplendor.
Verse 6: Esas official receptions, ¡ oh, Patria! , esas flora That tapizan you suelo feraz, tired No pisen jamás invasores; Idiot you sank tired will cubra La Paz. Nuestros pechos serán you baluarte, Idiot you number sabremos vencer, O you noble, glorioso estandarte, Our verá combatiendo caer.
The Chilean gastronomy is resulting from a mixture between Spanish and local gastronomy. The principal ingredients of the Chilean traditional kitchen are products characteristic of the area: mainly the Potato, the Tomato, the Corn, meat of Ox as well as the Bean in the southern zone of the country. It is also necessary to add the importance of fish and the seafood for the country. The traditional dishes are the Cazuela, the asado (grills), the Humita S, the pastel of choclo and the Empanadas. Desserts like the Manjar, also known under the name of " dulce of leche" in Argentinian, the alfajores, the Sopaipilla S and the Mote idiot huesillos are great classics of the country. One also finds in Chile patagon the famous Maté exported in all Chile. The Wine Chilean, resulting from French type of vines, has a long story. Type of vines like the Carménère, the Carbernet-sauvignon and the Merlot often mature under better conditions that in France grace a climate adapted well to the vine characterized in day per heat and the night by the freshness which goes down from the cordillera.
SportThe Chilean sport has a long story. Indeed, Mapuches played already 10th century with a sport ancestor of the Hockey, the chueca. In the country zones, the rodeo is the principal practiced sport and, since 1962, it is regarded as “national sport”.
In 1896, Luis Subercaseaux takes part in the Olympic first Games of the modern era. It is one of the first South American ones to take part in it. However it will be necessary to await the Olympic Games of Athens in 2004 to obtain the first gold medal, obtained by the tennismen Nicolas Massu and Fernando Gonzalez. In spite of the presence of large ski slopes like Portillo or Valle Nevado, the country forever obtained medal with the Winter Olympics.
Towards the end of the 19th century, British immigrants import the Football, sport which will be practiced quickly by the population and will become the sport more applied to the country since 1933 (year of the foundation of the Chilean liga ). Chile accommodates, in 1962 the Mondial of Football of 1962, where the Selección nacional of fútbol finishes in the third place. In spite of that, Chilean football forever successful to obtain good prize lists abroad (there are all the same two notable participations in the football world cup of 1930 and 1998 and one bronze medal in the Olympic Games of summer of 2000). The country, forever obtained the Cut of América and only Colo-Colo in 1991, obtained the Copa Libertadores. Certain Chilean players will have an international reputation nevertheless as Marcelo Salas and Ivan Zamorano, dear children of the fatherland. The last participation of Chile in a Football world cup goes back to 1998, where the " Roja" had been eliminated in eighth from finale by the Brésil (1-4).
The Tennis was popularized these last years, and is becoming the most popular sport of the country. In 1976, Chile was the first Latin-American country to play the final of the Coupe Davis. In 1998, Marcelo Ríos is first Spanish-American to arrive first of the classification of ATP, it was thus invited by the Chilean president on this occasion. Later, Fernando González and Nicolás Massú give not only the first two gold medals to the country, but gain also the bichampionnat World cup by teams in 2003 and 2004.
The Basket-ball is very popular in the universities of the south of the country. Chile obtained good performances in the championship in 2002 and 2005. In race motorcylcist, Chile is distinguished with the world championship from Carlo de Gavardo in 2004 and 2005, and from Francisco López in 2006.
CodesChile has as codes:
- DC, according to the List of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft,
- CHI, according to the Code list country of the CIO,
- CHL, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-3,
- CHL, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-3,
- CL, according to the Code list countries used by NATO code alpha-2,
- CL, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country) code alpha-2,
- .cl, according to the list of Internet TLD (Signal level domain),
- RCH, according to the international Code list of the number plates,
- SC, according to the List of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports,
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