Charles VII of France
Charles VII of France , known as Charles the Victorious or Charles the Good Served (born with Paris the February 22nd 1403 - Mehun-on-Yèvre, July 22nd 1461) was king de France of 1422 with 1461. It put an end in 1453 to the Guerre One hundred Year old on a French victory. Its name remains mainly attached to the epopee of Jeanne d' Arc, which enabled him to reverse a compromised situation and to be crowned in Rheims (July 17th 1429).
Very disputed in his legitimacy even, Charles became king (1422) into full Civil war between Armagnacs and Burgundian, complicated of a victorious English military intervention since the Bataille of Azincourt (1415). Chief in fact of the party Armagnacs, it had been disinherited by his father Charles VI with the Traité of Troyes (1420), with the profit of the king Henri V of England then of the son of this last Henri VI. Folded up in the south of the Loire, the " king de Bourges" , as one called it by derision, saw its legitimacy and its military situation to arrange itself clearly thanks to the unforeseen intervention of Jeanne d' Arc. This one delivered Orleans and led Charles, not without reserves or hesitations of its share, with the ceremony of the Sacring of Rheims.
Charles VII was often criticized by the posterity to have slowed down the reconquest of France initiated by Jeanne and to have given up it with his fate after his capture in Compiegne (1430). Nevertheless, it also made it solemnly rehabilitate in 1456 and wash of any charge of heresy. He was in addition an effective sovereign, completing to drive out the English of the kingdom, and getting busy to restore the economy thanks to Jacques Cœur (which he ruined), just like the Gallicanisme and royal authority. He is the father of the king Louis XI.
He is the fifth king of the connects known as of Valois of the dynasty capétienne.
Charles was eleventh of the twelve children of Charles VI and Isabeau of Bavaria, and third to carry this first name. Become Dolphin following the untimely death of his/her two older brothers, Louis in 1415 and Jean in 1416, Charles became heir to the throne of France, in 1417, then receiving the Duché of Berry. At that time - it is only 15 years old - one says of him that it misses character and that it detests violence.
In front of the threats which specify against its person, into full Civil war between Armagnacs and Burgundian, the heir to the crown must leave Paris, with the hands of the Bourguignons, the May 29th 1418. He takes refuge with Bourges with some faithful, which will be worth to him at the beginning of its reign the pejorative nickname of “small king de Bourges”. At the sides of Bernard VII of Armagnac, it seems the chief of the hostile party to the policy of the duke of Burgundy. It is in this town of Bourges that he will proclaim regent, because of the mental incapacity of his/her father. He subjected several cities and establishes a Parliament.
The duke of Burgundy Jean without fear, anxious to make return the Dolphin in the row, invited it to Montereau for a interview deferred many times which took place finally the September 10th 1419. One drew up an enclosure in the middle of the bridge where the Dauphin and Jean without fear found with each one some companions, the large one of each troop waiting on one or the other bank. The two princes hardly appreciating itself, they apostrophized themselves, the tone went up and each one had the hand on the pommel of its sword. The entourages were nervous: on a glare, one broke. The brave man Tanguy of Châtel, which had saved the young prince with Paris in 1417 at the time of the entry of the Bourguignons, drew aside the Dauphin. He followed a fray during which Jean without fear fell, stabbed.
His/her mother Isabeau and the Bourguignons spread the rumor that Charles is actually the natural son of Louis of Orleans for which he would have liked to avenge the murder and, the January 17th 1420, a decree banishes it kingdom. Charles, from now on accused of complicity in the murder of Jean without Fear, is disinherited (1420).
The May 21st 1420, under the influence of the queen Isabeau of Bavaria, Charles VI sign the Treated of Troyes, stipulating that the crown of France will be yielded to the son of the king d' Angleterre Henri V, provided that he marries one of his daughters. As Henri V dies before Charles VI of France, it is his/her son Henri VI of England which was recognized king de France. This treaty legitimated the claims of king d' Angleterre on the throne of France and aimed at finishing the Guerre One hundred Year old which had lasted for several decades. The future Charles VII, fascinating pretext of the mental incapacity of his father, refused the terms of the treaty. Henri VI is a Lancaster and généalogiquement it has less of right on the throne of France than the Dolphin.
Whereas the French Army was disorganized, the Duc of Bedford, regent of the kingdom of England, put the seat in front of Orleans, and wanted to continue until Bourges to seize the king Charles VII. This one takes refuge then with Chinon, in Touraine. It is in this castle that the February 25th 1429, an young girl found it and asked him audience. She says to him: “Nice dolphin, I say to you on behalf of Lord God that you are vray heir to the throne of France. ”
This sixteen year old young girl affirms to him that it had visions which intimated the order to him to save Orleans and to make it crown king. Charles VII will make it examine by ecclesiastics, who showed themselves convinced of his supernatural mission. This young girl, who said to come from Lorraine and to be called Jeanne d' Arc, pushed Charles to declare king and to raise an army to release France of the English.
After the French victory with the Battle of Patay, Charles was crowned king, Charles VII of France, the July 17th 1429, with Rheims. As from this moment all turns in its favor. It takes again the majority of the territories of north controlled by the English and succeeds by the treated of Arras in 1435 to make peace with the powerful duke of Burgundy, Philippe the Good hitherto combined of England. Charles VII takes again Paris in the English (Paris which had gone of itself to the king in 1436) and finally all France except for the port of Calais (1448 - 1453). Its successive victories put an end to the One hundred Year old War.
A big factor in the ultimate success of Charles was the rich and powerful bread-winner of his wife Marie of Anjou and its beautiful mother Yolande d' Aragon. In spite of the affection of Charles for his wife, her great passion was its mistress Agnès Sorel.
The last years of Charles VII were disturbed by the ambition of his/her son (Louis XI) and by the revolt of the Praguerie, to which this prince had the strongest share.
This monarch controlled with skill and economy; he ensured balances it and army disciplines it. The resolution of the Great Schism of Occident by the Conciliarisme weakens papacy and makes it possible Charles VII to be essential in 1438 like the natural chief of the Church of France, which enters thus the era of the Gallicanisme: the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, limit the papal prerogatives and affirms the superiority of the decisions of the councils of Basle and Constance on those of the pope. It limits the authority of large feudal and justices seigneuriales by creating the regional Parliaments (courts of justice). It reorganized the Parlement of Paris, created those of Grenoble and Toulouse, and made reform the University by the Cardinal of Estouteville. Throughout its reign, it tries to harden the authority of the monarchical capacity. It restores a healthy currency, raises regular taxes and sets up a true standing army. It thus contributes to join together the kingdom around the king. Lastly, it establishes the Université of Poitiers in 1432. Its policy brought a certain economic prosperity to the kingdom.
In 1451 Jacques Heart, Minister of Finance of the king, is stopped.
Advised and politically intelligent king, it decided coding of all the habits which governed the kingdom locally, disorganizing the legal system: by the ordinance of Montils-the-Turns it orders the official drafting of the habits, under its authority, transforming it into “King fountain of Justice”, him and his successors.
They had :
- Jean de France (1425 - 1425);
- Radegonde de France (1425 or 1428 - 1444 or 1445);
- Catherine of France (1428 - July 30th 1446), which marries in 1440 Charles de Charolais which will be the future Charles Bold the;
- Jacques de France (1432 - 1437)
- Yolande de France (September 23rd 1434 - August 28th 1478), which marries the future duke Amédée IX of Savoy in 1452, and which, when this last dies, becomes regent of Savoy;
- Jeanne de France (1435 - 1482), which marries in 1452 the future duke Jean II of Bourbon;
- Philippe de France (1436 - 1436)
- Marguerite de France (1437 - 1438)
- Jeanne de France (September 7th 1438 - December 26th 1446);
- Marie de France (September 7th 1438 - February 14th 1439), sister twins of Jeanne de France;
- Madeleine de France (February 1st 1443 - January 21st 1495), which in 1462 wife Gaston de Foix, prince de Viane;
- Charles of France (1446 - 1472).
Children resulting from the connection of Charles VII with Agnes Sorel
- Marie de Valois: Married Olivier de Coëtivy
- Jeanne de Valois: Married Antoine de Bueil
- Birth of the future king Charles VII the Good Been used
- Petition for Charles VII to reduce the taxes of Lyon and of the Lyonese by Philippe Contaminates.
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